Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences <p><em>Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences</em> (J. Afr. Assoc. Physiol. Sci.)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>is an international, bi-annual official publication of African Association of Physiological Sciences. Both print and online forms are available. The journal is aimed at dissemination of information on diverse areas of research in Physiological Sciences disciplines and to showcase a representative cross-section of the kinds of research being carried out in Africa, in particular and globally. The journal was established in 2012 at the congress of African Association of Physiological Sciences held in Egypt. The journal will consider for publication, Full-length original research articles, short communications as well as review articles.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>J. Afr. Assoc. Physiol. Sci. </strong>applies the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license</a>, under which authors agree to make articles legally available for reuse, without permission or fees, for virtually any purpose. Anyone may copy, distribute or reuse these articles, as long as the author and original source are properly acknowledged.</p> en-US The copyright of the journal content blelongs to the African Association of Physiological Sciences. (Professor Kennedy H. Erlwanger) (Journal Manager) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 09:25:20 +0000 OJS 60 The burden of cognitive impairment in Nigeria: perspectives and research prospects <p>Cognitive impairment represents deficits in memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. It is seen in Alzheimer’s dementia, vascular dementia, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and many other conditions. Cognitive impairment and dementia constitute a huge burden worldwide, with the majority of individuals coming from low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. This paper reviews the existing studies regarding the prevalence and burden of these conditions in Nigeria, highlighting the dearth of comprehensive nation-wide studies that addresses the situation. The study also brings perspectives on research ideas and way forward towards improving access to healthcare services for people living with cognitive impairment and dementia.</p> I.U. Yarube Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Route of exposure influences the cardiovascular effects of <i>Cannabis sativa</i> in salt-induced hypertensive male Wistar rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Exposre to <em>Cannabis sativa</em> (CS) has been suggested to exert ameliorative effects in hypertensive conditions. Using various exposure routes, this study investigated the likely cardiovascular protective effect of CS in high salt diet (HSD) induced hypertensive male Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Exposure routes investigated include dietary incorporation (10%CS+90%HSD), ethanol extract of C. sativa intake (ECS, 3mg/kg p.o.), and inhalation of<em> C. sativa</em> fumes (1g/day/animal). GC-MS analysis of CS was evaluated, and forty animals were equally divided into 5 groups as follows; Group I (control) received normal diet, Groups II-V received HSD alone, CS+HSD, ECS+HSD, and CS fumes+HSD for 28days, respectively. Thereafter, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiographic readings were assessed. Haematological analysis of retro-orbital sinus blood samples after light anaesthesia was also evaluated for full blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen concentration, and blood viscosity. Aortic samples were harvested for histology.</p> <p><strong>Resulte:</strong> The GC-MS showed Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Cannabidiol and Cannabinol, as prevalent in CS. The HSD only exhibited elevated (P&lt;0.05) RBC, PCV, haemoglobin, MCV, platelets, WBC, neutrophil, blood viscosity, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to control. CS exposure groups (III-V) exhibited reduced (P&lt;0.05) RBC, PCV, haemoglobin, WBC, blood viscosity, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to HSD only. However these values were elevated compared to control. ECG tracings seen in group II suggests myocardial electrical signal dysfunction while tracings in the CS exposure groups suggest partial amelioration of myocardial signalling pathways. Histology showed hypertension-induced aortic structural alterations that were not ameliorated by exposure to CS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Data obtained suggest that controlled exposure to <em>Cannabis sativa</em> either in diet, as ethanol extract or inhalation may mediate elevated blood pressure and impaired cardio-electrical signalling in salt (NaCl)-induced hypertension. However, hypertension-induced cardiac structural and vascular impairments are not ameliorated by exposure to <em>Cannabis sativa</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension,<em> Cannabis sativa</em>, blood pressure, aorta</p> A.O. Ige, M.O. Olaoye, D.T. Oluwole, G.T. Ayeni, E.O. Adewoye Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Attenuated blood coagulation in wistar rats fed graded levels of a protein diet <p><strong>Background</strong>: Blood coagulation (haemostasis) is a defense mechanism that helps to prevent the excessive loss of blood from damaged blood vessels by formation of a plug. The relationship between diet and blood coagulation has been studied over time. However, there is a dearth of information regarding the effect of consumption of high levels of casein and crayfish proteins on blood coagulation.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of consumption of graded levels of casein and crayfish proteins on blood coagulation in Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong> Method:</strong> Graded levels of casein (milk protein) and crayfish (seafood) were incorporated in rat diet as sources of protein at 20%, 30% and 50% concentrations. At the end of the experimental period (28 days), Platelet Count, Bleeding Time, Clotting Time, Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, and Fibrinogen Concentration were evaluated. Standard data analytical software (Graphpad prism version 5.0) was used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: From the findings of this study, when compared with the control, platelet count and fibrinogen concentration were significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05) at 50% concentration while clotting time, Prothrombin Time and and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time were elongated significantly (p&lt;0.05) at 50% concentration; the elongation of the BT was not statistically significant (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Consumption of high concentration of casein and crayfish proteins consistently over a period can attenuate blood coagulation and may predispose to excessive bleeding, with possible adverse cardiovascular consequences.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Attenuate, Coagulation, Casein, Crayfish</p> R.O. Aikpitanyi-Iduitua, A.D.A. Ighoroje Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and heptoprotective potentials of perinatal <i>Thaumatococcus daniellii</i> leaf supplemented diet in male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats <p><strong>Background:</strong><em> Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> (Benn.) Benth is one of the monocotyledonous herbs found in rain forests and coastal areas of West and Central Africa. This study investigated the antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective roles of perinatal <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaf supplemented diet in offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-four (24) pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were used and fed either a control diet or <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaf supplemented diet (TDLSD). The dams were given TDLSD diet up to parturition (in-utero group, IUG), or from birth to post-natal day 21 (lactation group, LG) or for a period covering both, combined (CG). On postnatal day 90, blood sample was collected via retro-orbital puncture to obtain serum sample for the determination of cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and hepatic lipase (HL). Aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was investigated. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), malonaldehyde (MDA) were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in CHOL, LDL, and HDL levels in LG and CG offspring while TG significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased in IUG, and CG compared with control. HL increased significantly (p&lt;0.05), ALT, AST and ALP significantly decrease (p&lt;0.05) while GSH, SOD and CAT upregulated in IUG, LG and CG compared with CONT. MDA downregulated(p&lt;0.05) in IUG, LG and CG compared with CONT.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study provides evidence that perinatal <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaf supplemented diet possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and hepatoprotective potentials in offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats though it was observed that in-utero exposure produced more effect hence, it’s dependent on the window of exposure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Catalase, Cholesterol, Perinatal, <em>Daniellii thaumatococcus</em></p> Y.D. Igbayilola, F.A. Olaoye, O.S. Aina, M.A. Ashiru, A.M. Mofolorunso Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Corn silk (<i>Stigma maydis</i>) aqueous extract attenuates high-salt induced glucose dysregulation and cardiac dyslipidemia: Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activities <p><strong>Background:</strong> Corn silk (<em>Stigma maydis</em>) is the long silky tuft of hairs from the female inflorescence of maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L) with rich antioxidant ctivity and free radicals scavenging capacity. High-salt diet on the other hand, has been shown to alter vascular and alter metabolic disorders. However, the exact ameliorating mechanism of corn silk (CS) effect is still being widely studied. This study examined the effect of aqueous corn silk extract on high saltinduced cardiac glucose and lipid dysmetabolism.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-110g) were randomly selected into four groups (n=5) after a week of acclimatization and fed with rat chow (CTR), corn silk extract (CS; 500 mg/kg), high salt diet (HSD; 8%) and corn silk extract plus high salt feed (HSD; 8% + CS; 500 mg/kg) respectively for six weeks. At the end of the experimental procedure, each animal was anesthetized by exposure to chloroform vapor and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture. Data were analyzed and expressed as mean ± SEM and p-values &lt; 0.05 were accepted as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Corn silk extract resulted in attenuated plasma and cardiac glycogen production, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and total cholesterol associated with high-salt diet. However, the plasma level of&nbsp; Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and nitric oxide was significantly elevated in CS groups compared with control. Corn silk extract also decreased fasting blood glucose, insulin, and glycogen synthase activity (P&lt;0.05) in HSD-fed rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is noteworthy from our data that corn silk possesses antilipidemic and glucoregulatory properties associated with enhanced phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K) activity, an insulin dependent signaling pathway and may form an important component of nutritional candidate for ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cardiac dysmetabolism, Corn silk, Glucose dysregulation, High-salt diet, Phosphoinositide 3- kinase.</p> A.O. Oyabambi, O.S. Michael, A.O. Imam-Fulani, S.S. Babatunde, K.T. Oni, D.O. Sanni Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Erythrocyte antigens as markers and risk factors for myeloid leukaemias in Nigerian subjectse antigens as markers and risk factors for myeloid leukaemias in Nigerian subjects <p><strong>Background:</strong> Erythrocyte antigens have long been associated with the aetiology and pathogenesis of several disease conditions including various cancers and some human behaviour. This study investigates the association of these antigens with myeloid leukaemias<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a case-control study on subjects with age range of 6 to 67 years, undergoing management for the disease in our study facility at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. 24 cases of myeloid leukaemias comprising of 13 chronic myeloid leukaemias (CML) and 11 acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) were investigated with 25 apparently healthy, age and sex -matched subjects as control. Erythrocyte antigens such as A, B, O, RhD, RhC, Rhc, RhE, Rhe, Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb were determined on all subjects and controls. The absence of A and B antigens is represented as O. All the antigens were detected with standard serological methods. Statistical analyses were done using Graphpad Prism 8.0.1.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We recorded positive association of antigens D, e, Jka, O, E and C with the associated risk of development of CML in the order of D&gt;&gt;e&gt;&gt;Jka&gt;&gt;O&gt;&gt;E&gt;&gt;C (P&lt;0.05, respectively) while antigens D, e, Jka, Fyb, E, O and A were positively associated with the risk of development of AML in the order D&gt;&gt;e&gt;&gt;Jka&gt;&gt;Fyb&gt;&gt;E&gt;&gt;O&gt;&gt;A (P&lt;0.05, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The antigens D, e, Jka, O, E, C implicated in this study can serve as risk factors for the development of CML while antigens D, e, Jk, Fyb, E, O, A could be risk factors for the development of AML or can contribute majorly to tumour aggression and therefore can be considered as markers for early diagnosis of the malignancies</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>erythrocyte antigens, myeloid leukaemias, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, case control</p> M.O. Ibikunle, O.I. Ajayi Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of shisha smoke inhalation on some long-term memory forms in adult male mice <p><strong>Background:</strong> Shisha is a flavoured tobacco designed to be smoked in a water-pipe, but it effects on long-term memory has not been fully explored. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Shisha smoke inhalation on some long-term memory models in adult male BALB/c mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Twenty male mice were divided into 4 groups of five mice each. Group I (control): fresh air; group II: exposed to bonged Shisha; group III: exposed to unbonged Shisha; group IV: exposed to activated charcoal smoke only. Each group was exposed for thirty minutes daily for seven weeks. Long-term memory was assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM), novel object recognition test (NORT) and Barnes maze (BM).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was statistically significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in novel object recognition in bonged Shisha group when compared with the control. There was statistically significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in spatial learning and memory in bonged Shisha group when compared with control. There was statistically significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in acetylcholinesterase activity in bonged Shisha group when compared with control, but there was no statistically significant difference in anxiety related spatial memory in elevated plus maze when compared with the control. There was also increased in necrosis of hippocampal cells in bonged Shisha group and slight necrosis in unbonged and activated charcoal smoke when compared to control mice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcomes of this study suggest that bonged Shisha smoke is neurotoxic to the brain because of combined effect of various toxicants emanating from different Shisha smoke constituents used in the set-up</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Shisha, Memory, Hippocampus, Acetylcholinesterase</p> M.D. Mohammed, R.A. Magaji, A.S. Isa, T.A. Muazu, A.A. Bulama Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study of electrocardiogram among male hypertensive students attending University Health Services and normotensive students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Worldwide cardiovascular diseases account for approximately 17 million deaths annually, these complications. Hypertension is responsible for at least 9.4 million deaths every year globally. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple, convenient, economical, and suitable test for screening a relatively large population. The study was aimed at determining electrocardiographic patterns among male hypertensive students attending university health services and normotensive students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 109 participants (18 – 53) years were recruited, among which were53 hypertensive and 56 non-hypertensive participants. Information on subject’s blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and electrocardiogram were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed a significant higher mean age 35.60 ± 7.26 years, mean weight73.28 ± 12.06 kg, mean body mass index (BMI) 25.23 ± 5.56 kg/m2, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) 141.17 ± 14.32 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 89.74 ± 7.36 mmHg and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) 107.27 ± 9.68 mmHg among hypertensive subjects as compared to control subjects. The calculated ECG of higher mean heart rate (HR) (73.96 ± 13.77), mean QTc interval (392.11 ± 22.56),mean T wave (281.43 ± 119.45), and lower mean QRS axis (39.79 ± 29.22) among hypertensive subjects as compared to control subjects and some of the ECG abnormalities that were detected include; sinus tachycardia (16%), sinus bradycardia (2%), atrial fibrillation (8%), left bundle branch block (2%), left axis deviation (8%), left ventricular hypertrophy (40%), ST elevation (2%), ST depression (12%) and T wave inversion (24%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study shows that male hypertensive subjects of ABU Zaria had higher HR, QTc interval, T wave and lower QRS axis. Most frequently found ECG abnormalities were left ventricular hypertrophy, T wave inversion, ST depression, sinus tachycardia, left axis deviation and atrial fibrillation. The students should therefore routinely check the status of cardiovascular performance through electrocardiogram recording</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, blood pressure; Electrocardiogram, Left Bundle Branch Block.</p> I. Gimba, M.B. Akor-Dewu, J.A. Tende, B.S. Garko, M.D. Mohammed, A.A. Bulama, A. Adam Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the levels of serum parathyroid hormone in rural postmenopausal women in Zuturung district, Zangon Kataf Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>The physiological role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in calcium homeostasis and the maintenance of bone mass in humans has been elucidated by several authors. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate basal PTH levels in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in Zuturung district, Kaduna state, Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-five subjects comprising of 38 premenopausal, 22 perimenopausal and 75 postmenopausal women were assessed. The subjects were selected based on some inclusion and exclusion criteria. After administering a questionnaire, anthropometrical parameters were determined using standard methods while five milliliters of blood were collected via venipuncture. The blood was transferred to plain bottles, centrifuged and serum PTH levels were determined using ELISA method at the Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika. Results were presented as mean ± SD and data were analyzed using ANOVA with p&lt;0.05 being considered as statistically significant. The study revealed that postmenopausal and perimenopausal women were more likely to be overweight (mean BMI 26.07±5.99 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, 26.42±7.27kg/m<sup>2</sup> respectively) as compared with their premenopausal counterparts (25.18±3.48kg/m2); p&lt;0.001. The postmenopausal and perimenopausal women also had a higher waist circumference (89.63±10.66cm, 92.19±11.91cm) as compared with the premenopausal women (83.73±8.00cm) p&lt;0.001. Mean serum parathyroid hormone levels were slightly decreased among the postmenopausal subjects (2.25±1.88pg/ml) and perimenopausal (2.91±1.44pg/ml) as compared to the premenopausal subjects (3.38±3.48pg/ml) although not significant (p&gt;0.05). These findings suggest a higher cardiovascular risk and lower mean serum parathyroid hormone in the postmenopausal women as compared with their premenopausal subjects.<br>We recommend further studies in a larger sample, comparing with women in urban regions and determining serum cadmium levels in the subjects to identify if its toxicity is responsible for the pattern of serum parathyroid hormone levels observed</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Body mass index, Menopause, Northern Nigeria, Osteoporosis, Parathyroid hormone Waist circumference, Zuturung</p> L.N. Achie, K.V. Olorunshola, J. Igashi, J.E. Toryila Copyright (c) Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000