Lipid Profile, Haematological Assay and Tissue Histology of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Administered Extracts of Vernomia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Gnetum africanum (okazi leaf)
Diabetes mellitus is predominant in numerous nations of the world with millions of deaths directly linked to it. The utilization of plants in providing answers to this pandemic has expanded over the years. This study investigated changes in some haematological parameters and tissue histology of alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats administered combined leaf extracts (CLE) of vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf (BI)) and gnetum africanum (okazi leaf (OK)). Aqueous extracts of bitter leaf and okazi leaf were prepared using the conventional method. Forty Wistar rats were grouped into eight of five rats each. Groups A and B were normal and diabetic control respectively, groups C to G (diabetic groups) were treated with varied mixtures of extracts of vernomia amygdalina and gnetum africanum at (10:90BI/OK), (30:70BI/OK), (50:50BI/OK), (70:30 BI/OK) and (90:10% BI/OK) ratios respectively. Group H, the diabetic control was administered the standard drug (Metformin). The animals were sacrificed on the 28th day, blood samples and liver tissue were collected for biochemical analysis and histological examination. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the lipid profile of the diabetic groups (C-G) especially in triglycerides with the highest reduction in (50:50 BI/OK) combination (0.70±0.07) while the least reduction was seen in (30:70 BI/OK) combination (1.37±0.08). There were time and ratio-dependent variations in the haematological indices. Hepatic histology showed evidence of varying levels of restoration of cellular structural integrity by the combined extracts. These results suggest that the combined extracts of vernomia amygdalina and gnetum africanum could be used to manage diabetes mellitus.