Elucidation of physico-chemical characteristics and mycoflora of bovine milk available in selected area of Karachi, Pakistan.
ISO 14000 has opened the field for enhancing the awareness towards healthy environment and gives the ideology of regular assessment of threshold values not only of nutrients but contaminants as well. Under this statement microbiological studies in terms of mycoflora followed by physical characteristics and level of some essential elements Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn, and deleterious metal Cd were analyzed in fresh milk samples (FMS) and tetra pack milk or UHT processed milk samples (PMS) available in Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi for the residents. Samples were collected in the morning time during winter season. Physical parameters like pH, conductivity, density, viscosity, surface tension and refractive index were observed very soon after sample collection. Percentage of ash and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. For fungal flora studies PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) and Sabourouds Agar were used for the fungal growth. The concentrations of metals considered were estimated after wet digestion of samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ranges of average concentration of Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn were found to be 77.120 – 141.915mg/l, 0.580 – 7.320mg/l, 0.004 – 0.070mg/l and 2.574 – 4.872mg/l. The level of Cd was estimated in the samples between 0.0050 – 0.053mg/l, but was not observed in most of the samples. Among the fungi, the highest diversity was that of Aspergillus spp. that produces aflatoxins. ©JASEM
Key words: physical characteristics, essential elements, toxic elements, fungal species