The enormous land cover in Uganda is rapidly being depleted or encroached. To examine this, the study aimed at estimating the above-ground biomass in River Sio sub-catchment in Uganda. The study utilized an ortho-rectified Landsat TM/ETM image of 2004 which was classified using NDVI classification system for the aboveground biomass assessment in ILWIS 3.3 software. A total of 42 homogenous sampling sites were identified for biomass estimation along six laid transects measuring 500m long. The seven randomly selected sampling plots measured 50m X 50 m. The classification showed that Bushlands (0.17), wetlands (0.03) and small scale farming (- 0.29-0.03) had relatively more medium and low biomass ranges compared to grasslands (-0.41/-0.29) which mainly comprised of bare land. The above ground biomass was relatively higher in bushlands (4.9 tons) and wetlands (4.7 tons) compared to non-uniform small scale farming (farmlands) with 3.9 tons and grasslands with 1.6 tons. The variation in biomass shows that the sub-catchment requires an urgent need for land use/cover planning and management to prevent further degradation of land cover.
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