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Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management

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Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four commonly consumed spices

NM Nwinuka, GO Ibeh, GI Ekeke

Abstract


Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on dry weight basis) moisture ranging from 3.41% in onion to 6.67% in ginger; crude fat ranging from 0.68% (garlic) to 12.50% in Ashanti pepper, while crude protein contents ranged from 8.56% in ginger to 17.35% in garlic. Ash content ranged from 4.06% (garlic) to 8.48% (onion) and total carbohydrate content ranged from 67.59% in Ashanti pepper to 76.71% in onion. All samples were good sources of carbohydrates only. The phytochemical screening of the spices showed the presence of tannins, saponins, oxalates and cynogenic glycosides. All four samples had very low concentrations of tannin (0.01g/100g). The saponin levels ranged between 3.99g/100g in ginger and 48.35g/100g in onion. The oxalate concentrations were in the range 0.03g/100g (onion) to 0.23g/100g (ginger), while the cyanogenic glycoside levels ranged between 30.5mg/100g in ginger and 56.39mg/100g in onion.

Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 9(1) 2005: 150-155



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