New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: tephritidae) in Hawaii
AbstractNew approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of whole or smashed fruit. Smashing fruit does not sufficiently reduce the rate of eclosion to be a reliable population control measure. Tilling fruit into the ground only partially reduced eclosion. Burying fruit 0.15 and 0.30 m deep also partially reduced eclosion. Burying fruit 0.46 m deep prevented adult fly eclosion. Screen between the infested fruit and the ground prevented 90.2% of fly eclosion (edges of the screen were buried to prevent the escape of eclosing adult flies). Larvae pupate within 0.7 m from their host fruit (mean distance = 13.88 ± 1.76 cm, 95% Cl = 10.4 to 17.4 cm). Augmentoria entrapped all adult flies eclosing from fruit placed inside the structure. The data suggests that the three (3) methods of interdicting adult fly eclosion should be practiced. They are, in order of effectiveness, placing cull fruit in augmentoria, burying the fruit 0.46 m under ground, or placing fruit on screen under and 0.7 m beyond the fruit pile.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol 9(2) 2005: 5-14