Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 2023-03-15T10:21:48+00:00 Prof. Michael Horsfall Jnr Open Journal Systems <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Iron and Manganese Assessment in Surface and Under Profile Sediment of Water Dam and His Under-Catchment Area: Case of Okpara dam in Benin, West Africa 2023-02-26T13:02:51+00:00 L. A. S. Tometin F. R. Avahounlin K. N. Topanoun L. M. Bawa D. Mama <p>: Iron and manganese concentrations vary highly and seasonally into the water of Okpara dam. Their values were related the geochemistry of the under-catchment area and its bank. Almost all soil and rock in high degradation state sampled on the catchment and bank of this dam show – concentrations’ values less or too higher than the sampled sediments in which concern iron and manganese. Iron is steal the most abundant metal whatever it is the soil or - rock analyzed. The dam bank rock metal profile showed a metal leaching more from the top to down profile. The under-profile sediment shows iron diffusion from the most anoxic layer to the less anoxic layers. The underground waters sampled from the catchment have express acidic behavior despite the neutral pH state of rivers water. The same acidity remains more in the sediment. Manganese is more concentrated (0.25 to 4.54 mg/L) in underground waters than iron (less than 2 mg/l). The sediment of the dam is the probable source of water column iron and manganese provider through physic-biogeochemical processes.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Flood and Post-flood Water Quality of Imonitea Freshwater Stream in Ndoni, Ogba Egbema Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria 2023-02-26T13:12:51+00:00 O. S. Bull C. C. Obunwo N. M. Aghaeze <p>Imonitea freshwater stream serves as a major source of water for domestic and agricultural applications for the inhabitants of Imonitea, in Ndoni of Ogba-Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. This research was conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics and microbial loads of the flood and post-flood water quality of the Imonitea fresh water stream using standard methods. Water samples were collected at both flood and post flood periods using standard methods. The properties of the&nbsp; freshwater at both flood and post flood periods were respectively: pH (6.41<u>+</u>0.15; 6.88<u>+</u>0.15); total dissolved solids (88.87<u>+</u> 20.07 mg/l; 103.13 <u>+</u>16.76 mg/l), total hydrocarbon (4.20<u>+</u>0.77 mg/l; 4.94<u>+</u>0.86 mg/l), electrical conductivity(126.6<u>+</u>17.59 µS/cm; 140.53<u>+</u>33.99 µS/cm), nitrate(0.11<u>+</u>0.08 mg/l; 1.26;<u>+</u>1.45 mg/l), turbidity(51.88<u>+</u>7.67 NTU; 20.39<u>+</u>16.76 NTU), sulphate(3.52<u>+</u>1.25 mg/l; 2.44<u>+</u>0.41mg/l). The levels of heavy metals were: iron (1.20<u>+</u>0.50 mg/l; 110.98<u>+</u>9.94 mg/l), lead (0.30<u>+</u>0.20mg/l; 1.25<u>+</u>0.51 mg/l), cadmium (0.12<u>+</u>0.01 mg/l; 0.07<u>+</u>0.03 mg/l).&nbsp; On the other hand microbiological loads at flood and post flood periods &nbsp;were 1.84±0.92 cfu/ml; 3.56 ± 1.36 cfu/ml and 1.72 <u>+</u>1.92 cfu/ml; 3.56 <u>+</u>.1.20 cfu/ml respectively. At both periods, turbidity and total dissolved solids exceeded national standards. Although lead levels were within permissible limits, iron and chromium exceeded their permissible limits. The microbiological loads at both periods also exceeded national limits. The Water Quality Index was very high (3,192.81; 3,838.13), implying that the freshwater body was not fit for human consumption.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of Chronic Formaldehyde Exposure on Some Cardiovascular Indices among Medical Students in a Tertiary Institution in Edo State, Nigeria 2023-02-26T14:00:42+00:00 F. O. Ebojele V. I. Iyawe <p>The effect of formaldehyde exposure on some indices of cardiovascular function among medical students in a tertiary institution in Edo State, Nigeria was studied by measuring selected anthropometric parameters using standard methods for150 subjects recruited and divided into three groups A, B, and C with 50 subjects in each group.Results obtained and presented as mean ± sem revealed that the anthropometric parameters measured ranged from (20.16±0.36 – 21.10±0.24, yrs.) for Age; (58.84±1.53 – 61.24±1.67, kg) for weight; (1.69±0.01 – 1.71±0.01, m) for height; (89.26±1.02 – 90.56±0.80, cm) for chest circumference; (20.31±0.43 – 21.44±0.45, kg/m<sup>2</sup>) for BMI and (1.64±0.02 – 1.71±0.02, m<sup>2</sup>) for BSA respectively. The data showed significant increases in pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure among group B medical students. It was therefore concluded that prolonged exposure to formaldehyde could affect the cardiovascular health of medical students.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Apparent Control Measures of Tourism and Hospitality Practitioners to Curb Insecurity in Ogun State Southwest Nigeria 2023-02-26T14:07:05+00:00 P. A. Agbebi <p>This study examined&nbsp; and described the socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the study area, identified the various damages that insecurity has caused hospitality and tourism industry and proffered some control measures to curb insecurity in Ogun State using standard methods through the administration of 152 questionnaires. Data collected were subjected to statistical analyses.&nbsp; Findings obtained revealed that: 65 (43.2%) strongly agreed, 73 (47.9%) agreed, 1 (0.7%) undecided, 11 (7.1%) disagreed, 2 (1.1%) strongly disagreed with the mapping out comprehensive security checks by hotels and tourism destinations by the practitioners will reduce security and safety challenge in the industry. This result showed that huge number of respondents agreed to the preparation and presentation of security documentation and reports on periodic basis and working with video surveillance such as close circuit camera (CCTV). In conclusion the study recommended that the hospitality and tourism practitioners in Ogun State should constantly and consistently maintain secured environment at hotels and tourism destinations in order to encourage sustainable influx of patrons.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Levels and Bacterial Load on Soil after Consistent Disposal of Untreated Hairdressing Saloon Effluent in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria 2023-03-15T10:21:48+00:00 P. Amupitan J. M. Yakubu <p>This study estimated polyaromatic hydrocarbons levels and bacterial load on soil after thirty day (30) days consistent disposal of untreated hairdressing saloon effluent in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria using standard methods.&nbsp; A non-polluted soil sample was also collected which served as the control for this experiment. The total heterotrophic bacteria count was determined. &nbsp;Toxicity analysis was carried to determine the effect of the effluent on soil bacteria. The soil samples were also was analyzed for the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbon using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The polyaromaic hydrocarbon (PAHs) detected in the test soil sample were 45.02ng/g Biphenyl, 28.23ng/g Benzo[a]pyrene, 12.05ng/g Anthracene, 23.00ng/g, and&nbsp; 5.07ng/g Phenanthrene. 2.01ng/g of Biphenyl was detected in the control garden soil. Bacteria counts from the contaminated soil range from 1.0 x10<sup>2</sup> ± 1.10 to 4.0 x 10<sup>2</sup> ± 0.11.&nbsp; The counts from the control soil sample range from 2.0 x10<sup>3</sup> ± 0.20 to 8.2 x10<sup>3</sup> ± 0.20. The control soil sample had a higher value compared to the test soil samples. Bacteria species isolated from these soil samples were: <em>Serretia</em> sp., <em>Klebsiella</em> sp., <em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas</em> sp., <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp. <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp. and <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp had increased percentage occurrence. The acute and chronic toxicity test showed a decline in the bacterial count, which could have occurred due to the presence of PAHs from Salon effluent. I was observed a constant release of PAHs into the soil, which poses a serious threat to the survival of soil bacteria, will alter the various beneficial roles these bacteria play in the soil ecosystem.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Water Quality Indices and Potability Assessment of Three Streams in Akwa North and South Local Government Areas, Anambra State, Nigeria 2023-02-26T14:47:11+00:00 P. N. Alfred I. A. C. Mbachu B. O. Uba <p>management of water quality, control of water pollution and environmental protection for preservation of living conditions of fresh water bodies for the future necessitated careful routine monitoring. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to assess the water quality indices and anthropological suitability of three streams in Akwa North and South Local Government Areas, Anambra State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical properties using standard procedures and the quality assessed using water quality index model. The result results revealed that the water samples from the three sampling sites were acidic to alkalinity in pH, moderate in temperature. The dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD<sub>5</sub>), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate levels were found to be above World Health Organization (2011) standard limits except total suspended solids values.&nbsp; Water quality index value for all sampling sites ranged from 31.41 to 52.49, respectively revealing the three streams were moderately polluted with different industrial influents. Statistically, there were significant (p &lt; 0.05) differences detected among the means of pathogenic groups, physicochemical parameters and sampling points but non – significant (p &gt; 0.05) differences detected among the means of sampling sites. Thus, the physico- chemical baseline data from this study suggest the public health danger of the three streams to the inhabitants utilizing them as sources of water. Strict preventive measures and awareness campaigns should be put in place by government and water environmental policy makers to guarantee the public health safety of these fresh water resources.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Impact Analysis of Soil Flushing Remediation Technique on Chemical Properties and Metals Contents of Hydrocarbon-contaminated Mudflat in Bodo Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria 2023-02-26T14:59:27+00:00 D. N. Gbaa F. B. G. Tanee E. Albert <p>Unpolluted, polluted and remediated mudflat samples were collected in Bodo Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria to evaluate the ecological status of the area using impact analysis of sediment remediation by flushing technique on chemical properties and levels of some metals. Results showed that total organic carbon ranged from 21.5 – 23.0 % from the unpolluted to the remediated station, available nitrogen was 2.4 % and 2.5 % for the unpolluted and the polluted/remediated stations, total organic matter was 35 % and 40 % for unpolluted and polluted/remediated stations while available phosphorus ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 mg/kg for remediated to polluted/unpolluted stations. Sodium content ranged from 134 to 137 for unpolluted to polluted/remediated stations, potassium was 1779 mg/kg for unpolluted and 1370 mg/kg for the remediated station, calcium was 224 mg/kg for unpolluted and 296 mg/kg for the remediated station while Pb Cu were below detectable limits. It can be concluded that remediated station is safe ecosystem re-establishment.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Modified and Unmodified Jatropha Curcas Seed Oils as Pour Point Depressants for a Nigerian Waxy Crude Oil 2023-02-26T15:07:22+00:00 O. M. Shittu O. Achugasim <p>Transportation of waxy crude oil faces great challenges in pipelines, however, pour-point depressant could be employed to improve flow properties of waxy crude oil by modifying the morphology and structure of wax crystals. In this paper, modified and unmodified jatropha curcas seed oils was used as a green pour point depressants to evaluate the flow properties of a Nigerian waxy crude oil. Jatropha curcas seed oil (49.5%) was extracted using petroleum ether and the oil was analyzed for oil quality parameters (acid value, iodine value, free fatty acid and saponification value) and subsequently modified using diethanolamine and ethylene glycol to give fatty amides and glycol esters with sulphamic acid (2% and 10% respectively) as catalysts. The modified products were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The modified and unmodified Jatropha seed oils were used treat a Nigerian waxy crude oil to determine their effects on the pour point of the said crude oil. This was done by determining the viscosity and pour point of the crude oil before and after it is dosed with different concentrations of the modified and unmodified Jatropha oils. The results revealed the efficiency of the fatty amides to reduce the pour point and viscosity of the crude oil from 18<sup>0</sup>C to 15<sup>0</sup>C and from 3.49 cst. to 2.0 cst respectively. Both ethylene glycol-modified Jatropha seed oil and the unmodified Jatropha seed oil were able to also depress the pour point of the crude oil to the same degree showing that modification with ethylene glycol did not improve the ability of ordinary Jatropha seed oil to act as pour point depressant.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Underwater Image Enhancement for Instance Segmentation using Deep Learning Models 2023-02-26T15:35:03+00:00 R. W. Bello C. U. Oluigbo I. G. Peanock O. M. Moradeyo <p>Underwater instance segmentation greatly depends on color-blended underwater images. In this work, a combination of Generalized Color Fourier Descriptor (GCFD), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Mask R-CNN) models were employed to generate a mask for each bounding-boxed Region of Interest (ROI) to obtain enhanced individual underwater segmented images from their complex background accurately. By this image enhancement approach, individual underwater instances are segmented from their complex background accurately. The Patch-based Contrast Quality Index (PCQI) evaluation of our proposed image enhancement method (GCFD) after conducting experiment on the employed datasets shows performance accuracy of 1.1336, which is higher than the 1.1126 performance accuracy achieved by the Contrast-enhancement Algorithm (CA).</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Euphorbia Graminea Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae): A Comparative Antimicrobial Evaluations of Stem and Root Extracts 2023-02-26T15:48:40+00:00 E. O. Ikpefan J. O. Ikpefan S. O. Ovbiagele U. Ejienyafu C. B. Ojumah <p>Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue. Euphorbia plants are used locally to treat microbial infections. This study examined the antimicrobial potential of <em>Euphorbia graminea</em> stem and root extracts. The stems and roots extracts of <em>E .graminea</em> were extracted using 80% methanol and tested for antimicrobial activity at concentrations between 4.69-300mg/mL against non-clinical isolates (<em>S. aureus</em>, <em>E. coli</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em>, <em>C. albican</em>, <em>A. niger</em>). The active roots extract was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatographic fractionations (VLC) and the resulting fractions bulked and tested against the organisms at 6.25-100mg/mL.&nbsp; The MIC of extracts and vlc bulked fractions were tested at 0.39-6.25 mg/mL.&nbsp; The root extract recorded higher antimicrobial activities over the stem extract especially against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E.coli</em>, hence was fractionated. Among the vlc sub-fractions of the roots extract, fractions A (2) recorded no activity against the test organisms while fractions C (9-10) recorded 7.50 and 3.50 mm against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli </em>only at the maximum concentration of 100mg/mL. However, fractions B (3-8) conspicuously gave zones of inhibitions far higher than the other fractions. This study has shown that the roots extract of <em>E. graminea</em> has higher antimicrobial activities more than the stems, further justifying the ethno-botanical potentials of the plant in treating skin infections.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Protective Effect of Ethanol Extract of Annona Muricata Leaves on Hematological Profile, Histology and Oxidative Stress in 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Rats 2023-02-26T16:32:06+00:00 O. M. Olude F. A. Omoregie O. J. Chukwu <p>Cancer starts when cells in the body start to grow out of control (malignant growth). Colorectal cancer starts in the colon or the rectum. <em>Annona Muricata </em>is a medicinal plant and is considered as a basis for health preservation and care worldwide. Colorectal cancer has reached epidemic proportions and is considered as a serious health problem, therefore treatment and cure of this disease is of great clinical importance. 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a potent carcinogen for colon cancer in rats. In this study, rats were randomly allocated into six groups: control, extract alone, DMH, extract and DMH together, extract before DMH, DMH before extract. DMH was injected subcutaneously at 25mg/1000g body weight once a week for 16 weeks, while the ethanol extract of <em>Annona muricata</em> leaves (EEAML) were administered to rats orally at 120mg/1000g. After sacrifice, colon and liver sections were dissected out for histological and some biochemical analysis. Blood was also collected in EDTA bottles for hematological assays. The group injected with DMH (subcutaneously) and orally administered leaves extract of <em>A. Muricata</em> simultaneously showed similar results with the rats fed with normal feed, as there was absence of polyps in the rats’ colon when compared with those injected with DMH alone for 16 weeks. Malondialdehyde level of rats injected with DMH were significantly increased (p ˂ 0.05) compared to the control. Hematology indices and caspase 3 activity show the protective effects of EEAML against DMH.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Indoor Air Quality of Beauty Salons in Commercial and Residential Areas of Camp, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria 2023-02-26T16:28:58+00:00 Y. M. Tijani A. O. James O. Oguntoke F. F. Oyebanji <p>Growing increase of beauty salons and exposure to associated chemical substances present serious concern of chemical hazards and health problems. This study assessed indoor air quality (IAQ) of selected beauty salons in commercial and residential areas of Camp settlement in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria using Aeroqual GasSensing Monitor and WindMate<strong>® </strong>Weather Station. Human thermal sensation (HTS) was computed using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) Indices. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed TVOC exceeded permissible exposure limit (0.2 mg/m<sup>3</sup>) in all salons and critical safe level (2500 ppm) for CO<sub>2</sub> was exceeded in one-third. Exceedance was observed in less than one-third of salons for P.M<sub>2.5 </sub>and P.M<sub>10</sub>, due to varying activities taking place per time, and location differences. Where detected, H<sub>2</sub>S was below permissible limit (1.4 mg/m<sup>3</sup>). HTS was above the acceptable thermal comfort levels (PMV: ±0.5; PPD: &lt;10%) in all salons. Generally, the IAQ indicates prevalence of inadequate ventilation, and portends increased exposure risk to hazardous chemical substances associated with salon activities. Therefore, formulation of policy, stipulating minimum operating standards and enforcement, alongside enlightenment campaign are necessary to promote human safety and prevent escalation of chemical related hazards in salons.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A Note on Hidden Markov Models with Application to Criminal Intelligence 2023-02-26T18:29:39+00:00 P. Osatohanmwen M. S. Omotayo-Tomo F. O. Oyegue V. Mazona F. Ewere A. Bilesanmi N. L. Osawe <p>Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which fall under the class of latent variable models have received widespread attention in many fields of applications. HMMs were initially developed and applied within the context of speech recognition. The theoretical framework underpinning the formalism of HMMs has also evolved over time and has found an exalted place in the theory of stochastic processes.&nbsp; The three problems HMMs are used to resolve were discussed alongside their solutions in this paper. An application to criminal intelligence in unraveling the culprit in a situation involving theft was also carried out and results obtained indicated that the HMMs approach offered a similar result with that of the well-established Dynamic Programming approach.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Adsorption of Methyl Orange and Amoxicillin from Water using Metal-organic Framework Prepared from Solvothermal Mixing of Zn ions and 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid Moieties 2023-02-26T18:51:57+00:00 S. Ukachuku D. E. Amaebi C. I. Dike <p>In this study, we determined the capacity of metal organic framework, which we prepared by the solvothermal mixing of Zn ions and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (Zn/BDC) moieties to adsorb methyl orange (MO), and amoxicillin (AMX). Results obtained show that MO and AMX adsorption capacity by Zn/BDC (mg/g) was found to increase with increase in solution concentration, for each contaminant type. Three isotherm models were applied to the adsorption data: Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin.&nbsp; R<sup>2</sup> values obtained for the adsorption of MO, 0.9778, 0.8589 and 0.9038 for Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin plots respectively, indicates that all three models fit the adsorption data appreciably good, with the Freundlich isotherm providing the best fit. Those for AMX, 0.6737, 0.0616, and 0.5300 indicated a poor fit, but the Freundlich isotherm came out as best fitting isotherm for AMX, an indication of a multilayer adsorption process. Maximum possible amount of contaminant adsorbed per gram of Zn/BDC deduced from the Langmuir isotherm for the adsorption of both contaminants were 93.46 mg/g and 18.41 mg/g for MO and AMX respectively. This, among other indicators, showed the preference of Zn/BDC for MO relative to AMX. Adsorption kinetic models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion models, gave R<sup>2 </sup>values that indicate that intraparticle diffusion dominated the adsorption of MO, while the adsorption of AMX followed pseudo second order kinetics, an indicator of chemisorptive mechanism. Calculated Q<sub>e </sub>values, were in close agreement with experimental values.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Good Agricultural Practices Could Help to Attain Environmental Sustainability in Ginger Production in Nigeria 2023-02-27T21:06:53+00:00 A. O. Olaniyi <p>This review was undertaken to identify the specific market requirements of major international buyers of Nigerian ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) and how adoption of good agricultural practices (GAP) could help to attain these standards. The paper carefully discussed the standards and compliance requirements for Nigerian ginger meant for export, review the activities of the agencies responsible for monitoring and ensuring compliance with the standards and concluded by evaluating how good agricultural practices (GAPS) could help to attain environmental sustainability in ginger production. Given that the GAPs certification is the precondition for admission of produce’s sale in the international markets, adoption of GAPs such as soil and water resources management, improved land use management, restoration of degraded land, biodiversity conservation, integrated pest and fertilizer management amongst other agronomic practices would be necessary to attain these standards. However, current challenges in the adoption and application of GAP in ginger value chain in Nigeria include poor farming and marketing practices, lack of knowledge of the principles, practices and protocols of GAPs, lack of awareness on the availability of premium prices for organically - produced ginger, inadequacy of organic farm inputs, availability of diverse country specific standards, make it difficult for farmers to meet the GAP standards. These challenges notwithstanding, organization of Nigerian ginger farmers into easily accessible and manageable clusters/cooperatives is one of the major ways of addressing the challenges of adoption of GAPs in the ginger value chain.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Alchornea cordifolia 2023-02-27T21:12:24+00:00 O. Oruka F. I. Achuba <p>The present study was undertaken to evaluate antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Alchornea cordifolia </em>by <em>in vitro </em>methods. The aqueous extract is prepared by dissolving ground plant materials (100g) in 1 L of distilled for 48 hours, filtered, and then dried using rotary evaporator before it was used for the pharmacological investigations. Standard phytochemical methods were used to test for the presence of phytoactive compounds in the leaf, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were also assayed for using various methods. The qualitative screening of the phytochemical constituents of the aqueous extracts of <em>Alchornea cordifolia </em>leaves showed the presence of Phenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides while the quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannin, alkaloid, flavonoids and phenol. Tannins had the highest concentration, while the lowest was flavonoids. The in-vitro antioxidant study revealed that aqueous leaf extract of <em>Alchornea cordifolia </em>possesses antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner against&nbsp; DPPH, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide&nbsp; activity while the outcome of the <em>in-vitro </em>anti-inflammatory assay revealed&nbsp; that the antiproteinase, membrane stabilization and albumin denaturation activities of the extracts&nbsp; significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased in a concentration-dependent&nbsp; manner. In conclusion, the leaf of <em>Alchornea cordifolia </em>is rich in phytochemical substances. This could be responsible for the in-vitro antioxidants and anti-inflammatory activities.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of Excess Insecticide Application on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Seeds by responses of Colonized Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) 2023-02-27T21:39:25+00:00 I. M. Salihu N. J. Dadi-Mahmud Y. Audu U. I. Hamza M. Isah I. K. Olayemi <p>This study was designed to determine the effect of excess insecticide application on stored cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em>) seeds sourced from Lapai market, Niger State, Nigeria using appropriate standard techniques. The effect quantum was using cowpea weevil (<em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em>) as Biomarker. Result obtained show that lethal concentration of insecticide significantly (P &lt; 0.05) affected duration of immature development, with highest concentration increasing the duration of larval development significantly. Larval and pupal mortality (11.20±1.24 and 67.20±4.65; 8.04±0.44 and 36.20±2.11 for negative control and highest treated concentration respectively) were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) affected by increase in insecticide concentration. Mean temperature and relative humidity (28.77±1.2 and 35.88±5.14 respectively) of the immediate stored cowpea environment were within the ambient condition. Protein and Carbohydrate were the two proximate composition that varied significantly as a result of insecticide application. Cowpea weevil have shown a great potential of serving as a potential bio-markers of insecticide contamination of stored cowpea seeds in storage. Further research on similar and other biological effects of abused insecticide on colonizing weevil should be carried out in and outside laboratory condition.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Transforming Nigeria Food System: The Role of Agroforestry 2023-02-27T21:49:51+00:00 G. I. Otiwa B. O. Adaaja E. Y. Zaman A. Z. Haruna E. O. Oloyede N. N. Akemien <p>It has been generally established that the global food system needs to be transformed urgently, in order to meet the growing demand for food, feed and fodder. Agroforestry is a type of farming system that combines trees/shrubs with crops with the objective of enjoying a mutual benefit that enhances productivity, profitability and biodiversity, which at the moment is unpopular in Nigeria. Therefore the objective of this paper is to provide relevant information on the role of agroforestry in transforming the Nigerian food system. Some of the agroforestry technologies which can be used to achieve its mutual benefit include taungya system, home garden, alley cropping, improved fallow, woodlots, live fences, fodder banks, orchards or tree gardens, windbreaks, shelterbelts, trees on pasture and apiculture with trees. Planting trees as a component of crop farming is a smart way to achieve multiple purposes with a single enterprise. Planting multipurpose trees in a world affected by climate change can decelerate the negative impact of anthropogenic cause of climate change, while providing food for humanity. Hence, the paper also review the roles of agroforestry in the global fight against climate change, while also ensuring food security through food system transformation.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Microorganisms in Soil and Groundwater of Epe and Laje Solid Waste Dumpsites in Ondo Town, Nigeria 2023-02-27T21:57:53+00:00 I. A. Simon-Oke O. O. Oladele O. E. Dada <p>The menace of open dumps is a serious concern in Nigeria because of its associated health hazards.&nbsp; In this work, microorganisms in soil and groundwater of Epe and Laje dumpsites which are two major dumpsites in Ondo metropolis, Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. Bacteria isolates were later identified based on their colonial morphology, cellular morphology and their biochemical characteristics while cotton in blue lactophenol technique was used for fungal identification. Epe had higher bacteria counts (cfu/ml) in both top soil (122.0 ×10<sup>6</sup>) and subsoil (72.0 ×10<sup>6</sup>) when compared with bacteria counts in Laje top soil (97.0 ×10<sup>6</sup>) and subsoil (52.0 ×10<sup>6</sup>). Similarly, Epe also had higher fungi counts (sfu/ml) in both top (25.5× 10<sup>6</sup>) and subsoil (11.5× 10<sup>6</sup>), comparably with fungi counts in Laje top soil (17.0×10<sup>6</sup>) and subsoil (9.5×10<sup>6)</sup>). Meanwhile, total heterotrophic bacteria counts (cfu/ml) of the ground water samples was higher in Epe (42.0 x10<sup>6</sup> ) and Laje (27.0x10<sup>6</sup>) in comparison with total heterotrophic fungi count (sfu/ml) in Epe (14.0x10<sup>6</sup>) and Laje groundwater samples (10.5x10<sup>6</sup>). Identified isolates included <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus </em>spp, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Micrococcus luteus, Proteus </em>spp (bacteria) and <em>Mucor</em> spp<em>, Aspergillus niger </em>and <em>Fusarium</em> spp (fungi). Remarkably, these isolates are organisms of medical importance, suggesting serious health threats to the residents around the dumpsites.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Occurrence and Diversity of Biofilm Producing Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli in Dug Wells Used for Domestic Purposes in Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria 2023-02-27T22:07:53+00:00 B. Odetoyin <p>Antibiotic resistance in <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> has emerged as a serious and growing threat to public and environmental health and domestic wells have been fingered as a potential reservoir of resistant <em>E. coli</em> due to faecal contamination, and are ideal for microbial biofilm formation. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate biofilm production among 60 multidrug-resistant (MDR) <em>E. coli</em> recovered from domestic wells in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All biofilm positive isolates were screened for seven associated (<em>papC, iroN, biofilm, fimH, cna, fbna</em> and <em>bcsa</em>) genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diversity of the isolates was investigated using (GTG)5-PCR, and a dendrogram was drawn with interactive-tree-of-life software. Overall, 45 of 60 (75%) isolates produced biofilms, comprising strong (n=15; 25%), moderate (n=16; 26.7%), and weak (n=14; 23.3%) producers. Moreover, 35 (77.8%) isolates had at least one biofilm gene, 30 (66.7%) had multiple genes, and 5 (11.1%) had one. The biofilm gene (<em>biofilm, fimH, bcsa, iroN</em>) combination was identified in 10 (28.7%) of the 60 isolates. The isolates (n=14; 40%) with moderate biofilm production had the highest number of genes dominated by the biofilm gene (<em>biofilm</em>, <em>fimH, bcsa</em>) combination, while isolates (n=8; 22.9%) with weak production had the least number of genes and comprised mainly the <em>fimH</em> and <em>cna</em> gene combination. The biofilm formers showed 32 distinct fingerprints and were grouped into nine clades, with clade 6 having the most strains (31.6%). The occurrence of MDR biofilm-producing organisms in domestic wells constitutes a public health concern. There is a need to develop strategies to curb faecal contamination of wells to prevent outbreaks of untreatable diseases.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Developing a Mathematical Formula that can Calculate the Density of MoO3-B2O3-Bi2O3 Glass System from Weight Percentages of its Components 2023-02-27T22:15:13+00:00 M. Alhassan M. Usman S. I. Muazu <p>Research on glass systems for radiation shielding involves the fabrication of different samples in a sequential manner. In order to determine their shielding properties their densities have to be found experimentally. This procedure causes time and capital consumption and is associated with health risk due to the biological harms of some chemicals involved in it. Therefore, the objective of this work is to reduce the cost, time and health risks by developing a mathematical model to calculate the density of MoO<sub>3</sub> - B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> - Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> glass system from weight percentages of its components using Phy-X/PSD software and Python Programming. The input needed are the densities and percentage weights of the constituent components. The coding made in Python programming language to test the formula shows its ability to reproduce or predict densities of the required samples of this glass system with accuracy within 99.59 – 99.88%. Therefore, making use of this formula will simplify the difficulty of refabricating glasses defined by the expression yMoO<sub>3</sub> - xB<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> - (100 – y – x) Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> for research purposes, which will reduce the financial cost and health risks.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Phytochemical Evaluation of Different Solvent Extracts of Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Stalk 2023-02-27T22:34:10+00:00 J. E. Ofere F. I. Achuba <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the proximate composition, mineral content and phytochemical constituents of <em>Ananas comosus</em> stalks using distilled water, methanol, ethanol, chloroform and petroleum ether as extraction solvents. Analysis of minerals present in the different extracts of the stalk of <em>A. comosus</em> revealed that the aqueous extract had the highest concentration of sodium, magnesium, zinc, tin, molybdenum and manganese while the lowest was found in petroleum ether extract. Methanol extract had the highest concentration of potassium, iron and copper. The result of the physicochemical analysis of the stalk of <em>A. comosus</em> revealed that the stalk was high in nitrogen free extract (58.74±1.13 %). However, ether extract had the least value (1.12±0.20 %). Qualitative phytochemical screening of <em>A. comosus </em>stalk extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloid and terpenes. Quantitative evaluation of the phytoconstituents revealed that flavonoids and phenol were highest in petroleum ether extracts (2.74±0.02 mg/kg and 2.73±0.02 mg/kg) while alkaloids concentration was highest in the ethanol extract (1.78±0.01 mg/ml). The study found that <em>Ananas comosus</em> stalk extracts had a good amount of micronutrients according to the various criteria examined; the high ash content also supports this finding. The study showed that the stalk of <em>A. comosus</em> is a good source of important phytochemicals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of La2O3 Additive on the Radiation Shielding Properties of Cobalt-doped Borate Glasses 2023-02-27T22:42:48+00:00 M. Alhassan H. A. Ibrahim S. I. Muazu <p>Radiation protection becomes a necessary action in radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and other institutions which make use of radiation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the radiation protection features of cobalt-doped borate glass with La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> additive. The glasses named here as S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol% of La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>respectively were assessed for their Linear Attenuation Coefficient, LAC, Mass Attenuation Coefficient, MAC, Half value Layer, HVL and Effective Atomic Number Z<sub>eff</sub>. We found that the glasses have LAC, MAC and Z<sub>eff</sub> higher than ordinary concrete and Ilmenite concrete, especially S3 which has the concentration of 1 mol% of La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and has lowest HVL at lower energies below 0.1 MeV and above 4 MeV than the other samples, and also found that S5 with 2 mol% of La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>is more advantageous for energy range 0.1 - 4 MeV. We therefore concluded the applicability of these glasses for radiation shielding and that the addition of La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> increases their radiation protection features.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Proximate, Electrolyte and Biochemical Profile of Rabbits Fed with Tridax procumbens Residue Meal in Replacement of Vitamins and Minerals in Lapai Niger state Nigeria 2023-03-08T20:02:57+00:00 I. Yahaya Y. Ndatsu A. Yunusa A. I. Musa A. Uthman M. Amina M. Khadijah H. Abdulkarim I. Obewa <p>Proximate, electrolyte and biochemical profile of rabbits fed with Tridax residue meal replacing Vitamin and Mineral were evaluated in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria using standard techniques. The dietary treatments evaluated were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 0% inclusion level of Tridax. The results obtained did not follow any pattern except Urea, Globulin and Creatinine which had significant (P&lt;0.05) decrease in the serum biochemical profile. The highest value for crude fat was seen in feed3 with value of 11.33±0.30 and the lowest was recorded in the control feed with value of 10.38±0.21. There was no significant difference in crude protein between feeds 1 and 2 with values of 58.13±0.15 and 56.13±0. 15 but feeds feeds3, 4 and the control feed showed significant difference at (P&lt;0.05) The result of Chloride shows no significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in feeds1, 2 and 3, with values of 7.26±0.96, 7.25 ±3.74 and 7.55±4.81 also feeds4 and the control feed shows no significant difference with values of 6.55±2.67 and 6.46 ± 0.96 but there is significant difference between feeds1, 2, 3 and feeds4 and control feed. The prepared feed supplemented with 20 and 40% Tridax is promising compared to others, hence could be used as a supplement in the feed of rabbit which can be consumed in place of red meat. Also the low cholesterol level in the feeds makes it idle for people with cardiovascular related problem. Thus, the cost of production of feed can be reduced using Tridax plant as a substitute for Vitamin and mineral premix. It is recommended that further studies on the optimum level of inclusion of Tridax plant to be established.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soil using Calcium Phosphate Amendment and Phosphate-solubilizing Fungi (Penicillium sp) in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria 2023-02-27T23:02:53+00:00 C. O. Eigbike A. K. Salihu <p>Soil is a limited resource that is continually contaminated by the presence of heavy metals as a result of human activities. This study used a combination of calcium phosphate amendment and phosphate-solubilizing fungi to immobilize heavy metals in polluted soil. Bovine bones were collected at an Abattoir Market in Aduwawa, Benin City, Nigeria with coordinates 6°22’6.24” N and 5°41’0.24” E and calcined to extract calcium-phosphate (hydroxyapatite), serial dilution and plating on Pikovskaya medium were utilized to obtain fungi extract from fertile soil. Prior to remediation, heavy metal analysis of polluted soil indicated high value of metal concentrations zinc 120.60mg/kg, chromium 22.67 mg/kg, cadmium 11.23 mg/kg, lead 18.43 mg/kg, iron 187.27 mg/kg and nickel 10.62 mg/kg above the World Health Organization permissible limit. There was a decrease in zinc and iron contents after the first week of treatment. The second week demonstrated a significant decrease in all metal concentrations; 27.53% for Zn, Cr 39.83%, Cd 46.13%, Pb 7.60%, Fe 46.26% and Ni 15.07% – indicating the treatment’s effectiveness.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Influence of Water Insoluble Fractions of Crude Oil on Physicochemical Properties and Microbes of Soil Obtained From a Tertiary Institution in Benin City, Nigeria 2023-02-28T18:46:12+00:00 G. E. Ogbeide G. E. Eriyamremu <p>The global use of petroleum hydrocarbon for domestic and industrial purposes has necessitated the occurrence of the contamination of the living and non-living components of the environment. This study investigated the influence of water insoluble fractions of crude oil on physicochemical properties and microbes of soil obtained from a tertiary institution in Benin City, Nigeria using standard procedures. The result for soil physicochemical properties showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in total hydrocarbon, nitrate, phosphate and sodium ion, however nitrate ion decreased in day 28 and 42. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, potassium and magnesium ion concentration significantly decreased, although with very minute variations. Soil bacteria and fungi count also decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05), with some variation in fungi count (p ≤ 0.05). The result suggest that treatment with water insoluble fraction of crude oil induced changes in the soil physicochemical and microbial component, which infers alterations in soil structure and component. This could negatively affect plant cultivation and growth, as well as animals and human that consume contaminated plants. Oil contamination should therefore be avoided or properly managed to prevent its detrimental effect on the non-ling and living soil component.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Pre-treatment, Germination and Growth Performance of Detarium microcarpum Seeds in three Planting Media 2023-02-28T19:06:41+00:00 G. Dachung A. B. Tyolumun D. O. Ekhuemelo <p>Effect of 20%, 40% and 60% sulphuric acid concentrations on the pretreatment of <em>Detarium microcarpum</em> and seedling growth was studied using standard techniques. Seeds were collected and tested by floating. Results showed that seeds treated with 40% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>for 10 and 30 mins planted in river sand; 60% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> for 30 mins planted in top soil and those planted in untreated seeds had the highest (4) germination. Germination percentage of was highest (80%) with 40% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>treated seeds for 10 and 30 mins planted in river sand; control (river sand, river sand + top soil); 20% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>for 10 mins planted in top soil and 60% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>for 30 mins planted in river sand. Emergence index and emergence rate index of seeds followed same trend as germination percentage of seeds. The highest mean (16 cm) height of <em>seedling</em>s was recorded from river sand without H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> seed treatment (control).Mean values of collar diameter, leaf area and number of leaves also follow same trend of<em>seedling</em> height. There were no significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) in seedling height, collar diameter, leaf area and number of leaves among seeds grown in different media and control. Seeds treated with 40% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>and plated in river sand had the highest number of germinations and river sand was the best media of growth.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of Addition of Carpet Waste Fibres on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soils Samples from Umutu, Agbor and Obiaruku in Delta State, Nigeria 2023-02-28T22:36:53+00:00 N. Kayode-Ojo E. C. Eteure <p>With the latest trend in the beautification of most homes and offices, there has been a great shift from the use of carpets to floor tile and as such most of these carpets have become waste and causing environmental pollution. Therefore the objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of adding carpet waste fibre on unconfined comprehensive strength of cohesive soil samples from Umutu, Agbor and Obiaruku in Delta State, Nigeria using standard techniques. The results showed that the maximum dry&nbsp; density (MDD) of the natural soil samples from Umutu, Agbor and Obiaruku &nbsp;were 1.76g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 1.73 g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 1.72 g/cm<sup>3</sup> respectively while their respective OMC were 13.6%, 13.86% and 14.2%. The UCS of the natural soil samples were 68.6kN/m<sup>2</sup>, 73.77kN/m<sup>2</sup> and 76.69kN/m<sup>2</sup> respectively. The MDD decreased from 1.73 g/cm<sup>3</sup> to 1.675g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 1.72g/cm<sup>3</sup> to 1.66g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 1.71 g/cm<sup>3</sup> to 1.63 g/cm<sup>3</sup> when the natural soils from these study areas respectively were compacted with 0.1% to 0.4% fibre content. Also, the OMC from the respective soils-fibre mix increased from 13.8% to 19.0%, 16.0% to 19.6% and 14.9% to 19.2% respectively. The UCS for the respective soil-fibre mix decreased from 60.38kN/m<sup>2</sup> to 52.65kN/m<sup>2</sup>, 66.28kN/m<sup>2</sup> to 57.70kN/m<sup>2</sup> and72.39kN/m<sup>2</sup> to 57.27kN/m<sup>2</sup>. Hence, the study showed that the addition of fibre to natural soil decreases the strength of the soil.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Some Physical Properties and Bacteriological Evaluation of Raw Landfill Leachate from Gosa Landfill in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria 2023-02-28T22:44:58+00:00 Z. J. Nasir S. S. D. Mohammed G. Mangse <p>The physical and bacteriological evaluation of raw landfill leachate from Gosa Landfill in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria was carried out in this study using standard procedures. The probable bacteria identified from the biochemical tests of isolated samples were <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and</em> <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. However, molecular characterization involving sequencing and BLAST further confirmed the bacteria present. This study concludes that the bio filter produced from Coco peat and Ash affects both the physicochemical properties and bacteriological flora of raw landfill leachate through degradation.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)