https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/issue/feed Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 2024-05-24T15:39:38+00:00 Prof. Michael Horsfall Jnr michael.horsfall@uniport.edu.ng Open Journal Systems <p>The <a href="https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem"><em>Journal of Applied Sciences &amp; Environmental Management</em></a> (<a href="https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem">JASEM</a>) is a Peer Reviewed, Open Access, International Journal established by the Joint Coordination Centre of the World Bank assisted National Agricultural Research Programme (NARP) domicile in the Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria in April 1998. The World Bank project terminated in 2001, however, JASEM lives on and is currently managed by Prof. Michael Horsfall Jnr in the Department of Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="http://www.uniport.edu.ng/publications/journals/jasem" href="http://www.uniport.edu.ng/publications/journals/jasem" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.uniport.edu.ng/publications/journals/jasem</a> and <a title="http://www.bioline.org.br/ja" href="http://www.bioline.org.br/ja" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.bioline.org.br/ja</a></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270961 Relative Abundance, Richness and Diversity of Bottom Sediment of Macroinvertebrates in Okhuaihe River, Ikpe community, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T20:53:47+00:00 O. Odigie oodigie@biu.edu.ng I. Elimhingbovo oodigie@biu.edu.ng T. Ekrakene oodigie@biu.edu.ng H. O. Owadayo oodigie@biu.edu.ng T. O. T. Imoobe oodigie@biu.edu.ng <p>Components of species diversity involves species richness and relative abundance within a biological community. Hence, this paper is set out to assess the relative abundance, richness and diversity of bottom sediment of macroinvertebrates in Okhuaihe River, Ikpe Community, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria, using standardized analytical techniques. Data obtained reveals that most of the metrics in the sediment samples fell within the tolerable ranges allowed by the Federal Ministry of Environment and the World Health Organization. Dipterans were the majority group among the twenty-eight (28) taxa that made up the 931 individuals collected, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant difference in the overall density (<em>p &gt; </em>0.05) between the sampling stations. Shannon (H) showed that Station 2 was more diverse (2.723) and least in Station 4 (2.496), while evenness (E) was highest in Station 2 (0.6342) and lowest in Station 3 (0.5248). Species richness as measured by Margalef’s index showed that Station 1 was highest (4.873) and least in Station 4 (3.99). There was a remarkable presence of Diptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Haplotaxida, while the nonappearance of sensitive species suggests possible contamination and pollution. Regular monitoring of the river’s sediment quality, including the activities and effluents that are discharged into the river is advised.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270838 Evaluating the Concentration of Pb, Hg, Co, V, As, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn and their Potential Sources in Soil from Two Abattoirs in Itu and Ikot Ekpene Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T07:29:36+00:00 I. B. Anweting idongesitanweting@uniuyo.edu.ng G. A. Ebong idongesitanweting@uniuyo.edu.ng I. E. Okon idongesitanweting@uniuyo.edu.ng I. M. Udofia idongesitanweting@uniuyo.edu.ng N. Oladunni idongesitanweting@uniuyo.edu.ng <p>Inorganic contaminants which consist of toxic metals and salts are notable for their wide environmental dispersion and their tendency to accumulate in the tissues of the human body. Heavy metals are the major inorganic contaminants in abattoir soils. These metals, even at relatively low concentrations, are toxic. Hence the objective of this paper was to determine the concentration of Pb, Hg, Co, V, As, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn and their potential sources of pollution in soil from two abattoirs in Itu and Ikot Ekpene Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods after the dry oxidation. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The distribution of heavy metals contaminants in the Itu abattoir was of the order Hg &lt; As &lt; V &lt; Cr &lt; Co &lt; Mn &lt; Ni &lt; Pb &lt; Cd &lt; Cu &lt; Zn &lt; Fe, while that of the Ikot Ekpene abattoir was Hg &lt; As &lt; Co &lt; V &lt; Cr &lt; Mn &lt; Pb &lt; Ni &lt; Cd &lt; Cu &lt; Zn &lt; Fe. The mean order obtained for both abattoirs was Hg &lt; As &lt; V &lt; Cr &lt; Co &lt; Mn &lt; Ni &lt; Pb &lt; Cd &lt; Cu &lt; Zn &lt; Fe. The results were subjected to some pollution indices to ascertain the level of ecological impacts on both plants and animals ecosystem around the abattoirs. The contamination factor, geo-accumulation index, degree of contamination, and pollution load index depict no pollution. Generally, all metals investigated were below the permissible limits of DUTCH, FEPA, WHO/FAO, and NESREA.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270843 Application of Electrical Resistivity Sounding Method for Groundwater Exploration in Ugboshi-Afe, Akoko-Edo, Southwestern Nigeria 2024-05-21T07:37:41+00:00 S. A. Salami emmanuelmuyiwa32@gmail.com E. M. Babafemi emmanuelmuyiwa32@gmail.com F. E. Ossai emmanuelmuyiwa32@gmail.com <p>Schlumberger configuration of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was deplored for groundwater exploration in Ugboshi-Afe study location. A total of nine (9) vertical electrical sounding (VES) locations, spread across the community were occupied to gain insights on the hydrogeological settings within the area. Quantitative computer interpretation of the data yielded three to six geoelectrical layers. The geoelectrical interpretation models were geologically interpreted as: clayey sand/sandy topsoil with resistivity values ranging from 54 Ohm-m to 424 Ohm-m, this is underlain by a relatively high resistivity layer (228-868 Ohm-m) interpreted as lateritic sand, and below this the low resistivity (21.38 Ohm-m – 42.4 Ohm-m) &nbsp;interpreted as clay, &nbsp;then the fractured/weathered geoelectric layer (95Ohm-m to 385Ohm-m), while the fresh basement has resistivity greater than 400 Ohm-m. Several maps such as fractured window thickness map, isoresistivity map of the fractured interval, overburden map were generated to investigate trends that may hold prospects for groundwater exploitation. Furthermore, hydro-resistivity parameters such as Total Transverse Resistance, Total Longitudinal Conductance, Resistivity Reflection Co-efficient and Resistivity Contrast values were calculated for further screening of the study site for groundwater development. The VES1, VES2, VES6 and VES7 locations were concluded as holding prospects for groundwater potentials in the study area.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270844 Use of Geographic Information System for Selection of Sustainable Waste Disposal Site in Owerri West, Imo State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T07:42:30+00:00 U. E. Ahuchaogu ahuchaogujasper@gmail.com U. U. Duru ahuchaogujasper@gmail.com A. C. Okoroji ahuchaogujasper@gmail.com <p>One of fundamental problem in waste management is to identify suitable locations for refuse dump. This is because it requires integration of numerous economic and environmental factors. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to use Geographic Information System (GIS) for the selection of sustainable waste disposal site in Owerri West, Imo State, Nigeria. Data used include shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM DEM) data of 3 arc seconds, LANDSAT satellite data of 30m resolution, geological data, google earth satellite imagery, administrative map of the study area and ground control point (GCP) collected by ground point survey (GPS). These datasets were populated in ArcGIS 10.5 window and harmonized in a common coordinate system. Six factors which include nearness to river and road, settlement, land use, slope and elevation were considered as waste dump siting constrains. These factors were weighted, reclassified and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS over lay analysis were combined in selecting optimal and sustainable waste dumping locations. The results of the study are categorized into highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable. Field observations also confirmed suitability of the selected sites. The highly suitable locations are those that possess the optimal quality and characteristics for sustainable waste disposal while the suitable sites can be kept as back up for future use.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270846 Seasonal Evaluation of Physicochemical Parameters, Heavy Metals Levels and Pollution Status in Leachate from Ikhueniro Open Solid Waste Dumpsite located in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T07:47:40+00:00 I. I. Egbon imaboyo.egbon@iuokada.edu.ng T. G. Okorie imaboyo.egbon@iuokada.edu.ng O. S. Imade imaboyo.egbon@iuokada.edu.ng <p>In recent times, there is a rapid rate of growth in the cities of third-world countries. This rapid population growth has implications for municipal waste management. Hence, the objective of this work is seasonal evaluation of physicochemical parameters, heavy metals levels and pollution status in leachate from Ikhueniro open solid waste dumpsite located in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria using standard methods. Data obtained reveals that the pH of leachate samples collected during the rainy and dry season was alkaline. Iron was the main heavy metal contaminant in the Ikhueniro dumpsite, with calculated contamination factors of discharged leachate estimated at 154.48 ± 3.56 and 167.38 ± 3.33 during rainy and dry seasons, respectively; while copper was the least heavy metal contaminant, as indicated by contamination factors of discharged leachate reported as 3.22 ± 0.04 and 14.15 ± 2.00 during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The increasing order of contamination of the dumpsite with the analyzed heavy metals was as follows: Cu&lt;Cr&lt;Zn&lt;Hg&lt;Pb=Ni&lt;Cd&lt;Fe for rainy season and Cu&lt;Cr&lt;Zn&lt;Ni&lt;Hg&lt;Pb&lt;Cd&lt;Fe for dry season. Heavy metal and other chemical contaminations were widespread in the examined samples due to poor waste management system at the Ikhueniro dumpsite; resulting in high levels of heavy metals above the limits set by regulatory agencies. The Ikhueniro dumpsite posed very high potential ecological risk during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Thus, there is urgent need to provide remediation systems that can help to significantly reduce concentrations of heavy metals and other toxicants from the dumpsite.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270853 Chemotaxonomic Characteristics of Tapinanthus bangwensis (Engl. & K. Krause) Danser of Loranthaceae Collected from University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T07:58:40+00:00 C. Wahua chika.wahua@uniport.edu.ng P. Odinma chika.wahua@uniport.edu.ng <p><em>Tapinanthus bangwensis</em> commonly known as mistletoe, is a hemi parasitic shrub of Loranthaceae, and the native range is West Tropical Africa to Chad; used in tradomedicine to remedy various ailments in Nigeria. Hence, the objective of this paper was to investigate the chemotaxonomic characteristics of <em>Tapinanthus bangwensis </em>(Engl. &amp; K. Krause) Danser of Loranthaceae collected from University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. Results of anatomy revealed 4 to 5 rows of collenchyma at hypodermis, parenchyma domiciled in the ground tissues, vascular sclerenchyma present especially in vascular system. In the phytochemistry, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolics and flavonoids were present while terpenoids absent. These information would assist for further delimitation of the species.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270863 Effect of Curing Age on the Prospect of Used Plastics to Enhance Engineering Properties of Road Pavements within a Development and Property Agency Estate in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T08:16:48+00:00 C. F. Ogbe Ogbefidelis2019@gmail.com S. D. Iyeke Ogbefidelis2019@gmail.com O. R. Ogirigbo Ogbefidelis2019@gmail.com <p>This study investigated the effect of curing age on the possibility of using plastic powder to enhance the engineering properties of subgrade for road pavements. The soil samples utilized for the study were collected from four distinct locations within the Edo Development and Property Agency estate in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. They were stored in airtight polythene bags and taken to the University of Benin Geotechnical Laboratory for testing. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics sourced from recycled soft drink and bottled water containers were pulverized and added to the soil in various proportions of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of the soil. The resulting mix was subjected to various tests such as Atterberg limits, compaction and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). The results showed that the addition of the PET plastic powder led to substantial transformation in the soil’s properties. There was a reduction in the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index, as the proportion of the plastic powder increased. The maximum dry density (MDD) and the optimum moisture content (OMC) was also seen to increase and decrease correspondingly as the proportion of the plastic powder was increased in the soil. The results also showed that as proportion of the plastic powder in the soil was increased, the CBR of the soil also increased. This increase in the soil strength was also observed as the curing age of the CBR samples increased from 0 to 14 days. This shows that a combination of extended curing periods and a larger proportion of plastic powder can significantly improve the load-bearing capacity and saturation resistance of the soil. This study underscores the considerable potential of plastic powder stabilization in elevating the engineering properties of subgrade materials, thereby conferring notable benefits to the domain of road pavement construction.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270867 Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Use of Information and Communication Technology for Accessing Agricultural Information among Cowpea Farmers in Alkaleri Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T08:29:10+00:00 M. F. Makwin makwinfrancis001@gmail.com S. A. Bako makwinfrancis001@gmail.com P. M. Selzing makwinfrancis001@gmail.com A. A. Dalla makwinfrancis001@gmail.com <p>The objective of the study was to determine socio-economic factors influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for accessing agricultural information among cowpea farmers in Alkaleri Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria using using structured questionnaire. The result of the study showed that 83.33% of the respondents were males and about 77.50% of the cowpea farmers were married. Findings from the study also revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 39 year while the mean farming experience of the cowpea farmers was 18.60 years. Findings on educational status show that majority of the farmers had one form of formal education or another. The result also reveals that 70% of the cowpea farmers had no contact with an extension services. The co-efficient of gender and education were both positive and significant at 1% level and the co-efficient of farming experience was significant at 5%. Some of the major problems identified include unstable power supply, unaffordable cost of ICT tools, and lack of technical know-how and lack of confidence to operate ICTs. It was concluded that education, gender and farming experience were the socioeconomic variables that determine the use of ICTs for agricultural information on cowpea production among small holder farmers in the study area. It was recommended that trainings should be organized to help small holders cowpea farmers acquire the skills needed to operate ICTs tools, help them gain confidence on how to use ICTs, thereby facilitating adoption and use of ICTs for agricultural information.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270870 Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Laundry Soaps Prepared From Mango and Avocado Seed Oils and Their Blends: Giving Attention to Fruit Left Overs 2024-05-21T08:35:31+00:00 A. Legesse adanelegesse@gmail.com M. Mengisteab adanelegesse@gmail.com <p>It is a common practice to use oils extracted from fruits seeds for soap making. The oils are non-edible to avoid food competition. The objective of the present study was to assess the possibility of preparing a soap of acceptable quality from oils extracted from seeds of Avocado and Mango. The ground Avocado and Mango seeds were subjected to Soxhlet extraction technique using n-hexane as an organic solvent. The oil yield of 2.43% and 1.32% were obtained for Avocado seed and Mango seed samples, respectively. The analyses of the physicochemical properties such as saponification value, acid value, percent free fatty acid, and relative density were found to be 25.245 and 84.15, 30.86 and 30.85, 6.26 and 6.26, 0.87 and 0.83, respectively, and the data were in favor of utilization of the oils in soap making. Moreover, the blends of extracted Avocado and Mango seed oils in a 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3 ratios (by mass) revealed Saponification values of 151.47, 162.69, 214.62, respectively; total fatty matter contents of 59±1.41, 63 ± 1.41, 67±1.41, respectively; total alkali contents of 1.44 ± 0.03, 1.715 ± 0.08, 1.77 ± 0.13, respectively. The pH values of soaps prepared from the two oils and their blends were found to be in the range of 9.6-10.15. The data are comparable to commercial soaps and also suggest that the prepared soaps from the extracted oils can be used for cleaning purpose without any harm on human skin.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270871 Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentrations in Aerosols from Selected Location of Kastina, Batagarawa, Kaita and Jibia Local Government Areas of Katsina State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T08:40:02+00:00 E. Joseph ejoseph@fudutsinma.edu.ng S. S. Maiwada ejoseph@fudutsinma.edu.ng A. N. Baba-Kitugi ejoseph@fudutsinma.edu.ng <p>Particulate Matter have propensity to penetrate deep into the lungs, bloodstreams, and brain, making it the most dangerous kind of air pollutants, causing health concerns such as heart attacks and respiratory disorders. Thus, this research is focused on investigating the concentration of Particulate Matter (PM<sub>2.5 </sub>and PM<sub>10</sub>) in μg/m<sup>3</sup> of Aerosols in some locations in Katsina Metropolis using energy dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Analysis. Results obtained reveal that the average PM <sub>2.5</sub> concentration for Katsina Metropolis ranged from 19-67 μg/m<sup>3</sup>, while the average PM<sub>10</sub> concentration ranged from 112-192 μg/m<sup>3</sup>, revealing that about 80% of the Particulate Matter loads in Katsina is above the WHO recommended limit. The PM<sub>2.5</sub>/PM<sub>10</sub> ratio of Katsina metropolis (0.28) are below the WHO recommendation (0.5-0.8). Lower ratio implies higher PM<sub>10</sub>, hence, Katsina Metropolitan Area is polluted with PM. Higher limits of Particulate matter in Katsina metropolis could be as a consequence of urbanization and other economic activities without due regulation and the dust particles from the Sahara blowing North to South. Therefore, relevant agencies could periodically access the levels of PM in Katsina State in other to take proactive measures for safeguarding the populace.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270886 Adsorption and Kinetic Studies for Removal of Fluoride in Aqueous System by Activated Carbon Produced from Lemon Peels 2024-05-21T09:32:06+00:00 P. M. Amaibi Juliusfriday3017@gmail.com J. F. Egong Juliusfriday3017@gmail.com C. R. Iwe Juliusfriday3017@gmail.com C. C. Obunwo Juliusfriday3017@gmail.com <p>Globally, fluoride contamination in drinking water has been a major environmental problem, imposing severe threat to human health through various disease conditions. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to investigate the adsorption and kinetic studies for the removal of fluoride in aqueous system by activated carbon produced from lemon peels using appropriate standard procedures. Adsorptive efficiency of the lemon peel powder for fluoride ions in water was 94.90% at an optimum contact time of 100 minutes. The fluoride ions removal efficiency of the activated carbon was considered favourable and the data fitted-well to Langmuir and isothermal model with the regression coefficients (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.992 respectively. The adsorption capacity was 0.02 mg/g. From this study, the defluoridation occurs through a chemisorption process when the adsorbent adsorbed fluoride ion from water. The adsorption kinetics studies were best described by pseudo-second order kinetics; the result obtained suggests an endothermic process with a strong regression coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.998. The adsorbent used exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity due to its internal pore size, wide surface area and chemical nature. These findings reveal that lemon peel powder has the potential to effectively remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution and can be used to provide safe drinking-water.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270890 Prevalence and Distribution of Falciparum malaria in Orita Obele and Gbogi Communities of Akure, South-western Nigeria 2024-05-21T09:46:18+00:00 O. B. Awosolu obawosolu@futa.edu.ng D. I. Oluokun obawosolu@futa.edu.ng <p>Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease across the world particularly in Nigeria. This study investigates the prevalence and distribution of falciparum malaria in Orita Obele and Gbogi communities of Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. Standard parasitological method of thick and thin smear was employed and the malaria parasites were identified through microscopy. Overall prevalence of 171 (57.0%) was recorded. Sex related prevalence showed that more males were infected with 79 (60.8%) than females with 98 (57.6%). The differences in prevalence between males and females was significant (P&lt;0.05). Individuals within the age group of less than 10 had the highest rate of infection 38 (76.0%) while individuals within the age group of 51 to 60 had the least rate of infection 10 (37.0). Furthermore, Orita Obele had a higher malaria prevalence (58.6%) compared to Gbogi (53.9%). Conclusively, there is need for sustainable interventions and awareness campaign among the residents of Orita Obele and Gbogi in order to enhance reduction of malaria parasite to the desired zero level.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270893 Determination of Baseline Data of Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Surface Waters in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T09:51:32+00:00 B. P. Akpan enobongxst@yahoo.com A. L. Udo enobongxst@yahoo.com E. S. Akpan enobongxst@yahoo.com <p>Surface waters in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State are the predominant sources of potable water for the rapidly increasing population in the area with the presence of three tertiary institutions. Hence, the objective of this paper was to determine baseline data of the physicochemical and microbiological quality of surface waters in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using standard microbiological and analytical procedures and values compared to the World Health Organization WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) recommended levels. Results showed that water from streams 3, 4, 5 and 7 were good as source of drinking water. Water from Ikot Oku Nsit and Anyam streams had high levels of 28.46 mg/l and 23.05 mg/l, 46.14mg/l and 46.51 mg/l, 51.85 mg/l and 56.42 mg/l for Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Suspended Solids and nitrates respectively, making it necessary for treatment. Water from stream 6 had high values of Nitrates and Fecal Coliform well above the WHO recommended levels rendering it not good for human consumption without treatment. Proper sensitization of the populace on water management, regular assessment of the surface waters and the revamping of the public water works at Afaha Nsit, have been recommended.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270895 Trees Investment for Temperature Cooling in Higher Learning Institutions: A case of Ardhi University Campus, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2024-05-21T09:57:16+00:00 N. F. Mwageni nicholaus.mwageni@aru.ac.tz <p>The pressure for the increasing enrolment in higher learning institutions in Tanzania has accelerated the proliferation of the gray infrastructures in campuses. However, little is understood for the foregone economic value of ecosystem services from the lost trees due gray infrastructure development. The objective of this study was to assess trees investment for temperature cooling in higher learning institutions: a case study of Ardhi University Campus, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The remote sensing techniques, document review, and questionnaire were used for data collection. The study revealed that Ardhi University has trees canopies covering 227,638 square meters. Analysis of the temperature data demonstrated that temperature difference is influenced by abundancy of trees between Ardhi university campus and nearby areas. The average temperature in nearby areas in the afternoon is higher by 2 ˚C to 4˚C compared to Ardhi university campus. 72.4 percentage of students spend four (4) to eight (8) hours in an outdoor tree shaded environment within 12 hours in day time implying that trees shaded environment is important for daily life at the campus. Utilization of the outdoor trees shaded environment has implication of energy savings of 336,823.52 KWh which is equivalent to TZS 120,245,811 (USD 44,535). The study recommends that high learning institutions should invest in green space development with lighting and seating provisions to maximize their use while reducing building users at the campus. Short of that, more buildings are needed to cater for the increasing enrollment. This might be a challenge to majority universities considering that financial resources are scarce.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270896 Isolation and Characterization of Arginase Producing Bacteria from Soil Compost Sites at Ogwa Community, Edo State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T09:59:59+00:00 K. P. Okanlawon taiwookanlawon26@gmail.com T. S. Okanlawon taiwookanlawon26@gmail.com S. A. Adedire taiwookanlawon26@gmail.com I. S. Agbaje taiwookanlawon26@gmail.com O. H. Adebomi taiwookanlawon26@gmail.com A. M. Akinbami taiwookanlawon26@gmail.com <p>Under typical physiological conditions, arginine plays a crucial function in the cell development and proliferation of healthy cells. Arginase has recently caught the attention of numerous researchers as a potential therapy option for auxotrophic cancer. Using standard morphological and biochemical methods, this paper isolates and characterize Arginase producing bacteria from soil compost sites collected from Ogwa community, Edo State, Nigeria. Enzymatic and physicochemical activities were assessed. The species identified to be present include <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp., <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em>, and <em>Bacillus subtlis</em>. The enzyme was active throughout a wide pH range, from 2 to 12. The optimal pH for the activity was found to be 9, and the ideal temperature was 70 °C. K<sub>m</sub> values for Arginine and Guanidine hydrochloride were 0.21 mM and 0.25 mM, respectively, in terms of substrates. Studies on the enzyme with different cations showed that the activity of the enzyme was affected by Sn<sup>2+</sup>, Hg<sup>2+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Na<sup>2+</sup>, and K<sup>+</sup>. This study shows the therapeutically significant arginase enzyme is present in the isolated bacteria from various compost sites.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270900 Properties and Potentials of Gumbel Power Function Distribution to Rainfall and Wind Speed Datasets 2024-05-21T10:06:33+00:00 U. U. Uwadi uchenna.uwadi@funai.edu.ng E. E. Nwezza uchenna.uwadi@funai.edu.ng C. I. Okonkwo uchenna.uwadi@funai.edu.ng <p>The objective of this paper is to present the properties and potentials of Gumbel Power function (GuPF) distribution to rainfall and wind speed datasets using the T-X methodology. The density and hazard rate function of the GuPF distribution are unimodal and increasing respectively. Statistical properties of the new distribution such as quantile, moments, and probability weighted moments (PWMs), order statistics and entropy are derived. The Maximum likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of the proposed model. The superiority of GuPF distribution over other distributions with the same baseline is illustrated using two environmental datasets.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270902 Characterization of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate and Soybean Deodorized Distillate for Biodiesel Production 2024-05-21T10:12:59+00:00 A. O. Esan aoesan@lautech.edu.ng B. A. Babalola aoesan@lautech.edu.ng Y. A. Raji aoesan@lautech.edu.ng M. A. Oladigbolu aoesan@lautech.edu.ng G. Q. Ajao aoesan@lautech.edu.ng I. T. Olawoore aoesan@lautech.edu.ng A. D. Adeyemi aoesan@lautech.edu.ng <p>Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and soybean deodorized distillate (SDD) are two prominent byproducts in the vegetable oil industry; hence, the objective of this paper was to characterize the physicochemical properties of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and soybean deodorized distillate (SDD) biodiesel production. Various physicochemical properties, including fatty acid composition, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and viscosity, underwent analysis. Moreover, the study identified impurities like moisture, free fatty acids, and unsaponifiable matter. This thorough assessment offers essential insights into the materials' suitability for biodiesel production, thus informing potential industrial applications. It underscores the significance of selecting appropriate feedstocks in biodiesel manufacturing, ensuring optimal quality and efficiency. By considering these factors, stakeholders can make informed decisions regarding material sourcing and processing methods, ultimately enhancing overall production outcomes. Additionally, this evaluation facilitates the identification of potential challenges and opportunities in the biodiesel industry, contributing to informed decision-making and strategic planning. Furthermore, the potential environmental and economic benefits of utilizing these byproducts in biodiesel production are discussed.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270904 Optimization of Material Removal Rate in Computer Numerical Control Lathe Machine in Turning AISI 1040 Steel 2024-05-21T10:24:28+00:00 B. I. Ntukidem ntukidembenson55@gmail.com J. I. Achebo ntukidembenson55@gmail.com A. Ozigagun ntukidembenson55@gmail.com F. O. Uwoghiren ntukidembenson55@gmail.com K. O. Obahiagbon ntukidembenson55@gmail.com <p>The Computer Numerical Control (CNC) of a Lathe Machine helps in shaping hard materials like metal and wood, while rotating on two axes and the amount of materials removed per unit time during the production process provides the material removal rate (MRR). Hence, the objective of this paper was to optimize the Material Removal Rate in a Computer Numerical Control Lathe Machine in Turning AISI 1040 Steel while focusing on cutting parameters such as depth of cut, cutting speed, and feed rate. Employing a central composite design with twenty experimental runs, ANOVA analysis revealed cutting speed (F-value: 80.40) as the most influential parameter on MRR. Initially, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) predicted MRR, yielding optimal parameters: depth of cut (0.25 mm), cutting speed (250 m/min), feed rate (0.20 mm/rev), resulting in MRR of 27.88 mm<sup>3</sup>/min. Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization surpassed ANN, yielding higher MRR (29.07442 mm<sup>3</sup>/min) with optimal parameters: depth of cut (0.65 mm), cutting speed (221.09 m/min), and feed rate (0.21 mm/rev). Confirmatory tests validated predictions. This study provides insights into enhancing CNC turning efficiency and productivity.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270906 Bacteriological Analysis of Ready to Eat Suya Meat Sold In Adolor and Oluku Area of Benin City, Nigeria 2024-05-21T10:31:04+00:00 D. O. Osunde cyprian.oshoma@uniben.edu G. O. Isoah cyprian.oshoma@uniben.edu C. Obasuyi cyprian.oshoma@uniben.edu P. O. Akpoghelie cyprian.oshoma@uniben.edu C. E. Oshoma cyprian.oshoma@uniben.edu <p>Traditionally processed meat product is usually done without observing strict hygiene conditions, which could cause foodborne illnesses. &nbsp;As a consequence of microorganisms exceeding acceptable limits, hence, the objective of this paper was to determine the bacteriological analysis of ready-to-eat suya meat sold in Adolor and Oluku area of Benin City, Nigeria. Freshly roasted suya meat samples were obtained from two randomly chosen suya vendors and carefully wrapped in newspaper and sterile foil paper. Bacteriological analysis was performed using the pour plate method with nutrient agar and mannitol salt agar media. The isolates virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility profile were analyzed. The results showed that samples obtained from Adolor wrapped with Newspaper had the highest bacterial counts of 4.00 x 10<sup>9 </sup>cfu/g. The highest<em> Staphylococci</em> count of 3.10 ± 0.7 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/g was from a sample wrapped in Newspaper. The identified bacterial isolates were <em>Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sp, Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Staphylococcus epidermis</em>. <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>had the highest occurrence, while <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis </em>had the least occurrence, with cumulative values of 29.26 and 2.44 %, respectively. The isolates were resistant to most of the antibiotics tested, with an average antibiotic resistance index of above 50 %, which poses a serious public health concern. This study shows that packaging material and handlers are major sources of contamination in suya. It is recommended that suya be sold in more sterile packaging materials. The handlers should be trained on safe hygiene practices for handling suya</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270907 Effect of Pregnancy on Hematological Profile of Female Subjects from a Private Hospital in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T10:37:52+00:00 A. O. Ekhegbesela aekhegbesela@biu.edu.ng C. N. Ekhator aekhegbesela@biu.edu.ng A. Emina aekhegbesela@biu.edu.ng <p>Pregnancy is characterized by important variations in virtually every organ system to accommodate the growing and developing fetoplacental entity. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the effect of pregnancy on hematological profile of female subjects attending a private hospital in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria using eighty female volunteered individuals comprising sixty pregnant subjects and twenty nonpregnant subjects. The pregnant group was further categorized into three trimesters, each consisting of twenty participants. Results were presented as Mean ± SD and analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5 software (GraphPad Software Inc.), and p &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, the mean values of lymphocytes, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets were decreased in the pregnant cohort when compared to the nonpregnant cohort, whereas an incremental rise in white blood cell, and granulocytes were observed in the pregnant cohort when compared to the nonpregnant cohort. A statistically significant difference (p &lt; 0.05) in the mean hematocrit and hemoglobin values was observed when comparing the first-trimester participants with the control participants, although white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, red blood cells, and platelets were not different (p &gt; 0.05). The average values for white blood cells, granulocytes, red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin between second-trimester individuals and those of nonpregnant individuals exhibited a significant variance (p &lt; 0.05), while the average lymphocyte and platelet counts showed no significance (p &gt; 0.05). the mean white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelet counts for the third-trimester subjects were significantly different (p &lt; 0.05) when compared to the control subjects. The study outcome suggests that pregnancy affects hematological indices and may be a risk predictor for pregnancy-associated complications.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270908 Influence of Laboratory Technicians Characteristics on Support to Science Teaching in Secondary Schools in Uyo Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T10:42:37+00:00 E. S. Akpan enobongxst@yahoo.com S. O. Uwak enobongxst@yahoo.com A. B. Etukufot enobongxst@yahoo.com <p>The influence of academic qualification, age, gender and years of experience of laboratory technicians on the support they provide to science teaching in secondary schools in Uyo Senatorial district of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, was investigated using questionnaire to collect data from eighty (80) science laboratory technicians out of the 125 posted to public secondary schools within the study area. With a calculated F ratio of 6.297 at 2 and 77 degrees of freedom being greater than the table value of 3.07, educational qualification of technicians significantly influenced their support to teaching of science subjects. A calculated F ratio of 2.061 at 3 and 76 degrees of freedom being less than the table value of 2.68 at 0.05 degrees of freedom, age of laboratory technicians was found not to significantly influence support to science teaching. An F ratio of 3.393 obtained at 2 and 77 degrees of freedom and 0.05 level of significance, made the years of working experience of the technicians to significantly influence their support to science teaching. With a calculated t-value of 0.089 being less than the table value of 1.660 at 78 degrees of freedom, gender of laboratory technicians was found not to significantly influence their support to science teaching. Young and newly employed science laboratory technicians should be encouraged to obtain higher qualification and motivated to stay to increase their efficiency.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270909 Spatiotemporal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Pesticides in Ogun River, Lagos, Nigeria 2024-05-21T10:47:45+00:00 O. B. Adesina adesinalekan058@gmail.com E. D. Paul adesinalekan058@gmail.com A. A. Nuhu adesinalekan058@gmail.com C. C. Onoyima adesinalekan058@gmail.com F. G. Okibe adesinalekan058@gmail.com <p>Studying the spatiotemporal distribution and health risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in a river is crucial for understanding the impacts of these contaminants on human health. Hence, the objective of this paper was to investigate the spatiotemporal variation and health risk assessment of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in Ogun River, Lagos, Nigeria. The water samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with MSD model 5977A. The results show a diverse distribution of PAHs across the sites, with Naphthalene and Acenaphthylene being the most frequently detected, having significantly higher concentrations in the dry season than in the rainy season. There was a significant difference in the mean amounts of pesticides at site 1 compared to other sites.&nbsp; While some pesticides recorded higher mean values in the rainy season, others had higher mean values in the dry season. Similar to PAHs, most pesticides had higher mean values in year 1 than in year 2. Most of the pesticides and PAHs posed significant non-cancer risks (HQ &gt; 1) through oral exposure, except Glyphosate and Imidacloprid at all the sites; and Acenaphthene and Anthracene at site 4. There was also a significant health risk through dermal exposure to Heptachlor and Dichlorvos at S4 and Aldrin at S1. The cancer risk through oral exposure to all the detected carcinogenic pollutants is significant (CR &gt;1×10<sup>-4</sup>), except Lindane at S4, which was within the acceptable range. Benzo[a]anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene posed significant cancer risk through dermal exposure at S3 and heptachlor at S1. The study indicated that the observed spatial and temporal variations are different for specific pollutants. There is a high probability of adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for people who rely on the river for various purposes.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270911 Aphrodisiac properties of Craterispemum schweinfurthi Leaf Extract in Lead Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats 2024-05-21T10:56:05+00:00 F. Saronee fsaronee@pums.edu.ng D. Dan-Jumbo fsaronee@pums.edu.ng P. Azosibe fsaronee@pums.edu.ng <p>The current study was designed to evaluate the aphrodisiac properties of C<em>raterispemum schweinfurthi </em>leaf extract in lead induced testicular toxicity in male Wistar rats using appropriate standard techniques. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups and daily treated with different concentrations of extract and phytosterol only. Compared to group 1 (Control) rats, significantly higher values of mount, intromission, ejaculatory latencies as well as post ejaculatory interval and decreased values of mount, intromission and ejaculatory frequencies were observed amongst group 2<strong> (</strong>2.25mg/kg Lead only) rats (p&lt;0.05), following treatment with 2.25mg/kg body weight of lead acetate; suggesting a possible anti-fertility effect of lead in male Wistar rats. However, significantly lower values of mount, intromission, ejaculatory latencies and post ejaculatory interval and higher values of mount, intromission and ejaculatory frequencies were observed following the administration of the leaf extract of C<em>raterispermum schweinfurthi</em> at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 750mg/kg body weight doses amongst groups 3, 4 and 5 rats compare to group 2 (2.25mg/kg Lead only) rats (p&lt;0.05), indicating a possible mitigating effect of the extract against lead induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. C<em>raterispermum</em> <em>schweinfurthi</em> improves appetitive and precopulatory components of sexual behavior like sexual excitement, arousal and libido; indicating intense and sustained sexual activity.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270912 Impact of Land-Use Change from 2000-2020 on Environmental Resources in Bayelsa State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T11:05:16+00:00 A. T. A. Marine bisongandyetta7@gmail.com A. E. Bisong bisongandyetta7@gmail.com <p>Land cover data documents how much of a region is covered by forests, wetlands, impervious surfaces, agriculture, and other land and water types. Water types include wetlands or open water. Land-use shows how people use the landscape – whether for development, conservation, or mixed uses hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of land-use change from 2000 – 2020 on environmental resources in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A sample frame of two broad epochs (spanning from 2000 – 2020) was used for the study. This was to allow detailed image capturing and interpretation of land-use land cover (LULC) change of the study area. The result of the analysis shows that water bodies occupies 291.31km<sup>2 </sup>(3.11%) of the total land cover of the area (9372.72km<sup>2</sup>), riparian vegetation 1245.2km<sup>2 </sup>(13.29%), mangrove swamp – 2959.86km<sup>2 </sup>(31.57%), fresh water – 3976.86km<sup>2 </sup>(42.43%) and built up area 899.95km<sup>2 </sup>(9.60%). The study recommends for the implementation of existing environmental laws in order to take care of current trend of environmental resources decline, there should be public enlightenment and environmental education in order to alert the general public on the danger of human activities on the environment.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270931 Review Assessment of Current Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Implications of Liquified Natural Gas Supply Infrastructure Development in the Nigerian Maritime Sector 2024-05-21T13:07:55+00:00 J. N. Osuji joshuaosuji@yahoo.com J. Agbakwuru joshuaosuji@yahoo.com <p>The maritime sector in Nigeria plays a pivotal role in the country's economic growth and trade activities. As part of Nigeria's commitment to clean energy and sustainable development, the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply infrastructure has emerged as a critical component of the nation's energy and transportation strategy. This article reviews an assessment of the current status, challenges, opportunities, and implications of liquified natural gas supply infrastructure development in Nigeria's maritime sector by qualitatively harvesting secondary data from several sources. The paper recommends the provision of LNG bunkering facilities at Lekki deep seaport.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270948 Patterns of Multidrug Bacterial Clinical Isolates and Cytokine Responses to Antibiotic Misuse in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria 2024-05-21T14:12:48+00:00 F. A. Ehiaghe fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng C. C. Onyenekwe fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng O. N. Osakue fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng J. I. Ehiaghe fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng R. C. Chukwuanukwu fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng O. J. Okafoanyali fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng N. O. Onyenekwe fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng F. A. Igiebor fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng F. A. Manafa fa.ehiaghe@unizik.edu.ng <p>Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens can pose significant health-care challenges by rendering most antimicrobials ineffective. Hence the objective of this paper was to evaluate the patterns of multidrug bacterial clinical isolates and cytokine responses to antibiotic misuse in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. Also, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (pg/ml), interferon-gamma (pg/ml), and interleukin-10 (pg/ml) in post-surgical patients and control subjects were evaluated using enzyme link immunosorbent assay method.The prevalence of wound infection among study participants was (20%).<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(40%) and<em> Escherichia coli</em> (19%) were most likely to be associated with wound infection. The MDR bacterial isolates shows highest resistance to Cefixime (80%) and Ciprofloxacin (80%) in the surgical wound infection patients. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-gamma and interleukin-10were significantly higher in thepost-surgical wound infection patient as compared with the control group (p&lt;0.002). MDR-bacterial infections are more virulent, and the observed excessive inflammatory response may impede infection resolution, which may help to explain in part, the poor treatment outcome in patients with MDR infections, even after prompt antibiotic treatment.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270940 Measurement and Comparison of Total Electron Content for Assessment of Ionospheric Models during April 7, 2000 Geomagnetic Storms 2024-05-21T13:37:17+00:00 Y. O. Kayode kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com A. S. Ajose kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com E. O. Onori kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com A. J. Alomaja kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com P. C. Offor kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com S. A. Okedeyi kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com F. E. Ikuemonisan kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com A. O. Fakunle kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com A. R. Adeniji-Adele kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com R. B. Adegbola kayodeyusuf1988@gmail.com <p>Ionospheric modelling is a major approach to predicting the behavior of the ionosphere particularly in regions where Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are not readily available. Hence, the objective of this paper is to measure and compare Total Electron Content (TEC) for Assessment of Ionospheric Models during April 7, 2000 Geomagnetic Storms. Measured Total Electron Content (TEC) from experimental records (April 5 - 9, 2000) were compared with those predicted by the improved versions of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012 and IRI-Plas2015) and the NeQuick models. The mean values of TEC in five days of the months were plotted against the hours of the same day and the root mean square error of the models which shows their deviations from the GPS data were used to observe the diurnal variations in TEC and the performances of the ionospheric models respectively. The data obtained confirmed that TEC has their highest values during the midnight period and lowest values during the sunset period at the Australian stations and we also confirmed that European stations had their highest TEC values during the daytime and their lowest values during the night time. We affirmed that the North American station in USA had its highest TEC values during the night time and lowest values during day time. The Asian station had its highest TEC values during the day time and lowest values during the midnight period. However, NeQuick, IRIPlas2015, and NeQ-IRI produced better estimate of TEC than the IRI-2001 and IRI-2001COR at all locations during the phases of the geomagnetic storm.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270945 An Overview of Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal: A Review 2024-05-21T13:49:26+00:00 M. B. Etsuyankpa jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng A. U. Augustine jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng S. T. Musa jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng J. T. Mathew jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng H. Ismail jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng A. M. Salihu jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng A. Mamman jmathew@ibbu.edu.ng <p>Wastewater treatment is a critical aspect of environmental management, aimed at mitigating the adverse effects of urbanization and industrialization on water bodies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of wastewater characteristics, treatment methods, and disposal options by harvesting data from secondary sources. Data obtained reveals that various treatment processes are employed to remove or reduce contaminants from wastewater, including physical, chemical, and biological methods. This review underscores the importance of wastewater treatment in safeguarding water resources and public health, while also emphasizing the importance of considering the broader environmental implications of treatment and disposal practices.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270946 Assessment of Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Microbial Parameters on Well Water Quality in Urban Centre, Effluent Locations and Non-Effluent Location of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria 2024-05-21T13:57:51+00:00 S. S. Mshelia msheliasimon48@gmail.com A. Dadan-Garba msheliasimon48@gmail.com Y. A. Mbaya msheliasimon48@gmail.com L. Bulama msheliasimon48@gmail.com <p>The groundwater consists of about 20% of the earth’s fresh water is the most widely used for drinking. Hence, the objective of this paper was to assess the seasonal variations of heavy metals and microbial parameters on well water quality in Urban Centre (UC), Effluent Locations (EL) and Non-Effluent Location (NEL) of Kano metropolis, Nigeria using appropriate standard techniques. The research collected 768 water samples from 48 wells at three different locations: Urban Centre (UC), Effluent Locations (EL) and Non-Effluent Location (NEL) in the city during dry and wet seasons in one year and subjected samples to laboratory analysis for determination of the concentrations of elements and bacteria in line with American Public Health Association (APHA, 2005). Higher mean values of Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury, Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Zinc, Manganese, Total Coliform and Escherichia Coli of 0.14mg/L, 5.11mg/L, 0.095mg/L, 0.15mg/L, 0.53mg/L, 3.1mg/L, 8.62mg/L and 4.1mg/L respectively at EL except Cadmium (UC). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and T-test 0.05% confidential level showed that Chromium F(2, 3) = 17.225, p =0.019, Arsenic F(2, 3) = 16.11, p = 0.031 and Iron F(2, 3) = 17.135, p = 0.021 while microbial parameters showed that E. coli F(2,3) =11.88 p = 0.038 parameters wells located at the UC, EL NEL areas of Kano. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations and microbial contamination in the metropolis are significantly different from each other where the mean level is significant at <em>P&lt;.05</em> across different locations, with higher levels found in industrial and urban areas during the rainy season. These findings highlight the need for improved management and monitoring of well water quality in Kano metropolis to protect public health.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/270947 Design of Variables Sampling Plan in Agro-Allied Industry for Packed Yam Flour in-view of International Regulatory Standards 2024-05-21T14:03:48+00:00 K. Ezewu kezewu@delsu.edu.ng E. C. Enujeke kezewu@delsu.edu.ng M. E. Amagre kezewu@delsu.edu.ng <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 45.0pt .0001pt .5in;"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; color: #252525;">To stay competitive in today’s global market, manufacturers must ensure products released to consumers, meet international regulations and standards and this can only be done by putting in place sampling plans to guarantee the release of quality lots of products into the market. Hence, the objective of this paper is to design a variables sampling plan for the released of packed yam flour in view of international regulations on the net content of packaged goods. Probability plots, operating characteristic curves, the average outgoing quality (AOQ), average outgoing quality limit (AOQL) and average total inspection (ATI) were useful measures to evaluate the fitness of the sampling plan using the Minitab 2021 statistical software package. The packing process net weight, was found to be normally distributed with a p-value of 0.075 and a process standard deviation of 2.16. A comparative analysis on sample size, sampling plan measures, such as the AOQ, AOQL, and ATI and in view of best practice, were decisive in selecting a sampling plan with a sample size of 31 packs per lot as the most economic plan for lot sentencing. A practical demonstration on this sampling plan usage was also showcased. This sampling plan elevates and improves the net content of the packed product released into the market in view of international regulatory laws.</span></p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271150 Bifidobacteria spp. As a Potential Probiotic for the Treatment of Various Diseases 2024-05-24T09:24:48+00:00 C. P. Eya pceya@noun.edu.ng I. E. Eya pceya@noun.edu.ng F. Ebhodaghe pceya@noun.edu.ng <p>The objective of this review paper was to provide information on the utilization of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium as potential probiotic for the treatment of various diseases by harvesting information from secondary sources. <em>Lactobacillus</em> and <em>Bifidobacterium</em> are known to resist gastric acid, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes, to adhere to colonic mucosa and readily colonize the intestinal tract. Other organisms like enterococci and yeasts have also been used as probiotics. Lactobacilli are Gram-positive, non-spore-forming and non-flagellated rods or coccobacilli. They are either aerotolerant or anaerobic and strictly fermentative. Probiotics are one of the fast-growing categories within food for which scientific researchers have demonstrated therapeutic evidence. They are used in prevention of urogenital diseases, alleviation of constipation, protection against diarrhoea, reduction of hypercholesterolaemia, protection against colon cancer, and prevention of osteoporosis and food allergy. Ingestion of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) has been suggested to confer a range of health benefits including immune system modulation, increased resistance to malignancy and infectious illness. It is used in terminating illness as diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. Probiotics can produce antimicrobial substances including bacteriocins that have ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. <em>Bifidobacterium</em> is an important composition of the probiotic mix with several health benefiting properties when administered at the appropriate dosage. Various types of probiotics have been found to exert various therapeutic properties including antiinfection, antiinflammation, anticancer, promoting host psychological and physical health, and regulating host immune system. Recent studies have suggested that probiotics have demonstrated beneficial effects to human and animal health. This review has highlighted the immense benefit of probiotics to human health.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271153 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analyses of Opportunistic Pathogenic Fungi Associated to Tinea capitis among pupils from Selected Schools in Somolu Local Government, Lagos state, Nigeria 2024-05-24T09:29:33+00:00 T. O. Samuel tosamuel@unilag.edu.ng P. I. Irechukwu tosamuel@unilag.edu.ng A. M. Ebabhi tosamuel@unilag.edu.ng T. O. Fadipe tosamuel@unilag.edu.ng <p><em>Tinea capitis</em> is a contagious, scalp-involving dermatophyte infection, with a high prevalence among pre-pubertal children. This present study aims to isolate and characterize (obtaining the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the genome DNA with the PCR method using universal primers for molecular identification and phylogenetic analyses) of opportunistic mycoses pathogens associated with <em>Tinea capitis. </em>Scalp-scrapping were obtained from head lesions of 136 pupils with 85 boys (62.5%) and 51 girls (37.5%) from three primary schools in Somolu local government, Lagos state. One hundred and thirty-three yield fungal growth, of which are twelve fungal species were identified based on their morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS4). The identified fungi include: <em>Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus niger, Canidida orthopsilosis,</em> <em>Canidida parapsilosis,</em> <em>Chaetomium globosum, Neopestalotiopsis</em> sp and <em>Talaromyces islandicus. </em>The utilization of a pairwise nucleotide differentiation, disparity among species was observed, ranging from 394 to 538 base pair (bp). The data reported here is to provide a basis for further improvement on the available mycoses agents (oral/topical) in order to combat opportunistic human pathogenic fungi associated with <em>Tinea capitis</em> infection in children. This has become a necessity as this group of fungi pathogens are always present (contribute) at the site of this infection.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271155 Estimating the Contribution of Various Construction Materials on Construction Waste Generation Onsite in South Eastern Nigeria 2024-05-24T09:41:08+00:00 M. E. Onyia Chukwuemeka.aroh@unn.edu.ng C. U. Aroh Chukwuemeka.aroh@unn.edu.ng <p>There are many challenges arising from the generation of construction waste onsite, chief of them are environmental pollution and material loss. A number of factors can lead to the generation of construction waste. Hence, the objective of this paper was to ascertain the construction material that leads greatest onsite generation of construction waste in Nigeria using structured questionnaire to gather data from primary source by surveying fourteen most common construction materials. Results obtained revealed that timber, ceramic tiles and mortar ranked&nbsp; 1<sup>st</sup> , 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> with standard deviation of&nbsp; 1.14, 1.156 &nbsp;and 1.265; while roofing sheets, PVC water pipes and paint contributed the least 12<sup>th</sup>, 13<sup>th</sup> and 14<sup>th</sup> with a standard deviation of&nbsp; 1.115, 1.222 and 1.095 respectively.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271156 Grain Yield and Seed Quality Attributes of Maize Grown Under Different Zinc Sulphate Application Techniques in Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria 2024-05-24T09:48:17+00:00 F. B. Anjorin folakeawoeyo@yahoo.com J. O. Olasoji folakeawoeyo@yahoo.com <p>Optimizing crop yield is a function of the effectiveness of agronomic practices, inherent crop quality in relation with favourable environmental condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grain yield and seed quality attributes of maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L) grown under different zinc sulphate application techniques in Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. The treatment consisted of two maize varieties (V); (BR9928DMR-SR-Y and ILE-1-OB), six zinc application methods (T); [seed primed in distilled water (S1), 1% (S2) and 2.0 % (S3) of ZnSO4, 1% ZnSO4 foliar spray (S4), soil placed ZnSO4 (S5) (7.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the control (S6-farmer’s practice)].&nbsp; At harvest, data were collected on grain yield (GY, Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), germination index (GI) and seed conductivity (SC). From the result, the T and V differed significantly (P&lt;0.01). The S1 (4.58) and S2 (4.73) plots had the highest GY but lowest in S6 (2.20), while variety BR9928DMR-SR had higher GY (4.04) than ILE-1-OB (2.77). The T and V differed significantly (P&lt;0.05) for GI (P&lt;0.01), for SC, T varied (P&lt;0.01), V (P&lt;0.05). Earliest GI of 4.42 days were observed in seeds of S2 plots than seeds of other treatments. Seed conductivity was highest in S3 (10.74), but lowest in S6. Priming maize seed in distilled water or 1% ZnSO4 significantly enhanced grain yield and seed quality of maize in this study.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271162 Sources of Information on Climate Change among Arable Crop Farmers, Edo State, Nigeria 2024-05-24T10:17:49+00:00 S. O. Alakpa Plzero4real@yahoo.com V. E. Ogbe Plzero4real@yahoo.com <p>The study assessed the sources of information on climate change among arable crop farmers in Edo state, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. Result revealed that, 42.4% of the respondents were below the mean age (45 years). Majority of them (58.8%) were males and 64.0% 69% were married, Majority (58.3%) of the total population of the study have secondary education. Majority (36.7%) had farming as their source of labour. Friends, relations and fellow farmers were the most frequent sources of information on climate change among the respondents. The study showed that of all the socio-economic characteristics examined, ues of information sources is significantly related to house hold size (r = 0.000, P&lt; 0.05) but not significant related to Age (r = 0.479, P&lt; 0.05), level of education (r = 0.329, P&lt; 0.05), income (r = -0.080, P&lt; 0.05), labour (r = 0.296, P&lt; 0.05) , sex (r = 0.353, P&lt; 0.05) marital status (r = 0.125, P&lt; 0.05), It is recommended that, Extension providers should intensify the provision of extension services by insuring increased interaction between arable crop farmers and extension agents to complement indigenous knowledge from fellow farmers and friends and relation.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271164 Physicochemical Analysis of Untreated Municipal Wastewater for Irrigation Purposes in Chiro Town, West Hararghe, Ethiopia 2024-05-24T10:24:59+00:00 Y. E. Amensisa yobsan.ejeta@obu.edu.et A. H. Lenjiso yobsan.ejeta@obu.edu.et B. A. Abdeta yobsan.ejeta@obu.edu.et A. A. Gobosho yobsan.ejeta@obu.edu.et <p>Reuse of wastewater for irrigation is certainly an effective substitute, especially in developing countries where there is a scarcity of fresh water, depletion of groundwater, the cost of pumping underground water, and the supply of some valuable plant nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to assess the suitability of untreated municipal wastewater (UMWW) for irrigation purposes in Chiro town, west Hararghe zone, Ethiopia using relevant standard methods. The results obtained show that the average values of hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) in the sample were 7.48 and 2.54 dS/m. The average values obtained for the principal cations (Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, and Na<sup>+</sup>) and anions (Cl<sup>-</sup>, CO<sub>3</sub><sup>2-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) were (119.56, 38.10, 13.00, and 58.00) mg/L and (88.75, 0.00, 11.91,705.6) mg/L, respectively. &nbsp;The experimental results obtained for other miscellaneous factors, such as total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), are 90.0, 695.0, and 136.0 in mg/L. Throughout this study, the salinity hazard was assessed by analyzing the combination of TDS and EC values. The sodium hazard was evaluated by analyzing crucial factors such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Finally, the study findings of all relevant quality parameters for irrigation water revealed that the tested UMWW sample can be used in irrigation with a slight to moderate degree of restriction of use.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/271167 Histological Assessment of Placental Development Following Maternal Administration of Monosodium Glutamate in Wistar Rats 2024-05-24T10:32:34+00:00 G. Eshan Ishangladys224@gmail.com V. C. Ezeuko Ishangladys224@gmail.com <p>Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food additive commonly consumed as a flavor enhancer. It has been a target of research due to toxicological effects. The aim of this study is to histologically assess the effect of maternal administration of monosodium glutamate on placental development in Wistar rat using appropriate standard methods after establishing pregnancy in animals with regular cyclicity by pairing them overnight with sexually active males in the ratio 2:1 and placentae harvested for histological studies. Histological studies of the placenta when treated with MSG showed there was varying alterations in the histomorphology of the placental ranging from degenerative changes in glycogen cell island in junctional zone of (gestational day )GD 15, mild congestion of sinusoid in labyrinth zone of GD 17, dilated and congested fetal capillary of labyrinth zone in GD 19, vacuolar degeneration of glycogen cell island in junctional zone of GD 17, dilated and congested spiral artery in junctional zone of GD19, dilated sinusoid in labyrinth zone of GD 19. In conclusion, this study shows that there is evidence of placental toxicity following maternal consumption of monosodium glutamate in Wistar rats. Further studies are recommended to assess the mechanism of MSG-induced placental toxicity, as well the effects of MSG-induced placental toxicity on the overall development of the fetus.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024