Evaluation of the levels of renal indices and blood pressure in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive and normotensive subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
This study was designed to find out the impact of diabetes mellitus on the renal integrity of diabetic patients following exposure to hypertension and diabetes. This was achieved by examining the urea and creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearance of both diabetics and non-diabetics in Port Harcourt. A total of 165 subjects comprising 32 (19.39%) male diabetics, 53 (31.12%) female diabetics, 48 (29.09%) nondiabetic males and 32 (19.39%) non-diabetic females participated in the study. Results showed that 9.09% of male and 21.91% of female diabetics were hypertensive. Mean urea concentrations obtained were 6.35 ±1.55 mmol/L and 5.56 ± 2.24 mmol/L in the diabetic males and females respectively while in the non-diabetic males and females, the results were 5.66 ± 1.23 mmol/L and 5.07 ± 1.71 mmol/L respectively which was not significantly different (p>0.05, F crit. = 1.98). The creatinine concentration in the diabetic males and females were 93.46 ± 24.97 μmol/L and 89.15 ± 28.01 μmol/L respectively while in the non-diabetic male and female subjects it was 84.64 ± 29.06 μmol/L and 81.69 ± 37.27 μmol/L respectively. These means were not significant (p>0.05, F crit. = 1.65). In both male and female diabetics, the creatinine clearance was reduced in the subjects following 8 years and above of exposure to diabetes mellitus, which is an indication of commencement of progressive loss of renal function in the diabetic patients. Thus, measurement of creatinine clearance should be included in the routine assessment of renal function especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Keywords: Renal failure, diabetes mellitus, hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia, renal clearance.