Evaluation of Concentrations and Human Health Risk of Cu, Zn, Fe in Two Periwinkles Species from Three Local Government Areas, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
This study has investigated the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Fe in P. aurita and T. fuscatus obtained from Bayelsa State, Nigeria and assessed the health risks associated with the consumption of these shellfishes. The concentrations of the metals in mg/kg dry wt basis mean + SD were Cu (57.0 + 4.0) Zn (63.8 + 9.6) and Fe (1260 + 159.2) in P. aurita, while T. fuscatus were, Cu (33.3 + 1.43), Zn (77.7 + 9.19) and Fe (1985 + 4.89). These values were higher than the guideline of WHO, and FEPA. The estimated daily intake of the metals in the periwinkles was all higher than their provisional tolerable daily and weekly intakes set by regulatory bodies. The non-carcinogenic risks (THQ and HI) of the individual and combined risk of the metals were within the limit of 1 set by USEPA, indicating no health risk at the moment. However, considering the bioaccumulative nature of heavy metals moderate intake of these periwinkles are recommended to avoid human health risk to consumers in future.
Key words: Heavy metal, Pollution, Risk Assessment, Perewinkles.