Bio-pesticide actions of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum, Piper nigrum, Xylopia aethiopica, Azadirachta indica and Zingiber officinale formulation on cowpea leaves
The emergence of widespread insecticide resistance and the potential environmental problems associated with synthetic pesticides have indicated more interest for bio-pesticide usage in pest control. This study investigates the efficacy of a bio-pesticide formulation based on the aqueous extract of five plants namely Ocimum gratissimum, Piper nigrum, Xylopia aethiopica, Azadirachta indica, and Zingiber officinale in reducing cowpea leaf damage in event of bean beetle attach. Cowpea seeds were sown in four (4) different pots containing loamy soil and kept separately in the field at a distance of 10meters. Seven 7 days after foliage production, pots 1 and 2 were treated with 250ml of the formulations daily for 7 days, while pot 3 and 4 were not treated. From observations, the treated Cowpea plants were not attacked by bean beetle, while the untreated Cowpea plants were attacked by bean beetle, causing great damage on the foliage and this can lead to wilting, chlorosis and other fungal and bacterial diseases. Synthetic pesticides used for pests control, have adverse effects on crops and environment, but bio-pesticides formulated in this research is environmentally friendly, target specific and biodegradable. The extracts showed significant effect at p<0.05.
Keywords: Bio-pesticide, Vigna unguiculata Protection, Insect, Wasteland Weed