Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. en-US Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 1119-8362 JASEM has joined the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Therefore articles in JASEM are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Burden of Under-Nutrition amongst Adolescents in Uyo Urban Community, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>This study investigates the burden of under-nutrition amongst adolescents in Uyo Urban community in Akwa Ibom state, using standard methods and conducted between June 2017 and May 2019 amongst adolescents aged 10-18 years in secondary schools in Uyo by measuring weight, height, as well as determination of BMI Z-scores and Z-scores of height of children. Data obtained revealed that 167(9.8%) of the total respondents were stunted while 219(12.9%) were wasted. 101(60.8%) of the males were stunted while 66(39.8%) of the females were wasted. There was a significant association between the age, sex and under-nutrition (p=0.007).This study showed a high prevalence of stunting and wasting amongst adolescent in Uyo.</p> I.K. Akhimienho N.E. Uwaibi Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 2 181 186 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.1 Design and Construction of Redox Flow Battery using Liquid Extract from Morinda Lucida Leaves <p>The research is focused on the use of a liquid extract from morinda lucida leaves as electrolyte in the construction of a redox flow battery using fired clay pot as the separating medium. After the Soxhlet extraction, each of the liquid electrolyte was stored in a container for each half-cell, and the electrode was dipped into the electrolyte. For cell testing and charging, a wire was connected to the top of the electrodes. A 3V battery was used to charge the cell, a maximum discharge voltage of 1.31V and a maximum discharge current of 13mA were recorded from the battery testing results. Results showed that the liquid extract from morinda lucida leaves as a good conductor of electricity and a suitable electrolyte for a redox flow battery.</p> A.S. Adewuyi J.R. Akinrele Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 2 187 190 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.2 Optimization of Absorber Layer and Operating Temperature of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Solar Cells Using Different Metal Contacts <p>Device simulation was employed to investigate the effect of metal back contact electrodes on the performance of n-type CdS/p-CIGS thin film solar cells using varying thicknesses of absorber layer at operating temperature of 300K. The effect of working temperatures was also studied from 300K to 400K in steps of 10K. The simulations were carried out using standard solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS) 3.3.03 version software. The results showed better efficiencies at the optimized thickness of 3µm for all the back contact electrodes under study. The maximum efficiencies of 17.5 %, 15.5 %, 11.5 %, 3.5 % and 3 % were estimated for CIGS thin film solar cell at 300 K for platinum, gold, cobalt, silver and copper back contact electrodes respectively. The efficiency decreases as the operating temperatures increases from 300 K to 400 K. It is recommended that the optimized thickness of 3 µm is appropriate as absorber layer for efficient and cost effective CIGS thin film solar cells for economic reasons.</p> M.A. Salawu J.B. Lawrence S.C. Ezike S. Muhammad O. Osanyinlusi A.B. Alabi Copyright (c) 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 26 2 191 195 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.3 Effect of Boiling, Oven Drying and Roasting On the Proximate Composition and Microbial Loads of Cane Rat <p>The study examined the effect of proximate composition, mineral and microbial loads of cane rat (<em>Thryonomys swindarianus</em>) meat of different processing methods. Three (3) live adult cane rats were purchased from reputable cane rat domestication farm in Abeokuta and transported to the wildlife laboratory of the Federal University of Agriculture where the samples were slaughtered and subjected roasting, boiling and oven drying. Small piece of each processed cane rat meat was extracted and placed in sterile plastic containers for proximate, mineral and microbial loads for three (3) consecutive days. The standard procedure described by Holt <em>et al</em>., (1994) method was used for the analysis of moisture content, crude protein, total available carbohydrate and ash. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using least significant difference to separate the means and line graph was used for the microbial count. The results showed that from day 1 to day 3 oven dried meat had the highest ash, F. extract, C. protein and C. fat content compared with other processing methods. In the same vein, high potassium, iron and magnesium content was recorded in oven dry cane rat. Furthermore, there are presence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Salmonella spp </em>and<em> Escherichia coli</em> in the meat samples which can cause serious health problems. To encourage sustainable utilization of bush meat consumption in urban and rural areas, oven dried bush meat is the most appropriate method of processing, this should be used and encourage by the seller.</p> T.K. Adebowale O.A. Akintunde O.O. Oduntan K.B. Fakunle Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 197 202 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.4 Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in an Artisanal Gold Mining Community of Kogi State, Nigeria <p>Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is known to improve the standard of living in the host communities and economic performance of countries involved. However, despite the positive impact on the economy, ASGM is a significant point source of uncontrolled mobilization of hazardous chemicals, notably heavy metals into the environmental media such as soil, air and water. This study assessed human health risk of exposure to heavy metals in soil around artisanal gold mining in Ike community of Kogi State. Twelve (12) soil samples obtained from the gold mining area were analysed for heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Measured concentrations of these metals were used to calculate health risk of children and adults using health risk assessment models. The results showed that mean values of heavy metal concentrations in the soil reflected low metal load (&lt;1) with decreasing order of As&gt;Pb&gt;Zn&gt;Ni&gt;Cd. The results obtained from analysis of noncarcinogenic risk demonstrated that hazard index values of various heavy metals for three exposure pathways (ingestion, dermal and inhalational) were &lt; 1 for children and adults populations. However, As recorded hazard index values &gt; 1 for ingestion pathway for both populations. It was found that As recorded carcinogenic risk of 1.85E-03 for children and 9.86E-04 for adults and Cd recorded 4.67E-04 for children. These values exceeded the safety limit, ranging from 1E-06 to 1E-04, as stated by US Environmental Protection Agency. The study showed that As might pose carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for both populations. Also, Cd might pose carcinogenic risk for children. Hence, As and Cd would be regarded as elements of serious concern in the study area.</p> O.M. Abutu I.L. Shuneba E.N. Shu Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 202 209 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.5 Geospatial Evaluation of Open Defecation Indicators from Across the 36 States and Federal Capital Territory in Abuja, Nigeria <p>This paper analyzes the geoSpatial serial correlations of open defecation indicators such as water availability, unimproved sanitation, literacy level and Gini coefficient from across the 36 states and FCT Abuja in Nigeria for 2018. It examines the relationship that may exist between open defecation and each of the indicators considered. The various spatial model selection diagnostic tests conducted revealed that the Spatial Lag Model is the most appropriate predicting model having the minimum values from some information criteria, results show that the global Moran’s I values of open defecation is below 0.2, and spatial lag coefficient is -0.0243, this shows that open defecation in Nigeria decreases by 0.0243% for each additional 1% of water availability and other factors in the neighboring states. The results also show that unimproved sanitation is the only significant predictor for open defecation challenge in Nigeria, based on the available data. The states with highest proportion of open defecation are Kogi, Plateau, and Bayelsa, while states with the lowest include Katsina, Abia, and Akwa-Ibom. This paper provides beneficial policy recommendations for reducing open defecation in Nigeria and areas of focus towards achieving the national vision of making Nigeria open defecation Free by 2025.</p> I.O. Ajao C.A. Odeyemi O.S. Obafemi Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 211 218 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.6 Assessment of Flood Risk and Mapping of Flood Risk Zones in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria <p>In recent years, most Nigerian cities have experienced several major flood episodes with serious catastrophes. Hence, this study was carried out to assess and map flood risk zones in Yenagoa. The Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies were used in generating and analyzing data to identify the different flood risk zones in Yenagoa. Environmental indices such as flood heights, land elevation and land cover images were analyzed using geo-statistical tools such as map overlay operations to produce a flood risk map. The flood risk map produced and the ground truthing carried out confirmed that the highest flood risk are located within residential areas where about 32% of the built-up area was vulnerable to moderate or high risk of flooding. The study revealed that both natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the severe flooding experienced in Yenagoa, especially due to heavy precipitation, elevation of the area, poor waste disposal, and inadequate urban development control amongst other factors. The city was classified into three flood risk zones-high, moderate and low, with about 48% of the area being either at moderate or high risk of flooding. It is therefore recommended that the Ministry of Physical and Urban Development should carryout proper urban development control, which will prevent building on flood plains, wetlands and natural drainage channels.</p> O.E. Oladimeji O. Ohwo Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 219 226 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.7 Sterilization Method for Reducing Microbial Contamination and Phenolic Compounds present in Coconut (<i>Cocos Nucifera</i> L.) Leaf Culture <p>The aim of the study was to investigate efficient sterilization methods for reducing microbial contamination and phenolic compound of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) leaf culture. The non-chlorophyllous immature coconut leaves explant used were taken from unopened spear leaves tissue of the coconut seedling, from the apical growing regions close to the meristem of the palm sucker of about 15 months old. Murashige and Skoog (MS medium) supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at concentration of 30 mg/L and 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP) at concentration of 1.5 mg/L were used for morphologic responses. Mercuric chloride, ethanol, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite were usedto sterilize the explants at concentrations of 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % and 70-95 % of ethanol for 5 minutes. This was followed by rinsing the explants with distilled water four successive times. The sterilized explants were inoculated on MS media and were incubated at 25±2<sup>o</sup>C in the dark. Results showed that contamination was less in the cultures, particularly in explants sterilized with 70 % ethanol. Although, all the steriliants did well, but ethanol is more preferable than the rest steriliants, in solving both problems.</p> P.A. Nwite E.O. Ohanmu E.P. Aisagbonhi O. Obahiagbon B. Ikhajiagbe Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 227 231 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.8 Diurnal Temperature Range as Index of Climate Change in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria <p>The study focused on determining the Diurnal temperature range trend as an index of climate change in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study relied on remote sensing data- the ERA5 – Temperature, which is the fifth generation reanalysis from ECMWF. The data for the period of forty (40) years was extracted and used to analyze the annual range, diurnal temperature, trend analysis and daily maximum and minimum temperatures. The results shows a decrease in the trend analysis for the decadal and pentad which means that the difference between the daily maximum temperature and daily minimum temperature is no longer wide. However, the trend analysis carried out for the annual DTR shows a positive trend which shows that the Maximum daily temperature is higher than the daily minimum range in the study area. The study recommended for more intense study of DTR in order to stop over generalizing the index of climate change over a macro area.</p> V.A. Agidi H. Ogah C. Ulor G.T. Baleri Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 233 236 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.9 Evaluation of Kaolin as Adsorbent for Chlorine Reduction in Seawater from Forcados/Ogulagha Axis of Southwest Delta State, Nigeria <p>This paper evaluates the use of three Nigerian clay types Otorho (OT, Abbi (BB) and Umutu (UM) as adsorbent for the reduction of chlorine in seawater from (Forcados/Ogulagha aix in Southwest Delta State using XRD X ray diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The alumino silicate nature of the clays was confirmed by the presence of SiO<sub>2</sub> and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and the presence of other elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Ti) in trace quantities. Percolation rate studies showed that clay UN had the lowest while OT had the highest. Clays fortified with stone pebbles in ratios 1:3 in columns in one flow-through and three flow troughs were used in different arrangements. Fortified clay (UM) gave the highest percentage reduction of 99.9%, BB clay 98.0% and OT clay 99.2%. The results showed that clay UM removed &gt;99% of chloride.</p> E.Q. Umudi E. Adaikpo I.E. Obukohwo J. Igborgbor A. Egheneji Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 237 242 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.10 Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Cowpea, Kidney and Sweet Cowpea Beans Sold in Kawo Market, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>Beans are one of the most popular and essential foods in Africa, especially in Nigeria they are highly <br>recommended for its numerous health benefits and nutritional values. The objective of this paper is to assess the proximate and elemental compositions of three (3) varieties of beans (cowpea, kidney and sweet cowpea beans) marketed in Kawo, Kaduna State, Nigeria using standard procedures and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results from this study indicated that the highest results obtained for proximate and elemental analysis in the four (4) samples with the exception of fibre in sweet cowpea beans (2.082%), were found to be: moisture (13.250%), protein (21.420%), Lipids (1.025%), ash (4.814%) in kidney beans while in the case of elemental analysis, the highest concentrations (88.0mg/kg) of Zn was found in (Cowpea bean), (52.5mg/kg) of Mg in sweet cowpea, (75.0mg/kg) of Cu in cowpea beans while Fe (99.5mg/kg) and Ca (99.5mg/kg) were found in kidney beans. All the beans samples analyzed for proximate and elemental analysis from Kawo market are highly nutritious, hence good for human and livestock consumption.</p> B. Muktar A. Ibrahim M. Jibril Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 243 248 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.11 Assessment of Physicochemical Quality of Abattoir-Effluent Impacted Iyi-Etu River and other Water Sources at the Amansea Livestock Market Settlement, Anambra State, Nigeria <p>The pollution load and anthropogenic pressure on different water sources may be reflected in the <br>physicochemical quality evaluation of drinking water sources. This study was undertaken to evaluate the <br>physicochemical quality of the Iyi-Etu River and other water sources such as well and borehole used by the Amansea livestock market settlement for drinking and domestic purpose. A total of 96 (36 river, 12 well, 12 borehole, 12 effluent, and 24 sachet water samples) samples were collected from these sources over 12 months. The water samples were collected using a composite sampling technique and temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids were measured onsite in triplicates using a water quality meter. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids recorded in this study ranged as follows: 23.8-32.6 ˚C, 5.2-8.6, 3.9×10<sup>1</sup> to 3.8×10<sup>3</sup> µS/cm and 1.9×10<sup>1</sup> to 1.9×10<sup>3</sup> mg/L respectively. The mean pH and temperature of all sample types were within WHO standard guidelines for drinking water. All sample types except well and effluent samples were within the limit of WHO guidelines for electrical conductivity of drinking water. Measurements of EC and TDS were lower upstream (112.2 µS/cm; 56.5 mg/L) than downstream 1 (203.3 µS/cm; 108.2 mg/L) and downstream 2 (197.1 µS/cm; 98.1 mg/L). These figures reveal the possible contamination of the Iyi-Etu River with abattoir effluent coming from the Amansea abattoir that is near the river. The Iyi-Etu River and well water are contaminated with different sources of contamination and serve as a public health hazard to all those using it for drinking and or domestic purposes.</p> G.K. Nfor V.N. Chigor M.O. Emurotu I.I. Ibangha L.I. Ezeogu Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 249 254 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.12 Biodegradation of Spent Automobile Engine Oil in Soil Microcosms Amended with Cow Dung <p>The discharge of spent engine oil in terrestrial and aquatic environments constitutes public health and socio-economic hazards. In this study, the potentials of organic waste (cow dung) amendments as biostimulating agents of the indigenous microflora for hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil microcosms deliberately contaminated with spent engine oil (5%v/w) was investigated for a period of 6 weeks. Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of soil samples was determined using standard methods. A microcosm constructed consists of 8 trays containing 1kg of soil, artificially contaminated with 50ml of spent engine oil and treated with 50g, 100g and 150g of cow dung. Spent engine oil degradation was assessed gravimetrically at weekly interval and chromatographically after 6 weeks of biodegradation treatment. Results of the physico-chemical analysis showed that the pH of soil was 6.56 while nitrate, moisture content, phosphate and total organic content were 0.82mg/kg, 9.28%, 0.73mg/kg and 3.60mg/kg respectively. Microbiological analysis of the soil sample showed that the total heterotrophic bacteria were 3.6x106cfu/g, while total heterotrophic fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were 2.2x104cfu/g and 7.9 x104cfu/g respectively. The mean value of the total viable counts (TVC) population of hydrocarbon-utilizers was higher in biostimulated soil which ranged from (2.10x10<sup>5</sup>-5.30x10<sup>9</sup>cfu/g) compared with that of control (1.20x10<sup>5</sup>-3.10x10<sup>8</sup>cfu/g). Residual oil concentration showed a more remarkable decrease throughout the incubation period (0.400-0.259mg/g, 0.420-0.218mg/g and 0.410-0.220mg/g for treatments 1, 2 and 3 respectively) when compared to that of control which ranged from 0.400-0.304mg/g. At the end of 6 weeks of microcosms biodegradation studies, percentage degradations of the spent engine oil were 23.81%, 35.29%, 45.45% and 44.94% for CON, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The result obtained from this study showed that cow dung can be effectively used as a biostimulant during bioremediation of spent engine oil polluted site to enhance biodegradation ability of the indigenous microbial population.</p> C.C. Obi G. Umanu C.P. Anozie H. Umar Copyright (c) 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 26 2 255 263 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.13 Ethnomedicinal Survey and Phytochemical Screening of Plants Used To Treat Epilepsy by Traditional Healers in Etche, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>Epilepsy is one of the oldest recorded medical ailments. Ethnomedicinal survey was carried out to identify and take a detailed list of the medicinal plant species used to treat epilepsy and assess how they are used in Etche Local Government Area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Semi-structured questionnaires were used during the survey to conduct interviews with traditional healers and other knowledgeable individuals on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of epilepsy. Twelve communities were randomly selected while a total of 54 respondents were purposively selected. The respondents consist of 82.5% males and 12.3% females, 43.9% were above 60 years while 28.1% were between 51-60 years. Traditional medicine practitioners (TMP) formed 75.4% of the respondents, primary occupation of other knowledgeable respondents on plants used for epilepsy were civil servants (8.8%), farming and trading (3.5%). A total of 25 medicinal plant species were recorded during the survey. Phytochemical screening was carried out on five medicinal plants based on frequency of mention, the screening showed presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardenolides and carbohydrates. Plant resources employed in the local treatment of epilepsy in Etche were documented. Further research on isolation of active compounds on frequently used plants for epilepsy is encouraged to harness their potentials.</p> M. Suleiman G.O. Alade S.O. Onu A.T. Oladele Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 265 271 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.14 Response of African Yam Bean to Charcoal and Calcium Chloride Treatment in a Crude Oil Polluted Soil <p>The Response of African Yam Bean to charcoal and calcium chloride treatment in a crude oil polluted soil was carried out. 10kg of soil was polluted with 600ml of crude oil and was remediated with 500g of charcoal; the germinated seeds were pre-treated with 25g/l of Calcium chloride for 15mins before it was sown. The different treatments were: Control, 6% pollution, 6% pollution and charcoal, Charcoal only, Pre-treatment with calcium chloride, Pre-treatment with calcium chloride and 6% pollution, Pre-treatment with calcium chloride and 6% pollution and charcoal, Pre-treatment with calcium chloride and charcoal. Results showed that crude oil pollution impacted negatively on the parameters studied, the addition of materials (Charcoal and Calcium chloride) to the crude oil polluted soil improved the growth of African yam bean. Calcium chloride pre- treatment inhibited the emergence of AYB in a polluted soil. There was a significant difference (P&gt;0.05) in the plant height, leave area, number of leaves, carbohydrate content, stem girth and root length, while treatments had no significant difference in the chlorophyll content and number of roots. The combined treatment (CaCl<sub>2</sub> + Charcoal + pollution) did not show any significant impact on the growth and biochemical parameters when compared to the single treatments therefore; Charcoal and Calcium chloride are very good biostimulants but are more effective when they are applied separately.</p> G.O. Chuku L.A. Akonye P.O. Eremrena Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 273 279 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.15 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles: Characterization and its Biomedical Application <p>In the present time, Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs) have paid considerable attention due to their exclusive applications in terms of surface-to-volume ratio, superparamagnetism, high surface area, biosensor, bio-separation, catalysis, and biomedicine. Our goal was to synthesis iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles by chemical route technique. The preparation method had a very large effect on the size, shape, and surface chemistry of the magnetic nanoparticles including their applications. The iron chloride solution was prepared by mixing deionized water with iron chloride tetrahydrate. The synthesized powder was characterized by XRD, UV-vis, SEM, FT-IR, DLS, FL, and TGA techniques. Moreover, antibacterial activity was evaluated using the synthesized IOMNPs against <em>Escherichia coli</em> (A), <em>Pseudomonas (B), Enterobacter (C), Staphylococcus aureus (D), </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis</em> (E) in the concentration of 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis possess a higher antibacterial activity at the concentration of 0.5 mg comparing the other bacterial species. The outcome of this work would contribute to the present understanding of the biomedical application with the obtained size, shape, and synthesized method.</p> V. Usha E. Amutha E. Pushpalaksmi Jenson J. Samraj S. Rajaduraipandian S. Gandhimathi G. Annadurai Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 287 295 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.16 Techno-Economic Viability Assessment of Standalone Solar PV System for Rural Electric Power Supply <p>The techno-economic analysis emphasizing on energy production and cost of energy from photovoltaic stand-alone system at Umudike in eastern Nigeria was analyzed in this paper. This was carried out by obtaining data on the daily energy consumption of umudike, excess electricity and unmet electric load. The annual average solar irradiation considered in this study was obtained as 4.71kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/day. Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources software was used to perform the technical and economic analysis of the stand-alone system in Umudike to ensure generation of uninterrupted power supply and to meet its energy demands, a photovoltaic system of 78.2 kW should be installed at a net present cost of $442,683 and an initial capital cost of $330,211. The photovoltaic stand-alone system will help to proffer solution to the daily power outages lasting several hours in Umudike. The photovoltaic Standalone System is a good source of continuous power generation, as it reduces combustion of fossil fuels and the consequent carbon dioxide emission which is the main cause of greenhouse-effect and global warming.</p> I.F. Ikechukwu P. Chibueze Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 287 295 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.17 Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides Residues in Commercial Poultry Feed Samples in Lagos State, Nigeria <p>Pesticides are among Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) used in agricultural practices to increase production efficiency. They enter the food chain, bioaccumulate and are toxic to human, animals and the environment. The presence of pesticide residues in animal feeds has been rarely monitored and reported in Nigeria. This study evaluated the levels of pesticide residues in different brands and types of poultry feeds that are produced, marketed and used in Lagos, Nigeria. Five types of five commonly used commercial brands (25 samples) of poultry feeds were purchased from animal feed markets in Lagos, Nigeria. Simultaneous detection and quantitation of selected thirteen (13) OCPs and eight (8) OPs residues in the feeds was carried out using Gas ChromatographyElectron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) respectively. Results revealed that all the feed samples had multiple pesticide residues levels which ranged from 0.10 - 1.83 mg/kg for OCPs and 0.25 - 6.04 mg/kg for OPs. These values were above the Maximum Residual Limit (MRL). The detected pesticide residues order of violation of the MRL was Methoxychlor &gt; Dieldrin &gt;Endrin ketone for OCPs, and Trichlorfon &gt; Malathion &gt; Diazinon for OPs. There was no significant (p&gt;0.05) differences in the pesticide residues levels among the brands and types of the samples. Present study indicates extensive and unwholesome use of pesticides in the agro industry in Nigeria suggesting need to enforce Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Storage Practices (GSP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and constant monitoring of pesticide residues thereby implementing the Good health and Wellbeing (Goal 3) of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal.</p> A.K. Oluwole-Banjo P. Agina R. Umejiego Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 297 305 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.18 Evaluation of Public-Health Risk of Heavy Metals Contaminants and Physicochemical Parameters in Adulteration Palm Oil Commonly Consumed in Calabar, Nigeria <p>Edible palm oil has been the parity of the human diet from generation to generation and has contributed both to nutrition and health. These studies investigated some selected heavy metals and physicochemical parameters in palm oil. Eleven (11) samples of ready-consumed edible palm oil were bought randomly from the selected market in calabar metropolis. The samples were digested with 25ml of concentrated H2SO4, for heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The physiochemical parameters in selected markets include the following FFA, IV, PV, and protein content were also analyzed using standard methods. The results showed that FFA value range from 9.26 to 12%, Iodine value range from 45.78 to 21.40 MgKOH/g, Peroxide value range from 3.60 to 0.03 Meq/kg, and protein content ranges from 0.06 to 0.2 mg were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in some markets in comparison to the control. The results of heavy metals showed that Zn 8.06±0.06, Cd 1.01±0.05, N 1.00±0.00, C 125.91±0.09, Pb 9.30±0.07 Cobalt, Lead zinc were above the detectable limit of the WHO standard while Cd and Ni were within the permissibility limit. The results obtained from this study indicate that the palm oil sold in calabar metropolis may cause a public health risk if proper monitoring is not maintained by regulatory agencies. Thus, there is a need for improved screening of our local processed palm oil from the time of production to the time of consumption.</p> G.I. Ekpo O.E. Eteng E. Ukeme M. Ekwu S. Bassey F. Uboh Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 307 314 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.19 Phytochemistry, and Effects of <i>Telfairia occidentalis</i> Leaf Extracts on the Growth and Haematological Properties of Wistar Albino Rats <p>Standard protocols were used to assess the biochemistry, phytochemistry, and effects of <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> leaf extracts on the growth and haematological parameters of wistar albino rats. Results revealed ascorbic acid and chlorophyll contents of 158.2+0.7mg/100g and 5.8+0.1mg/100g respectively in fresh leaf samples, while plant extracts contained abundant Tannin, Cardiac glucoside and Flavonoids with moderate amounts of Alkaloid, Saponin and Terpene. Acute toxicity of extracts determined by administering crude ethnaolic extracts intraperitoneally to rats at a dose range of 200mg/kg-1000mg/kg revealed an LD50 of 480 mg/kg. Three fractions (nhexane, ethylacetate and n-butanol) were obtained and screened for rat growth promoting potentials. Results of weight, water intake and feed consumption revealed a net gain of 57.7g (22%) and 30.4g (11%) in weight; increased water intake of 3.9ml (19.7%) and 1.3ml (17%) and increased feed consumption of 1.5g (12.9%) and 1.3g (11.6%) in rats after 28 days treatment with n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions respectively. Studies of haematological potentials of n-butanol fraction of <em>T. occidentalis</em> leaf extracts showed significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in Red Blood cells level (6.19+0.20x10<sup>6</sup>/L), Haemoglobin (18.36+0.84g/dL) and platelet counts (747.33+2.03x10<sup>3</sup>/mL). When compared to other fractions, the butanol fraction had the highest haematological activity, and additional analysis suggested that the bioactive molecule B2b may be responsible for this. The findings suggest that butanol fraction B2b is a safe and potent hematinic capable of alleviating anemic conditions, and they also confirm the use of <em>T. occidentalis</em> leaf decoction in traditional medicine for the treatment of anemia and other blood-related disorders, suggesting that it could be prescribed as an adjunct to dietary and main anemia therapy.</p> I.R. Udosen S.R. Osu Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 317 322 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.20 Assessments of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater Source from Benin Formation Aquifer in and around Dumpsite Environment, and its Impact on Human Health <p>The paper examines the level of exposure and the health risk associated with chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Iron (Fe) in boreholes in and around dumpsite environment of Asoro, Otofure and Ikhueniro in Benin City, Nigeria. Literature review, structured questionnaire, and ArcGIS were applied to achieve the aim of the study. The results show that the level of exposure of the inhabitants of the study communities to Fe in the three sites investigated was R &gt; 1 for adult, teenagers, and children respectively. ArcGIS geospatial map model revealed that heavy metals assessed in the study dissipated in the direction of groundwater flow. Correlation at P &lt; 0.5 confidence level confirmed the influence of the dumpsites on the quality of groundwater sourced in the area. Based on the result, the groundwater in the study area cannot be consumed unless treated.</p> O.M. Omorogieva J.A. Tonjoh O. Brisibe Copyright (c) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 26 2 323 334 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.21 Evaluation of Land use and Land Cover Changes in the Gold Mining Enclaves of Zamfara Sahel, Nigeria <p>Understanding land use and land cover changes and their underlying dynamics is critical to land reclamation and biodiversity management in mining enclaves and deceleration of desertification in the vast Zamfara Sahel of Northwestern Nigeria. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of land cover changes in the gold mining enclaves of Anka, Bukkuyum and Maru Local Government Areas in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Data were aggregated from field trips, remote sensing and geographical information system technologies and archives. Data and satellite images from three time periods of 1987, 2002 and 2020 were used for the analysis. The images were captured on yearly degradation rates of LULC classes within 100m, 200m and 300m of protected areas. Five LULC classes were identified and twenty-five transition classes were mapped out using GIS technology. Analysis shows bare ground/ built-up/rock outcrop LULC class expanded as mining activities had deleterious impacts on the land cover of the enclaves.</p> S.J. Ado B.N. Ejidike B. Adetola O.E. Olaniyi Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 335 342 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.22 Toxic Effect of <i>Abrus Precatorius</i> Seed Aqueous Extract in the Liver of Wistar Rats <p><em> Abrus precatorius</em> seed is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases which include hepatitis, fever and asthma. The effect of <em>Abrus precatorius</em> seeds aqueous extract in the liver of Wistar rats was investigated in this study. The median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of Abrus precatorius seeds aqueous extract was determined via intraperitoneal (i.p.) rout of administration before screening the effect of the extract on the liver. In this study, age matched Wistar rats (180-190 g) were grouped into four with five rats per group. The treatment groups were administered 0.025 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg and 0.10 mg/kg aqueous extract of A. precatorius seeds (i.p) while the control group was administered 10 ml/kg distilled water (i.p) daily for fourteen days. At the end of the study, the activity of enzymes (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) present in the serum and liver homogenate was evaluated. The relative organ (liver) weight (ROW) and the effect of the extract on the histology of the liver were also determined. The results showed that the LD50 of A. precatorius seed was 0.35 mg/kg (i.p). <em>A. precatorius</em> seed extract caused an increase in ROW and in the activity of enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) at 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg when compared with the control. Pathological changes were observed in rat liver of treatment groups. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of <em>A. precatorius</em> seeds could be toxic to the liver and caution should be exercised in its use in traditional medicine.</p> R.M. Sunday Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 343 347 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.23 Evaluation of Seasonal Water Quality of Drinking Water in Six Residential Estates across Ogun State in Nigeria <p>The use of water to satisfy human without any health risk necessitates the need for assessment of&nbsp; potable water quality for human consumption. Water samples were collected across six selected housing estates for two consecutive dry and wet seasons within Ogun State, and their parameters such as TDS, EC, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb and Ni were analysed for quality assessment. On spot analysis was carried out for the in-situ parameters using HANNAH water kit. The water samples were digested in triplicates for each estate, and analysed with AAS for the selected heavy metals (HMs). The obtained data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics, and the obtained values were compared with WHO, NIS and NESREA standards to ascertain the water quality and potability. Concentrations (mg/ L) of the analysed parameters ranged as TDS: 56.00 ± 10.44 to 162.07 ± 9.81, Cd: 0.01 ± 0.00 to 0.16 ± 0.10, Pb: 0.16 ± 0.02 to 1.69 ± 0.10, Fe: 0.04 ± 0.04 to 4.75 ± 0.21, and Ni: 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.85 ± 0.04. The EC (µS/ cm) ranged from 42.82 ± 10.59 to 499.12 ± 31.20. The water quality showed seasonal variations, more polluted in the wet season than dry season, which can be attributed to storage tanks, piping systems and runoff from drainages, residential wastes, and the neighbouring small scale industrial activities. The research suggests water treatment for the consumers to get safe water of potable quality.</p> B.T. Amujo A.T. Towolawi A.A. Adekitan E.E. Odjegba T.T. Abolayo Z.O. Ojekunle Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 349 356 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.24 Computational Studies on Syphilis protease inhibitors <p>Syphilis is caused by a bacterium pathogen called Treponema Pollidum. It is the major cause of deaths among pregnant mothers in the third world nations and the incidence of congenital syphilis cannot be overemphasized. However, antibiotics like Tetracycline have been reported to show tremendous antibacterial activity. Therefore, the anti-syphilis activity of some tetracycline molecules were investigated by molecular docking studies. The protein responsible for the bacterial disease was retrieved from protein data bank and docked against tetracycline compounds. Herein, we calculated several DFT reactivity descriptors for the five Tetracycline molecules at the B3LYP/6–311++G(d,p) level of theory in order to analyze its reactivity in vacuum and solvent phases. Theoretical B3LYP/6-31G (d , p) density functional theory has been employed to examine the electronic properties of donorbridge-acceptor molecular system. Oxytetracycline, metacycline and chlorotetracycline showed high inhibition to the receptor with binding affinity of -9.6 kcal/mol. While tetracycline and anhydrotetracycline showed low inhibition with binding affinity of -7.6 kcal/mol.</p> D.F. Latona Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 357 360 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.25 Prevalence, Sociodemograhic Characteristics and Substance Abuse among Young Persons in Edo State, Nigeria <p>Substance Abuse among youths is a major public health challenge globally. Complications associated with drug abuse include psychiatric disorders, sexual violence, drug dependence and criminal tendencies. The study set out to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics associated with Substance abuse among the young in Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design and multi-stage sampling technique was used with a structured interviewer administered questionnaire among 412 study respondents who gave informed consent. All relevant data such as socio-demographic information, substance abuse was collected and analyzed using SPSS 23. The mean age (SD) of the study subjects was 19.03(3.09) years. The age group with the highest use of drugs was 19-22 years. Among drug abusers, male subjects (10.8%) had a higher rate of substance use compared to females (6.2%). In all, 29(8.3%) of the respondents satisfied the criteria for defining substance abuse. Cannabis was the most named substance abused accounting for 86 (20.9%) followed by alcohol and tramadol respectively (19.7% and 11.2%). Alcohol was the most commonly abused substance accounting for 17(58.6%). This was closely followed by Tramadol 41.4%. 52.4% of the respondents had no knowledge about the definition of substance abuse. About 32.3% of the subjects got information about Substance abuse from friends. The commonest reason for illegal drug use was peer influence which accounted for 50% of the respondents. Majority of the substance abusers (62.5%) who continued to abuse drugs did so because of the euphoric feeling they got from its use. Alcohol is still the most commonly abused substance among young persons in our environment as shown in this study and all effort be made the relevance authorities to control the illicit use of this substance in our society.</p> N.E. Uwaibi E.S. Omozuwa G.E. Agbonrofo-Eboigbe Copyright (c) 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 26 2 361 367 10.4314/jasem.v26i2.26