Antifungal Activities of Some Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of African Yam Bean Seeds, Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence
AbstractThe efficacy of leaf extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), lemon grass (Cymbopogen citratus), neem (Azadirachta indica) and paw-paw (Carica papaya) on major seed-borne
fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium moniliforme of African yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) seeds, and on seed germination and seedling emergence were studied in vitro and in vivo. All the plants leaf extracts (crude and aqueous) significantly (P . 0.05) reduced the incidence of seed-borne fungi tested and increased seed germination and seedling emergence except lemon grass leaf extract when compared with the
untreated control. Neem extract was the most effective while lemon grass extract was the least. Crude extracts from all the plant leaves tested increased seed germination and seedling emergence of African yam bean seeds and gave significant (P. 0.05) reduction of mycelial growth of all the fungi tested when compared with their aqueous extracts. Leaf extracts of neem, basil, bitter leaf and paw-paw, which are cheap and environmentally safe, are promising for protecting African yam bean seeds against major seed-borne fungi and in the improvement of the crop.