Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management

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Evaluation of Health Risk Concerns of Trace Metals in Borehole Water Proximal to Dumpsites in Benin City, Nigeria

AA Enuneku, OP Mohammed, OC Asemota, OA Anani


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the health risk concern of some trace metals in selected borehole drinking water proximal to open dumpsites in Benin City. Borehole water samples were collected and analysed for trace metals using standard methods. Health risk and pollution indices were used to characterise the trace metals. The average daily dosage (ADD) results showed low concentrations of the trace metals in the various borehole sites. Oluku 1 had Mn (0.04), Zn (0.11) and Cu (0.01). Oluku 2 had Mn (0.43), Zn (0.18) and Cu (0.01) while Ikueniro 1 had Mn (0.05), Zn (0.17) and Cu (0.01) and Ikueniro 2 had Mn (0.04), Zn (0.15) and Cu (0.01). The hazard quotient (HQs) and hazard index (HI) values were < 1. The results of the Metal Pollution Index (MPI) revealed the values of Oluku 1 (4.6E-06), Oluku 2 (1.0E-04), Ikueniro 1 (1.4-05) and Ikueniro 2 (5.6E-06). The classification of the water were within class 0 and 1. The findings of this study have revealed that the trace metal contents found in the boreholes waters were within the safe limits as referenced. On this premise, the borehole waters were recommended safe for consumption without any health risk impact, consequent of no evidence of pollution.

Keywords: Health Risk; Trace Metals; Borehole Water; Dumpsites
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