Nutrient, phytochemical and sensory evaluation of biscuits produced from composite flours of wheat enriched with okra pod
The study evaluated the nutrient, phytochemical and sensory evaluation of biscuits made from composite flours of wheat and okra pod for enrichment. Wheat flour, fresh okra pods and all ingredients used in biscuit making were purchased from Relief market Owerri, Imo State. The okra pod was washed, sliced into pieces, oven dried at 60oC for 8 hours and milled into flour. The biscuits were formulated as 100% wheat flour (WF), 80% wheat flour : 20% okra pod flour (WOF1), 70% wheat flour :30% okra pod flour (WOF2) and 60% wheat flour:40% okra pod flour (WOF3). Chemical and sensory analysis was carried using standard methods. Results were expressed using means and standard deviation using SPSS. Biscuit WOF3 had the highest moisture (13.56±1.16%), ash (3.49±0.01%) and protein (14.99±1.38%) contents, while biscuit WF recorded the highest fat (15.68±0.22%), crude fiber (2.73±0.05%), carbohydrate (63.03±0.32%) and energy (439.08±2.93%) contents. The mineral composition shows that biscuit WOF3 recorded the highest calcium (212.50±0.010mg/100g), magnesium (83.50±0.009mg/100g), potassium (594.00±0.00mg/100g) and manganese (1457.00±0.24mg/100g), while biscuit WOF1 had highest iron (109.12±0.88 mg/100g) and copper (23.00±0.42mg/100g) . The anti-nutrients revealed that biscuit WOF1 was highest tannin content (0.22±0.025mg/100g), biscuit WOF2 had the highest phenol content (1.41±0.001 mg/100g), while biscuit WOF2 had the highest oxalate content (1.06±0.082 mg/100g). The sensory scores of the enriched biscuits shows biscuit WF3 rated best in aroma (5.46±1.63), colour (4.66±1.68) and taste (5.54±1.69) and general acceptability (5.94±1.73), biscuit WOF rated best in crispness (4.66±1.89) while biscuit WOF2 rated best in texture (5.18±1.68). The study revealed that acceptable biscuit of high nutritional content could be produced.
Keywords: Okra, wheat, biscuit, enrichment