Quality evaluation of cassava-pigeon pea composite flour and the cookies
Cassava flour (CF) and pigeon pea flours (PF) were respectively produced and blended in the ratios of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20. The flour blends were subjected to proximate, functional and anti-nutrient analysis after which they were used to produce cookies. The sensory and physical characteristics were analyzed. The proximate analysis of the flour blends showed protein (2.19-7.25%), fat (1.09-1.91%), crude fibre (3.76-4.66%), ash (1.49-2.52%), moisture (10.58-11.03%) and carbohydrate (73.50-79.99%). The result indicated that the incorporation of pigeon pea flour led to significant (p<0.05) increase in protein, fat and ash content of the flours but reduced the moisture and carbohydrate contents. The range of anti-nutrients in the flour samples were phytate (0.253-0.321%), phenol(0.078-0.107%), tannin(0.130-0.243%), trypsin inhibitor (0.39-1.30TIU/mg) and hydrogen cyanide (2.04-3.18mg/kg). There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the level of anti-nutrients with increase in the addition of pigeon pea flour except for trypsin inhibitor which increased with addition of the pigeon pea flour. The result for functional properties of the flour samples revealed that bulk density ranged from 0.531- 0.608g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged from 1.79-2.11g/g and 1.83-2.11g/g respectively. Swelling capacity and foaming capacity were each in the range of 1.68-1.96 and 11.71-14.64% respectively. Sensory analysis of the cookies produced from the flour blends proved that cookies produced from 5% and 10% levels of substitution with pigeon pea flour had high overall acceptability compared to the other samples.
Keywords: Cassava, pigeon pea, composite flour, cookies, nutrient, antinutrient