Phytochemicals and nutritional characteristics of ethanol extract of the leaf and bark of Njangsa (Ricinodendron Heudelotii) plant
The phytochemical, proximate and mineral content of leaf and bark of Njangsa (Ricinodendron Heudelotii) plant were analysed, using standard procedures described by Harbone, 1973, Sofowora, 1993; Trease and Evans, 1989 and Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) Official method, 1990; 1984 respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, terpernoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars and saponins found only for the plant bark. The result of proximate analysis showed that the leaf and bark of the extract contain respectively: moisture content (25.80% and 10%), protein (17.47% and 3.73%), crude fat(1.80% and 2.00%) ash (11.00% and 10.95%), crude fibre (41.00% and 20.50%) carbohydrate (2.93% and 52.82%).The mineral analysis of the plant leaf and bark respectively yielded calcium – 2640.00 mg/kg and 1772 mg/kg, magnesium – 2383 mg/kg and 1605 mg/kg, iron – 25.00 mg/kg and 6.6 mg/kg, zinc – 29.30 mg/kg and 4.4 mg/kg, copper – 14.60 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg and phosphorus – 1012 mg/kg and 305 mg/kg. Manganese was absent in the bark but yielded 1.1 mg/kg in the leaf. Sodium and potassium were found to be absent in the leaf and bark. The presence of some phytochemicals (flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugar, tannins and terpernoids) and some essential minerals suggest that it is a potential source of medicine and food.
Keywords: Phytochemical, Nutritional Characteristics, Proximate, Mineral, Medicinal, Analysis