Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences 2021-04-12T06:37:43+00:00 Anthony B. Ebeigbe (Professor) Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences</em> (J. Afr. Assoc. Physiol. Sci.)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is an international, bi-annual official publication of African Association of Physiological Sciences. Both print and online forms are available. The journal is aimed at dissemination of information on diverse areas of research in Physiological Sciences disciplines and to showcase a representative cross-section of the kinds of research being carried out in Africa, in particular and globally. The journal was established in 2012 at the congress of African Association of Physiological Sciences held in Egypt. The journal will consider for publication, Full-length original research articles, short communications as well as review articles.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>J. Afr. Assoc. Physiol. Sci. </strong>applies the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license</a>, under which authors agree to make articles legally available for reuse, without permission or fees, for virtually any purpose. Anyone may copy, distribute or reuse these articles, as long as the author and original source are properly acknowledged.</p> Gene-related prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity in different racio-ethnic groups 2021-04-08T07:28:15+00:00 T Agbalalah F.O Robert E Amabebe E.S.F Orubu <p>The metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) phenotype is partly influenced by race/ethnicity and genetic factors being relatively more prevalent in some groups compared to others. This review examines current evidence on the prevalence of MHO amongst children, adolescents and adults of different racio-ethnic groups; and explores gene variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may confer cardioprotection in some racio-ethnic groups compared to others. Literature search of articles published in English was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google scholar databases, with search terms related to the prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity as well as genetic variants that decrease or increase the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). MHO prevalence differed across racio-ethnic groups and gene variants that confer cardioprotection were higher in some racio-ethnic groups compared to others. Lower prevalence of MHO across all ages was particularly reported in the Middle East, while high prevalence was reported in Africans, Americans and some Asian adult population. Excluding environmental and other risk factors, we observed that Caucasians were carriers of gene variants that confer protection against cardiometabolic diseases, whilst Asians showed high frequency of gene variants that increase susceptibility to MetS. A robust understanding of the role of these gene variants, their frequency distribution and racio-ethnic variations may facilitate conceptualisation of appropriate genome wide association studies (GWAS) to determine significant associations between various genetic factors and observed phenotype or disease. This will guide policy formulation and serve as a useful tool in pharmacogenomics and precision medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Obesity, metabolically healthy obesity, single nucleotide polymorphism, ethnicity, race, metabolic syndrome, gene variants</p> 2021-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) What is the Physiological Role of Matrin-3? 2021-04-08T07:30:42+00:00 Ahmed M. Osman <p>In mammals, Matrin-3 is a highly conserved inner nuclear matrix protein of 125 kDa. This protein has been implicated in various functions, including the maintenance of cell viability, proliferation and stemness, DNA protection, mRNA stability and transport of transcripts, and viral assembly as well as involvement in some neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, its physiological mode of action remains elusive. Here, we summarize the main data in the literature on matrin-3’s role in cells and suggest that its specific interaction with GRP78, a principal regulator of the unfolding protein pathway (UPR), may shed light on some of the functional activities associated with Matr3</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Matrin-3; Cell proliferation; DNA damage response; GRP78; UPR pathway; Mode of action; Matrin-3 downregulation</p> 2021-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Orange peel extract corrected lipid dysmetabolism and pro-inflammation, but not deranged antioxidant and hormonal status in orchidectomised rats 2021-04-08T07:37:36+00:00 W.J Adeyemi O.S Ajayi B.K Okesina A.A Ojetola L.A Olayaki <p><strong>Background:</strong> Testosterone is a metabolic hormone; therefore, its absence would affect food metabolism, and subsequently a wide array of associated endogenous processes, including oxidative and inflammatory events. Contrarily, orange peel is known to be rich in flavonoids, which have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, asides from their modulatory roles on lipolysis and lipogenesis. Hence, we investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of orange peel (EEOP) on antioxidant, inflammatory, and lipid and reproductive hormonal profiles in experimental animal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The rats were divided into four groups (N=10), which included: Control (Sham orchidectomised) (group 1); Orchidectomised (Orchid) (group 2); Orchidectomised + Low dose of orange peel (Orchid + LDOP) (group 3); and Orchidectomised + High dose of orange peel (Orchid + HDOP) (group 4). EEOP was administered at a low and high dose of 200 and 600 mg/kg BW, p.o. respectively; however, normal saline (vehicle) was administered at 1 ml/kg BW, p.o. to groups 1 and 2 throughout the four weeks duration of the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Castration was accompanied by dsylipidaemia, without alteration of oxidative, inflammatory, and reproductive hormonal status. Although EEOP reversed alterations in lipid metabolism back to the baseline, it neither showed significant effects on oxidative markers (SOD, catalase, total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde) nor reproductive hormone (testosterone, FSH and LH) profile, even though it significantly reduced uric acid. The effects of EEOP were not dose-graded, except in the MDA result, which was significantly higher in group 3, relative to group 4.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: EEOP corrected lipid dysmetabolism and pro-inflammation, but not deranged antioxidant and hormonal status in a dose-independent manner in orchidectomised rats.</p> <p><strong>Kewords:</strong> Orange peel extract, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Lipid profile; Hormone</p> 2021-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Electrolyte and oxidative stress profile of healthy adult population in Zaria, Nigeria, and their relationship with experimental pain response 2021-04-08T07:45:11+00:00 A.H Umar A Mohammed J.O Ayo N.M Danjuma A.S Isa I Suleiman M.S Muhammad U.A Muhammad A Muhammad Y Yusha’u <p><strong>Background:</strong> Electrolyte imbalance and oxidative stress (OS) are known to impair physiological functions, which can alter health and wellbeing. The reactive species produced due to OS are detoxified by endogenous antioxidants to maintain homeostasis. This study investigated the electrolyte and oxidative stress profile of a healthy adult population in Zaria, Nigeria and their relationship with experimental pain outcome.</p> <p><strong> Method:</strong> Participants were apparently healthy adult volunteers between the ages of 20 to 65 years and drawn from the city of Zaria and its environs. Experimental pain was induced using pressure algometry. About 5 ml of blood was collected for determination of serum electrolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD).</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The results showed that serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride as well as oxidative stress profile did not vary with sex, age and ethnicity among the studied population. There was a significant negative correlation between pressure pain threshold and serum concentration of potassium (r = 0.2330, p = 0.003) and chloride (r = 0.2126, p = 0.007), while serum sodium correlated positively (r = 0.3439, p = 0.000). Serum MDA, SOD and GSH did not show statistically significant correlation with pressure pain threshold (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Serum electrolytes, but not oxidative stress markers, correlate significantly with experimental pressure pain threshold among healthy adult population in Zaria, Nigeria</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Electrolytes, oxidative stress, pressure pain, sex, age, ethnicity</p> 2021-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of Exercise Type and Gender on Cardiopulmonary response among Stroke Survivors in Spastic and Relative Recovery Stages 2021-04-08T07:51:29+00:00 S.A Usman Y Sadau M.S Muhammad I.A Bukar I.U Yarube <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stroke is one of the most common causes of long-term disability worldwide, and stroke patients need assistance with activities of daily living. Stroke survivors in our environment are not routinely prescribed adequate exercises during stroke rehabilitation partly because of the limited amount of research that has identified optimal dosing of exercises. This study sought to evaluate cardiopulmonary responses to 8-week regimen of squatting and treadmill exercises among stroke survivors of different sexes in the spastic and relative recovery stages.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Thirty male and female stroke survivors were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of subjects in the spastic (group A) and relative recovery (group B) stages, and subjected to an 8-week regimen of squatting and/or treadmill exercise. Cardiopulmonary functions were recorded at the beginning and the end of the exercise regimen. Data were processed using SPSS version 20.0; p values ˂ 0.05 were considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was a significant decrease in SBP and DBP, and an increase in HR, FVC and FEV1 at the end of all the regimens, in the spastic and relative recovery groups. At week 1, males had significantly higher values of SBP, FVC and FEV1, but at week 8, males had more reduction in SBP values and more increase in FVC and FEV1 values than the females.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion</strong>: Our data show that squatting and treadmill exercise regimens improve blood pressure, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and functional mobility in both male and female stroke survivors in the spastic and relative recovery stages. This improvement is more expressed in males than in females.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cardiopulmonary response, Exercise regimen, Gender, Stroke rehabilitation, Stroke survivors</p> 2021-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Serum calcium levels of premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal rural women of Zuturung District, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2021-04-12T06:27:50+00:00 L.N Achie A Mohammed Y.Z Lawal J Igashi K.V Olorunshola <p><strong>Background:</strong> Changes in sex hormones during the menopause transition period have an impact on calcium homeostasis. We studied the age at menopause, anthropometric and mean serum calcium levels in a cohort of premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in Zuturung, Kaduna state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:135 subjects participated in the crossectional study. They comprised of 38 premenopausal, 22 perimenopausal and 75 postmenopausal subjects. After administering a questionnaire, the height (m), weight (g), and waist circumference (cm) of the subjects were determined using standard methods while the body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. 5 milliliters of blood were collected via venipuncture and serum calcium level was determined by utilizing standard laboratory methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The results showed a mean and median age at menopause of 44.23±2.74 years and 44 years, respectively. Postmenopausal and perimenopausal subjects were more likely to be overweight with mean BMI 26.07±5.99 kg/m2and 26.42±7.27kg/m2 respectively, compared with their premenopausal counterparts with BMI of 25.18±3.48kg/m2 (p&lt;0.001). The postmenopausal and perimenopausal subjects also had a longer waist circumference of 89.63±10.66cm and 92.19±11.91cm respectively compared with the premenopausal women 83.73±8.00cm (p&lt;0.001). Only 73.86% of the postmenopausal women had a BMI ≥25kg/m2 whereas the prevalence of central obesity as determined using the waist circumference among the postmenopausal subjects was 79%. Mean serum calcium levels were slightly lower amongst both postmenopausal and perimenopausal subjects, 2.30±0.35mg/dl and 2.36±0.13mg/dl respectively as compared with the premenopausal women 2.37±0.15mg/dl. These differences were not significant (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings suggest a lower mean age at menopause, a higher BMI, a longer waist circumference for the postmenopausal subjects (which was significant) with lower mean serum calcium levels (that was not significant) as compared with their premenopausal subjects. We recommend calcium supplementation and screening of postmenopausal women for postmenopausal osteoporosis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Body mass index, calcium, menopause, osteoporosis, waist circumference, Zuturung district</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Impact of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation during pregnancy on survival, oxidative status and corticosterone level in offspring of Wistar rats 2021-04-12T06:30:55+00:00 D.E Ehichioya S.I Jaja <p><strong>Background:</strong> Prenatal exposure to sleep deprivation involves complex communication between the maternal compartment, placenta, and the growing fetus. This study explored the role of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) during different pregnancy stages on survival, blood pressure, corticosterone, oxidative stress indices, and C-reactive protein in sleep-deprived dams and their offspring.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> To investigate this, 10 pregnant rats (respectively) were subjected to REMSD from gestational day 1 (GD 1) - 20, GD 7 - 20, and GD 14 - 20. After parturition, on postnatal days 1 and 60, blood pressure was determined in dams and offspring, respectively. Serum and heart tissues were collected to determine circulating corticosterone, C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, and levels of antioxidant enzymes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Values of corticosterone, mean arterial blood pressure, and malondialdehyde in the offspring showed comparable patterns of increase observed in their sleep-deprived mothers. Similarly, values of corticosterone, mean arterial blood pressure, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes in sleep-deprived dams and their offspring presented a positive correlation. Offspring of dams subjected to REMSD were predisposed to prepartal stress. Nonetheless, the offspring of dams exposed to REMSD from GD 1 - 20 revealed the most detrimental effects, following their low number of survivors and birth weight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study identified the potential consequence of continued maternal sleep deprivation-induced stress, sustained exposure to corticosterone, and the corresponding effect it may have posed on the offspring's development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> corticosterone, fetal programming, physiological adaptions, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Anticonvulsant, antiamnesic and anxiolytic activities of methanol leaf extract of <i>Bambusa vulgaris</i> (Poaceae) in mice 2021-04-12T06:36:55+00:00 M.A Adebayo L.A Akinpelu E.O Okwuofu D.E Ibia A.F Lawson-Jack I Igbe <p><strong>Background:</strong> Previous findings have shown that epilepsy can precipitate amnesia and anxiety, among other neuropsychiatric disorders. Bambusa vulgaris is used in African traditional medicine against convulsion, amnesia and anxiety but there is scanty scientific basis for these ethnomedicinal claims. Hence, this study investigated the anticonvulsant, antiamnesic and anti-anxiety effects of Bambusa vulgaris in mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The acute oral ingestion of Bambusa vulgaris (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was investigated using pentylenetetrazole-, and strychnine-induced convulsion; antiamnesic using scopolamine-, and diazepam-induced amnesic models while the anxiolytic effect was assessed using elevated plus maze models. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The extract at all the doses used significantly (p&lt;0.05) elongated the death latency while at 400 mg/kg the onset of clonic and tonic convulsions were significantly (p&lt;0.05) prolonged in pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion model. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg offered 60, 80 and 100% protection respectively in pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test. The extract showed no significant (p&gt;0.05) effect on strychnine-induced convulsion model ruling out the involvement of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the anticonvulsant effect of the extract. The extract at all the tested doses significantly (p&lt;0.05) in a dose dependent fashion ameliorated the amnesia induced by scopolamine and diazepam suggesting antiamnesic effect. Bambusa vulgaris at all the tested doses significantly (p&lt;0.05) in a dose dependent pattern increased the percentage open arm entries and percentage open arm duration on the open arm of the elevated plus maze as well as reduced the anxiety indices of the experimental mice consistent with anxiolytic effect. The phytochemical quantification of the extract showed abundance of tannins and corroborated by the findings from the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study therefore concluded that Bambusa vulgaris may possess anticonvulsant, antiamnesic and anxiolytic effects and provided scientific proof for its traditional use.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bambusa vulgaris, anticonvulsant, antiamnesic, anxiolytic, tannin, Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectra</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)