Micronucleus Assay and Heavy Metals Characterization of E-waste Dumpsites in Lagos and Osun States, Southwest Nigeria
The contamination of the aquatic ecosystem with heavy metals arising from the discharge of electronic waste (e-waste) or seepage of leachate from open waste dumpsites is on the increase. The impact of e-waste leachate on the micronucleus (MN) of Tilapia guineensis and the levels of heavy metals ( Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Al and Ba) in the sediments, water, leachate and aquatic fauna (Tilapia guineensis, Callinectes amnicola and Cardiosoma armatum) found in and around e-waste dumpsites in Lagos and Osun States was studied. The levels of heavy metals were determined using PyeUnicam model 969 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductive Coupling Plasma Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (ICP-AAS).The heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order: Pb ˃ Cd ˃ Cr ˃ Hg ˃ Al ˃Ba ˃As in the samples. The level of Cd in fish muscle from Lagos (1.4mg/kg) exceeded the Environment Canada threshold effect level (EC TEL, 2006) recommended for sea food (1.0mg/kg). The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) for fish gills (1.4 and1.0) and fish muscles. (3.6 and 1.2) from Lagos and Osun States respectively as well as the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for crabs (1.78 and 1.36) are strong indications of the ability of the organisms to bioaccumulate the heavy metals. The MN assay showed an initial increase in the frequency of mionccronuclei on the 7th day which gradually decreased on the 14th and 21st day. The result of this study reveals the toxic impacts of e-waste contamination on ecological and human health in a developing economy.