Physicochemical and Heavy Metal Assessment of the Udu River, Delta State, Nigeria
The Udu River is a major source of commerce and provides water for agricultural and domestic use to the Udu people, hence we studied the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, TSS, TDS, turbidity, Salinity, DO, COD, BOD, chlorides, sodium, potassium, total hardness, alkalinity, nitrates, ammonium, sulphates) as well as the evaluation of the degree of metal contamination (iron, zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper and lead) present in the samples. The analyses carried out revealed water samples were acidic, pH below 7, temperature ranged from 29.5 oC - 32.7 oC which was above WHO permissible limit 25oC, low levels of Dissolve oxygen DO (DO: max = 6.5 mg/L below WHO limit of 7.5 mg/L) and BOD ranges did not exceed the suggested 4.5mg/L (WHO max. limit). Concerning the heavy metals, the examined results showed lead, nickel, copper and zinc all below the WHO max limit. A significant increase in the concentration of Iron was noticed in Ovwian sampling site, also there was also build of cadmium above WHO limit 0.003mg/L at Igbogidi.