GC-MS analysis and physiochemical properties of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (elephant ear) seed oil
Background: The present study aimed to extract, evaluate the physicochemical properties, and chemical characterization of the seed Enterolobium cyclocarpum. E. cyclocarpum is a legume of the Leguminosae family. It is used as foliage, for animal feeding and oil is extracted for several application in folk medicine for the treatment of sore throat, colds, diarrhea, headache, intestinal ailments, and stomachache. The leaf infusion is used as a laxative In the West Indies; seeds are chewed for a sore throat.
Methods: Three hundred grams (300 g) of each of the pulverized samples were extracted with 100% hexane using Soxhlet extractor to produce a light-brown oil of low viscosity. The physicochemical properties of the oil were analyzed using AOAC standard methods, while the oil components were characterized on an HP-5MS column Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).
Results: The yield of the oil is very low (only 4.11 % by weight), Fatty acid composition showed that undecanoic acid methyl ester (36.68%) was the dominant fatty acid, followed by 3-linoleic acid (25.04%), and 2-linolelaidic acid methyl ester (12.98%). Physicochemical properties of themed oil were moisture content (0.85%); refractive index (25oC), 1.45; Specific gravity, 0.86±0.02; iodine value, 68.55±0.02/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 6.58±0.03 meq. O2/kg of oil; free fatty acids, 2.63±0.01 mg of KOH/g of oil; acid value, 5.26±0.02 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.00±0.03; Unsaponifiable value, 0.66±0.01%.
Conclusion: This study has shown that the seed oil of E. cyclocarpum displayed properties and constituents as a substitute oil for industrial, pharmaceutical, and domestic applications.
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