Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. en-US Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 1119-8362 JASEM has joined the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Therefore articles in JASEM are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Selected Leaf Diseases of Rubber: Symptoms and Control – A Review <p>This paper is a review article with the objective of providing valuable, recent and solid information and critical understanding of symptoms and control of selected leaf diseases of rubber tree (<em>Hevea brasiliensis</em> Muell. Arg) using secondary information and data harvested from previously published studies found online. Data gathered showed that <em>H. brasiliensis</em> is subject to a plethora of economically important diseases mainly of fungal origin, classified as leaf, stem and branch, panel and root disease. Some fundamental causal organisms of leaf diseases in <em>H. brasiliensis </em>includes <em>Pseudocercospora ulei, Oidium heveae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides </em>and<em> Corynespora cassiicola</em>. <em>Corynespora </em>leaf fall caused by <em>Corynespora cassiicola </em>is currently accepted as the leaf disease which causes about 45% of yield loss to rubber in mostly Asian and African continents. The symptoms of South American Leaf Blight (SALB) range from discoloration of lamina to death of tree when untreated. Leaf disease symptoms range from white powdery patches to shriveling and falling off of tender leaves and translucent brownish yellow spots in semi-matured leaves in <em>Oidium</em> leaf disease. <em>Colletotrichum</em> leaf disease symptoms range from necrosis of tender leaves of young plants to defoliation and death of entire plant. Disease control is achieved by the use of chemicals and planting of disease-resistant varieties. Some phylloplane fungi are prospective biological control agents. The best treatment to manage <em>Corynespora </em>leaf fall disease (CLFD) in nurseries is the introduction of overhead shading coupled with application of the fungicide mancozeb. Diseases affecting the leaves of <em>H. brasiliensis </em>can be devastating and can lead to loss of multiple rubber trees and reduction in the latex production of the trees. Therefore, adequate preventive, curative and control measures against the diseases should be taking to ensure maintenance of a healthy rubber tree plantation.</p> O. E. Oghama V. I. Omorusi E. S. Osazuwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2369 2373 Economic Analysis of Waterleaf and Fluted Pumpkin Production in Benin Metropolis, Edo state, Nigeria <p>Vegetable farming operations range from small patches of crops, producing a few vegetables for family use or marketing, to the great highly organized and mechanized farms common in industrialized countries. In parts of Nigeria, waterleaf and fluted pumpkin farming are very important. This study evaluates the economic analysis of waterleaf and fluted pumpkin farming in Benin Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria using well-structured questionnaire. Data obtained revealed mean age of 52 years and 53 years both waterleaf and fluted pumpkin farmers with female having a simple majority of 74.36% and 84.31% for both groups. The result also revealed a fairly equal moderate level of education with majority 56.41% and 58.82% of waterleaf and fluted pumpkin farmers attaining primary school education respectively. The mean farming experience was 6 years for both groups. Furthermore, the study revealed that fluted pumpkin enterprises was more profitable than water leaf, with a net profit of $177.0473 and $324.4252 for waterleaf and fluted pumpkin enterprise respectively. The family labour cost was the only significant factors affecting water leaf production at 5% level probability whilst pesticide cost and size of plot were the two significant factors affecting fluted pumpkin production. It was recommended for farmer of fluted pumpkin enterprise to improvised organic pesticide which will help reduce cost and as well increase their land holding for maximum and profit.</p> O. Igbinidu J. Egbodion Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2375 2379 Prediction of Hardness of Mild Steel Welded Joints in a Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Process using Artificial Neural Network <p>The Hardness of a material is used to quantify its toughness and how reliable it is to withstand load with little or no deformation. High structural integrity in terms of hardness can be predicted if combinations of process parameters and their response pattern can be studied. Hence, the objective of this work is to predict the hardness of mild steel welded joints in a tungsten inert gas welding process using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The central composite design matrix was applied to train the network, while the box-beckhen design matrix were employed to predict the unknown responses. 200 pieces of mild steel coupons measuring 27.5x10x10mm were prepared and used for the experiment, the experiment was performed 20 times, using 5 specimens for each run, after which the hardness was measured and results analyzed respectively. The outcomes obtained indicates ANN capability in predicting the hardness of mild steel welded joints with a p-value less than 0.05, and an R<sup>2</sup> of 87.44 with an allowable system noise of 7.14242.</p> O. O. Ogbeide C. E. Etin-Osa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2381 2386 Effect of Particle Size on Leachate Formation Characteristics from Gold Mine Waste Rocks: At Source Acid Mine Drainage Management in Tanzania <p>Waste rocks from gold mining operations represents a significant environmental burden and impairs sustainable environmental management in developing countries. This study focused on understanding the leachate properties of different particle sizes (&gt;10mm, 20mm, 30mm and 50mm) from the waste rock dump (WRD) - GPAF in the 30 liters containers to represent waste rocks by using quick static testing to determine a more rational design basis for material storage and management. This study found that small particle sizes of waste rocks with &lt;10 mm showed a strong leaching with a low pH of 3.5, while large particle sizes of 50 mm showed a high pH of 6.5. Metal leaching of small particle sizes had a higher concentration of Manganese, Zinc and Iron than large particle size. Similarly, sulphate concentration from leachate of small particle size of waste rocks had higher levels than large particle size. In addition, this study also demonstrated that the majority of dissolved metals (Mn, Zn and Fe) leached higher in the low pH (3.5) leachate. This study recommended that great emphasis be taken on the separation of small particles from large particle sizes of mine waste rocks during and after mining operations to reduce the risk of metal leaching and the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) formation and pollute surface and groundwater.</p> A. Marwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2387 2392 Bioaccumulation and Potential Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals in Two Varieties of Edible Vegetables (Amaranthus hybridus and Celosia argentea) around Lapite Dump Site, Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria <p>The objective of this paper was to evaluate the bioaccumulation and potential risk assessments of heavy metals in two varieties of edible vegetables (<em>Amaranthus hybridus</em> and <em>Celosia argentea</em>) around Lapite Dump Site of Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria using different standard analytical techniques. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals showed that Pb, Cd and Mn (3.05mg/kg, 0.67mg/kg, and 129.61mg/kg) are the metals with means higher than their respective permissible values (PL) for humans (0.3mg/kg, 0.2mg/kg, and 6.64mg/kg respectively). These three heavy metals are also the metals with the most significant contamination and pollution factor according to the calculated contamination factor and geo-accumulation index. The bioaccumulation factors showed that Mn and Zn are the heavy metals accumulated most in the plants with the leaves having high content of these metals more than the stems. Pollution load index calculated revealed that the dumpsite area has been deteriorated (PLI &gt; 1) making activities around the area (including agriculture) and the habitants at high risk of health hazards. Consequently, planting and other human activities in this area should be discouraged while appropriate authorities should get involved in impact assessment of the environment to relocate the farms and habitants of the area to a more suitable and environmental friendly area.</p> M. O. Smart T. O. Bamigboye J. O. Isola O. A. Fawole O. H. Ibironke O. A. Ogidan I. R. Olaoluwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2393 2399 Productivity Performance Assessment of a Firm: A Case Study of Infrastructural Construction Company in Nigeria <p>Productivity measures how efficiently production inputs, such as labour and capital, are being used in an economy to produce a given level of output. Productivity growth constitutes an important element for modeling the productive capacity of economies. It also allows analysts to determine capacity utilization, which in turn allows one to gauge the position of economies in the business cycle and to forecast economic growth. The objective of the study is to analyze the impact of productivity, while using the inventory of the construction Company in Nigeria to investigate, measure, plan and control the productivity and performance of a firm.&nbsp; Data used for this study was generated through the firm's annual reports and financial statements. Multiple Linear regression Model developed was used to predict accurately the productivity level of the firm. In order to check the significant and the adequacy of the model developed, the coefficient of correlation(R), coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) and adjusted R<sup>2 </sup>were determined, with an R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.983 and an adjusted R<sup>2</sup> values of 0.932 obtained indicating that the model is adequate. The result of the study shows that the degree of association and correlation of the data is meritorious. Investigation revealed that factors in both external and internal work environment as well as the firm's policies are unfavorable to the enhancement of labour productivity.</p> O. O. Ogbeide, N. C. Ehirim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2401 2407 Comparative Evaluation of Community Participation in Ecotourism Development in Borgu and Zurguma Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Niger State, Nigeria <p>Generally, the problems associated with national park management in Nigeria include loss of wildlife habitats, poaching, overhunting, and illegal logging and grazing. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate the numerous challenges facing National Park Management in Nigeria using the Kainji Lake National Park as a case study using personal interview and administration of structural questionnaire to select one hundred and ninety four (194) respondents from the total population and data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of demographic characteristics of respondents sampled indicates that the male respondents were dominant (75.7%) and majority of the 51.4% of the sampled populations’ falls between age group 35-44 years. The finding further revealed that majority of the respondents was married (71.0%). 59.8% of the respondents had tertiary education while 40.2% had secondary education. Also, majority of the respondents are Muslims (71.0%) while 29.0 are Christian. Majority of the respondents (52.3%) had worked between 11-20 years while ≥21 are the least with 17.8%. The major challenges confronting Kainji Lake National Park as identified by the park staffs are insufficient fund and lack/shortage of manpower.The effects of these challenges on Wildlife management are reduction in management practices, makes work difficult and reduction in wildlife population. The measures taken in managing the identified challenges in the study area are provision of incentives/bonus to the staff, adequate funding, provision of modern equipment and facilities etc. The study therefore concludes that for effective conservation of biodiversity to be achieved in this premier national park of Nigeria, the identified challenges must be addressed.</p> J. O. Onihunwa O. A. Akande A. S. Wealth E. A. Irunokhai N. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2409 2414 Evaluation of Lead and Iron Content in Different Stages of Water Treatment Facilities within Otuoke and Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria <p>The mechanism of keeping water safe by improving its quality makes it easily accessible for community health. The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of lead and Iron in the domestic water supply system at Ekeki Housing Estate Yenegoa local government and Otuoke community in Ogbia local government in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.&nbsp; AAS version 5.0 Model was used to analyze Iron and Lead after acid digestion. Results obtained were compared with WHO standard, and statistically inferences were drawn using ANOVA and Spearman correlation matrix. All water sampled presented values of lead between (0.02-0.64) mg/L expect for point I3 and I4 which conformed to 0.01mg/L, while Iron values ranged from (0.01-5.3) mg/L. &nbsp;Most of the results obtained exceeded the WHO standard of 0.01 mg/L for lead and 0.03mg/L respectively. The research findings had shown that most treatment processes adopted were not suitable for treatment of the contaminants, hence the need to review treatment processes, distribution and monitoring of the source.&nbsp;</p> O. O. Ogunlowo A. Sakwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2415 2420 Bioproduction of Ethanol by Saccharification-Fermentation Process using Sweet Potato (ipomoea batatas) and Irish Potato (solanum tuberosum) as Substrate <p>Ethanol generally are renewable liquids usually produced from sources which can be easily replenished, therefore, the production of ethanol by fermentation using substrate such as carbohydrate crops may provide an economically competitive source of energy by its incorporation into gasoline. Hence, the objective of this paper is the bioproduction of ethanol by saccharification-fermentation process using sweet potato (<em>Ipomoea Batatas</em>) and Irish potato (<em>Solanum Tuberosum</em>) with their peels as substrate with standard techniques for evaluation. The infrared (IR) spectroscopic data of potato extracts revealed that the absorption band of hydroxyl (OH) group of an alcohol ranges from 3747.03 - 3444.40 cm<sup>-1</sup> in all samples analyzed. The <sup>1</sup>H-NMR in CDCl<sub>3 </sub>(60 MHz), the proton at δ<sub>H </sub>4.09-4.69 appearing as singlet, integrating for one proton which indicates an hydroxyl group, another proton signal at δ<sub>H</sub> 3.46-3.69, appearing as quartet with coupling constant of 7.2 Hz and each integrating for 2 protons, assigned to the methylene group next to the methyl group. The peak observed at δ<sub>H</sub> 0.95-1.96 ppm, integrating for three protons with coupling constant of 6.6 Hz, which was assigned to the methyl group on the ethanol structure. The <sup>13</sup>C-NMR spectrum of all the samples, showed an intense peak at 57.1-57.9 ppm which accounts for methylene peak on ethanol and an upfield carbon signal at 17.4-18.0, which was assigned to the methyl carbon in ethanol structure. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) results showed the presence of ethanol in the samples analyzed. Consequently, the refractive index result showed that all the extracts have a significant level of alcohol content.</p> E. T. Ayodele L. O. Olajide A. J. Ajepodu A. O. Esan N. B. Omodara Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2421 2425 Biological Aspects of Preferred Fish Species in White Volta at Pwalugu, Ghana: A pre-impoundment Study <p>The socio-economic benefits derived from impounding rivers are extremely important but the ecological imbalances that are usually created in the process can be devastating. It is therefore imperative to understand some aspects of the biology of fishes before the impoundment of a river. This study was conducted to assess the length-weight relationship, condition factor, feeding, and reproductive ecology of fish species with high local market value. Biometric measurements were obtained from monthly samples of fish at two sites. Specimens were transported to the laboratory for gut and gonad analyses. <em>Auchenoglanis occidentalis</em>, <em>Marcussenius senegalensis</em> and <em>Heterobranchus bidorsalis</em> were the most preferred fish species. All three fish species recorded ‘b’ values less than 3 which implies they exhibited a negative allometric growth. Their condition factors (K) indicated they were in good health since K values were greater than 1. <em>A. occidentalis and H. bidorsalis</em> demonstrated a feeding habit comparable to that of an omnivore, whilst <em>M. senegalensis</em> presented a feeding habit that implied it was an invertivore. <em>M. senegalensis </em>registered the uppermost mean gonado-somatic index (GSI) (2.14 ± 0.83) whereas the highest mean fecundity (495 ± 450.96) was noted in <em>A. occidentalis</em>. This study contributed bio-ecological baseline information about the ichthyofauna prior to the damming of the reservoir in the Pwalugu area of the White Volta.</p> D. N. Akongyuure M. A Adakpeya E. H Alhassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2427 2437 Challenges Facing National Park Management: A Case Study of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria <p>Generally, the problems associated with national park management in Nigeria include loss of wildlife habitats, poaching, overhunting, and illegal logging and grazing. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate the numerous challenges facing National Park Management in Nigeria using the Kainji Lake National Park as a case study using personal interview and administration of structural questionnaire to select one hundred and ninety four (194) respondents from the total population and data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of demographic characteristics of respondents sampled indicates that the male respondents were dominant (75.7%) and majority of the 51.4% of the sampled populations’ falls between age group 35-44 years. The finding further revealed that majority of the respondents was married (71.0%). 59.8% of the respondents had tertiary education while 40.2% had secondary education. Also, majority of the respondents are Muslims (71.0%) while 29.0 are Christian. Majority of the respondents (52.3%) had worked between 11-20 years while ≥21 are the least with 17.8%. The major challenges confronting Kainji Lake National Park as identified by the park staffs are insufficient fund and lack/shortage of manpower.The effects of these challenges on Wildlife management are reduction in management practices, makes work difficult and reduction in wildlife population. The measures taken in managing the identified challenges in the study area are provision of incentives/bonus to the staff, adequate funding, provision of modern equipment and facilities etc. The study therefore concludes that for effective conservation of biodiversity to be achieved in this premier national park of Nigeria, the identified challenges must be addressed.</p> J. O. Onihunwa O. A. Akande E. A. Irunokhai N. Mohammed A. S. Wealth Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2439 2444 Attitude and Involvement of Local Communities in Nature Conservation around Idanre Forest Reserve, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>This objective of this study was to assess the attitude and involvement of the local communities on nature conservation around Idanre Forest Reserve, Ondo State, Nigeria using structured questionnaire. The study revealed the socio-demographic characteristics of community members of Idanre Forest Reserve. Data obtained shows that majority of the community members were aware of Idanre forest reserve and the attitudes and involvement of the local community towards conservation at Idanre forest reserve was negative. Factors that determined local people’s attitudes include assess to benefits obtained from the park. The impact of these benefits on attitudes was shown by the willingness of the people to assist the park management in promoting wildlife conservation. It was concluded that the factors responsible for the negative attitudes and involvement of local members towards nature conservation of Idanre Forest Reserve were majorly the lack of substantial benefits from the reserve and also the unfriendly nature of management. A bottom-top approach is hereby recommended, through regular involvement of local community leaders in major aspect of decision making.</p> G. O. Amoo O. A. Tunde-Ajayi A. O. Yusuf Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2445 2452 Geospatial Assessment of Deforestation in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria from 1987 to 2021 <p>The expansion of urban areas directly leads to deforestation resulting in the loss of ecosystems and environmental problems such as soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, air pollution, as well as climate change. This study aims to assess deforestation in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria from the year 1987 to 2021 using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The maximum likelihood supervised classification method in ENVI 5.3 was employed to classify the territory into four classes, which include forestland, grassland, built up area, and surface water. An increasing trend was observed in the built up area, grassland, and surface water. However, the forestland decreased significantly from 4059.43 km<sup>2</sup> in 1987 to 2265.28 km<sup>2</sup> in 2021. The result indicates massive deforestation in Abuja, and it is recommended that proper urban planning and policies that will mitigate urban sprawl be initiated and implemented in Abuja. Policies that mandate house owners to plant trees and lawns in their compounds should be made and implemented, and proper conservation policies should be implemented to conserve forestland.</p> C. F. Amaechi A. A. Enuneku S. O. Okhai K. A. Okoduwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2457 2461 Assessment of Marketing Practices and Strategies of Smoked Fish within Selected Markets in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria <p>This study investigates the marketing practices of smoked fish within selected markets in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The research findings highlight a predominant presence of married female marketers in the 25-30 age bracket, primarily equipped with secondary school education. Catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) emerge as the favoured fish species, and the primary mode of transportation to these markets is public. Notably, refrigeration stands as the preferred storage method for unprocessed fish, with peak sales occurring in the afternoons during the dry season. Among the key discoveries, inadequate financial resources surface as the predominant external challenge faced by marketers, impacting the efficiency of their operations. To address these findings, we recommend the formation of cooperatives to facilitate access to financial resources through banks and government agencies. Additionally, investments in essential infrastructure such as smoking facilities (smoking kilns) are essential to mitigate adverse health effects on marketers. Furthermore, government intervention through educational seminars and awareness programs is suggested to empower smoked fish marketers to enhance their marketing strategies. Lastly, the implementation of price control measures is advised to mitigate price fluctuations faced by producers, retailers, and consumers, fostering a more stable and equitable market environment.</p> O. J. Abolagba R. O. Ogboru D. K. Joshua D. A. Amadin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2463 2468 Assessment of Correlation between Dimensions of Ball Phantom and Distortion Rate of Panoramic Radiography in Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography <p>The objective of this study was to assess correlation between dimensions of ball phantom and distortion rate of panoramic radiography in dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system using appropriate standard methods. The results revealed that only two measurement (2.99%) out of 67 measurements exceeded the recommended threshold value for distortion rate. There was no correlation between the ball diameter and the distortion produced. However, a low positive correlation was observed between the distortion rate and the ratio of the horizontal to the vertical diameter of the ball images. Also, the matlab code, presented results which are closer to the acceptable limit than the Romexis software. Patient positioning should be carefully and correctly considered to prevent and to bring the image distortion rate to its barest minimum for proper diagnosis in dental CBCT. For proper diagnosis and treatment planning, this distortion must be accounted for during clinical applications.</p> J. A. Rabba F. O. Uloko G. I. Efenji S. O. Eghaghe H. A. Jaafar M. Z. M. Jafri N. D. Osman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2469 2474 Phytoremediation Potential of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Seedlings Planted on Lead Contaminated Soil in Katsina, Nigeria <p>The objectives of this study is to investigate the phytoremediation potential of watermelon (<em>Citrullus lanatus</em>) seedlings planted on lead contaminated soil in Katsina, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods of physicochemical properties of the soil before and after the experiment and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) measurements for Pb concentrations. The result revealed that the plant had accumulated a significant concentration of Lead in the leaves (18.112mg/kg), shoot (14.221mg/kg) and roots (9.100mg/kg) and there was no significant difference in the concentrations of Lead used in the study at p&gt;0.05. The phytoextraction ability of <em>C. lanatus </em>was assessed in %remediation factor (RF), Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and elemental translocation factor (TF). The amount of Lead in the shoots and roots after 6weeks showed that more concentration of Lead was translocated from the roots to the leaves. The results of this investigation suggests that <em>Citrullus lanatus</em> could be used for phytoextraction of Lead from contaminated soil.</p> N. Usman A. Jalo N. Tahir Z. H. Usman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2475 2479 Use of Macro-Minerals of Fluted Pumpkin in Evaluation of Remediation Potentials of Crude Oil Impacted Soil by Cow Horn Powder at Ikwerre Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>The objective of this work is to assess the remediation potentials of cow horn powder using fluted pumpkin grown on crude oil contaminated soil at Ikwerre Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. Data shows that the ZgCH group showed a better treatment than XgCH and YgCH in enhancing the level of the minerals (Na =67.1±0.00, N = 111±0.41, Ca = 493±0.00) when compared with the level of the minerals in the -Ve C (Na = 39.0±0.06, N = 65.4±0.03, Ca = 367±0.00). The results after the 8th week of remediation showed that cow horn powder significantly improved the macro minerals concentration of fluted pumpkin leaves grown on crude oil-impacted soil across all the cow horn powder treated groups compared to the -Ve C and NC groups. In conclusion, cow horn powder can enhance the mineral concentration of plants grown on crude oil-impacted soil.</p> C. O. Nduka L. A. Anagbogu D. C. Belonwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2481 2486 Toxicological Evaluation of Methanol Extract of Hunteria umbellata Seed on Sperm and Haematological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats <p>The effect of chronic administration of methanol seed extract of <em>Hunteria umbellata</em> (HU) on sperm and haematological parameters in male Wister rats were examined for 90 days. Adult male Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 received 10 ml/Kg/day of distilled water and served as the control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 250 mg/kg/day, 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day of the extract daily for 90 days by oral gavage. Sperm cells were collected from the vas deferens of the sacrificed male rats for the determination of sperm motility, sperm count and sperm morphology as well as blood samples via the abdominal aorta for haematological assays. Body weight was also recorded. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P&lt;0.05 was recognized as significant. The result from this studies showed that the extract did not significantly altered (P&gt;0.05) sperm count, motility, morphology as well as the haematological parameters except increase in platelet count as compared with the control group. In conclusion, the results suggests that the prolonged oral treatment with 250-1000 mg/Kg/day of the methanol extract of the seed of <em>Hunteria umbellata</em> did not produce any sperm toxicity but may cause an increase in platelet activity.</p> J. O. Oseyomon E. O. Erhirhie C. B. Ugwu E. E. Ilodigwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2487 2493 Evaluation of Serum Anticardiolipin Antibodies and D-dimer in Recipients of COVID-19 Vaccines in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests itself in a variety of ways, implying a wide range of host autoimmune responses which could lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation. This study was designed to evaluate serum anticardiolipin antibodies and D-dimer in recipients of COVID 19 vaccines in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study population comprised sixteen (16) fully vaccinated subjects, fifteen (15) partially vaccinated subjects and fifteen (15) unvaccinated subjects (control). Anticardiolipin antibodies and D-dimer were analyzed using ELISA. D-dimer and anticardiolipin antibodies were significantly higher in fully and partially vaccinated subjects compared to control (p&lt;0.05). D-dimer and anticardiolipin were insignificantly higher in fully vaccinated subjects compared to partially vaccinated subjects (p&gt;0.05). Anticardiolipin and D-dimer were significantly higher in recipients of mRNA vaccines compared to viral vector vaccines (p&lt;0.05). This study discovered that recipients of the COVID-19 immunization have a higher risk of developing antiphospholipid syndrome due to increased anticardiolipin. If disseminated intravascular coagulations is present and its complications are not adequately handled, this could become more serious</p> O. O. Odewusi J. J. Dodo F. E. Omotayo S. O. Obadire E. A. Omon M. O. Oguntuase O. A. Alake Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2495 2501 Energy Sustainability: Bridging the Gap between Oil and Gas Operations and Community Well-Being in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria <p>Sustainability is an important issue in energy provision for meeting increasing needs. However, harvesting energy resources in communities while protecting the ecosystem and reducing issues of environmental degradation to the barest minimum are the ideal target for stakeholders, but usually not always attainable. The objective of this paper is therefore to review the sustainable energy arrangements with ambitions to significantly bridge the gaps between oil and gas operations of firms and improved community well-being in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria using secondary information and data harvested from previously published studies found Online. Specifically, the paper will examine some effects of oil and gas exploration in communities, examines metrics that can be used to track community well-being, the possible conflicts of interest that could occur between firms and host communities in oil and gas operations as well as measures in the past to ameliorate these challenges and improve the community well-being in issues pertaining to oil and gas operations of firms. The study recommends that continuous stakeholder engagement be carried out in order to make for smooth oil and gas operations. Furthermore, it makes for proffers workable solutions to the challenges that accentuate possible conflicts. The study also identifies different key stakeholders in this gap-bridging process and their various roles.</p> J. Chijioke-Churuba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2503 2507 Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Assessment of Groundwater Quality around Dumpsites in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria <p>Groundwater is an important source of drinking water and the protection of groundwater is a major environmental issue as the importance of water quality to human health. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the groundwater quality around dumpsites in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria using standard analytical techniques and multivariate statistical analysis methods such as correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).&nbsp; The mean concentration of the parameters in ground water samples ranged from pH 7.55 to 9.06, temperature 32.55 to 34.25 <sup>o</sup>C, conductivity 54.80 to 65.38 μS/cm, salinity 0.20 to 0.29 mg/L, TSS 0.36 to 1.93 mg/L, TDS 57.53 to 59.95 mg/L, HCO<sub>3</sub> 26.80 to 31.00 mg/L, PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> 1.05 to 2.06 mg/L, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> 2.25 to 3.26 mg/L, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> 1.40 to 4.50 mg/L, NO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup> 0.01 to 0.03 mg/L, and Cl<sup>-</sup> 2.14 to 8.31 mg/L. The result shows that the investigated parameters were below the WHO, permissible limit, except PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>. The concentration of the parameters were in following trend; TDS &gt; conductivity &gt; temperature &gt; HCO<sub>3</sub>&gt; pH &gt; NO<sub>3</sub>&gt; SO<sub>4</sub>&gt;Cl&gt; PO<sub>4</sub>&gt; TSS &gt; salinity &gt; NO<sub>2</sub>. Multivariate analysis revealed that the main sources of water quality parameters might be related to dumpsites around the study area. According to the HCA, and PCA, the parameters were divided into three groups; the first group correlated with Salinity, TSS, SO<sub>4</sub>, NO<sub>3</sub> and NO<sub>2</sub>; the second group correlated with TDS and HCO<sub>3</sub>, and the third with pH, temperature, and conductivity. The hydrochemistry of groundwater from the area reveals that the water could be applied to irrigation.</p> A. F. Tijjani B. Alhassan U. Salisu A. M. Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2509 2514 Assessment of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Jebba Upper Basin on River Niger, North Central Nigeria <p>Jebba Upper Basin upstream at Kainji, was constructed on River Niger in Nigeria during the last five decades mainly for hydropower generation, but receives pollutants through anthropogenic activities. This study assesses physical and chemical characteristics of Jebba upper basin on River Niger, North Central Nigeria using appropriate standard methods. The results show that the mean values of the physical and chemical parameters of water were: temperature (27.89±1.84 °C), pH (7.17±0.22), dissolved oxygen (6.35±0.91 mg/L), total hardness (42.33±32.89 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (2.85±1.07 mg/L), and conductivity (51.13±29.09 µs/cm). The result shows that temperature has significant positive (either at r &lt; 0.05 and r &lt; 0.01) association with Total Hardness (TH) (0.47), BOD (0.30) and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> (0.43) though inversely correlated with transparency (-0.29, r &gt;0.05). Total Hardness also have a positive correlation (0.52, r &gt;0.05) with nitrate. Spatial-temporal variations influenced by environmental factors were observed to impacted water quality parameters in the study area.</p> K. M. Adelakun A. A. Idowu W. O. Alegbeleye T. A. Arowolo A. O. Akinde Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2515 2523 Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from Root Nodules of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Seeds Planted at Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria <p>In line with the race to increase worldwide food production to cater to the growing world population, there is a growing interest in exploring the plant growth-promoting attributes of rhizobia. This is in a bid to curb environmental and health damage arising from the use of chemical fertilizers. Hence, the objective of this work was to isolate and characterize phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds planted at Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria using standard techniques. The 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing of the organisms identified the 2 isolates which were positive for phosphate solubilization as <em>Pseudomonas straminea </em>and <em>Ralstonia mannitolilytica. </em>Their sequences were deposited to GenBank with the assession numbers MK590690 and MK590695 respectively. Isolate <em>Pseudomonas straminea</em> was more efficient and produced a halo zone (16mm) with a phosphate solubility index (PSI) of 2.0 while isolate <em>Ralstonia mannitolilytica</em> produced a halo zone (14 mm) with PSI of 1.6 after 7 days of incubation. The results obtained from this study indicate that these organisms could be potential candidates to be used as biofertilizers to improve crop yield.</p> T. E. Ejeagba C. C. Obi G. Umanu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2525 2531 Domestic Energy Consumption and Its Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Insights from Koulikoro Urban Community, Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali in West Africa <p>The objective of this study is to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) released by domestic energy (firewood and charcoal) in the urban commune of Koulikoro, Mali. This study employed questionnaire survey to identify the type of energies used, their costs, the quantity consumed, and the difficulties of access to these energies and their impact on natural resources in Koulikoro. The consumption of each family per neighbourhood was extrapolated to its total population to determine the carbon emitted and the carbon dioxide released. Thus, the carbon dioxide emitted in tonnes per neighbourhood was determined. The findings revealed three types of energy in the urban commune of Koulikoro, mainly firewood 72%, charcoal 25% and Gas 3%. The use of these energy sources depends on accessibility and availability. The increase in consumption per district is a function of the number of people. Daily used charcoal was estimated at 2 kg day<sup>-1</sup> and 7 kg day<sup>-1</sup> for firewood. Overall, average firewood using was highest in largest household size and it was 62% higher than in small size category which recorded the lowest. Annual amount of charcoal used was 676 kg year<sup>-1</sup> and 2294 kg year<sup>-1</sup> for firewood. However, annual amount of fuelwood per person was higher in small size category and 178% greater than in largest household group than other household size. Carbon consumption per capita per year was greater in small household group estimate to be 477 kg pns-<sup>1</sup> year-<sup>1</sup>. Thus, the urban commune of Koulikoro has a significant carbon dioxide emission and firewood emits more CO<sub>2</sub> than charcoal.</p> S. Fané D. Traoré A. K. Koné C. Traoré A. Ahmed M. Yussuf M. Karembe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2533 2541 Sorption of Congo red Dye from Aqueous Solution by Mercerized and Benzoylated Sugarcane Bagasse: Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies <p>The use of large quantity of synthetic dye in process industries to colour products amongst other things has given rise to aqueous effluents containing high level of this pollutant. This paper therefore evaluates the use of isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic to study the sorption capacities of congo red dye by mercerized sugarcane bagasse (MSB) and benzoylated sugarcane bagasse (BSB) in aqueous solution using batch experimental protocol. Data obtained show that MSB was the most effective adsorbent material, with equilibrium sorption (q<sub>e</sub> = 13.64 mg/g) after 50 minutes. The optimum pH and dosage for dye uptake were 3.0 and 3.5 g respectively. Sorption of dye by the modified surfaces decreases with increasing temperature and ionic strength.&nbsp; The 4% NaOH presented the best desorption of dye on the adsorbents. Kinetic studies showed pseudo second-order model fit for the experimental data. Adsorption of the anionic dye on the modified surfaces fits the Langmuir isotherm model based on the R<sup>2</sup> values. Thermodynamic results showed ∆G<sup>o</sup> values (-12.42 to -4.16 KJ/mol) for MSB and (-15.13 to -7.55KJ/mol) for BSB, consistent with the spontaneity and feasibility of the sorption process. The uptake of dye by the modified surfaces depicts a random nature at the solid-solution interface and showed that the sorption is exothermic as evidenced by value (0.256-0.334KJmol/K) and (-18.41 to -10.17 KJ/mol) for ∆S<sup>o</sup> and ∆H<sup>o</sup> respectively. The results present MSB and BSB as effective sorbent materials for removal of anionic dye from waste effluents.</p> A. E. Samuel U. Idris D. S. Samaila T. A. Alfa S. Y. Kamba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2543 2551 Oral Vitamin C Intake Ameliorates Crude Oil-Polluted Water-Induced Jejunal Contractile Dysfunctions in Wistar rats <p>Inhabitants of rural Niger-Delta oil communities in Nigeria often, unintentionally, consume crude oil polluted water (COCW) due to crude oil spills in the region. The impact of vitamin C supplementation during COCW ingestion on the contractile mechanism of the jejunum is not fully known. Hence, this study investigates the outcomes of COCW water and vitamin C intake on the smooth muscle activity of the jejunum in Wistar rats using standard techniques. Data obtained showed that jejunal tissue SOD concentration was significantly reduced, while jejunal tissue MDA concentration was significantly increased in the COCW-only treated group. Contraction mediated by acetylcholine was significantly increased in the COCW-only treated rats. Calcium and potassium ion influx significantly increased jejunal contraction in the COCW-only rats. Incubation of the jejunal tissue in nifedipine, indomethacin, and L-NAME significantly increased acetylcholine-mediated contractions in the jejunal tissue of the COCW-only treated rats when compared to other groups. COCW causes free radical-induced jejunal damage that results in impaired jejunal contractile activity mediated by the M<sub>2</sub> muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide synthase activity, voltage-gated large-conductance calcium channels, potassium channels, and prostaglandins. However, the oral intake of Vitamin C supplementation significantly ameliorated impairments by enhancing jejunal antioxidant activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. A. Salami A. J. Oyemakinde M. O. Allen H. M. Salahdeen I. I. Olatunji-Bello B. A. Murtala Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2553 2560 Evaluation of Essential Metal Concentration and Possible Potential Health Risk in Chicken Giblets Commonly Sold to Consumers in Lokoja Main Market, Kogi State, Nigeria <p>The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentrations of essential metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Se, B, P, and Zn) and potential health risks in chicken giblets commonly sold to consumers in Lokoja's main market, Kogi State, Nigeria. Using appropriate standard methods, samples were digested with 65% HNO<sub>3</sub>, and the digest was analyzed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) in gizzard ranged from 0.06±0.08 (Cu) to 28.1±6.9 (P), kidney 0.04±0.01 (Cu) to 24±10 (P), and liver 0.09±0.10 (Cu) to 47±11(P). All the essential metals examined were below the FAO and WHO's permissible standards. The observed trend in the accumulation of metal concentration in chicken giblets was P &gt; Na &gt; Ca &gt; Fe &gt; Mg &gt; Zn &gt; B &gt; Se &gt; K, Cu. The health risk analyses revealed that the current exposure levels will not have a major negative impact on human health, as the hazard quotient for each metal was less than one (&lt;1) and the overall hazard index was also less than 1. Although the population will not be exposed to the potential health risks from these metals presently, there is a need to regularly assess the levels of heavy metals in chicken giblets to maintain protection against negative health effects.</p> J. E. Emurotu L. Habib Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2561 2567 Beyond Oil Extraction: Building Lasting Relationships between Oil Producing Firms and Host Communities through Sustainable Energy Initiatives <p>In a world grappling with climate change, resource depletion and increasing poverty due to economic imbalances, the old model of resource extraction is not sustainable. Furthermore, building sustainable and lasting relationships between the oil producing firms and communities could be considered as more sustainable option to energy initiatives. Hence, the objective of this paper is to explore post-extraction welfare of host communities of oil producing companies in-line with the challenges of resource depletion, climate change, imperativeness of renewable energy, environmental concerns as well as social and economic benefits of adopting renewable energy using primary and secondary sources of data. The study proposes solutions to these challenges as well as highlighting the role of different stakeholders in this process.</p> J. Chijioke-Churuba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2569 2574 Post-unilateral Nephrectomy Administration of Alcohol Escalates Kidney Oxidative Stress of Male Wistar Rats <p>Alcohol has been used in folk medicine to potentiate some health benefits. Although, alcohol was reported to induce renal dysfunction, its activity on kidney tissues is not fully elucidated. However, whether or not alcohol could be beneficial after unilateral nephrectomy is unknown; thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of post-unilateral nephrectomy administration of alcohol on kidney oxidative stress of male Wistar rats with 150 – 210 g-body weight, randomly grouped into four groups and the oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) determined using kidney tissue homogenates. Nephrectomy and alcohol significantly increased MDA and significantly decreased SOD, CAT and GPx; furthermore, post unilateral nephrectomy administration of alcohol caused advanced significant elevation of MDA as well as advanced significant depletion of SOD, CAT, and GPx of the kidney tissue. This study demonstrated for the first time that post-unilateral nephrectomy intake of alcohol enhances kidney oxidative stress by increasing kidney lipid peroxidation (MDA) and inhibiting its antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx); forming basis for campaigning against alcohol intake after unilateral nephrectomy as well as folk treatment with alcohol which may involve an individual that underwent nephrectomy.</p> O. M. Onwuka P. T. Abiye G. C. Ajuzie Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2575 2580 Production of Polyurethane Elastomers from Ximenia americana L (Wild Olive) Seed Oil and Diisocyanates <p>Seed oils readily undergo derivatization by alcoholysis to yield biodegradable polyols and <em>Ximenia americana </em>plant from the family of Olacaeae has oily seeds. Hence, the objective of this paper is to assess the production of polyurethane elastomers from <em>Ximenia americana</em> L (Wild Olive) Seed Oil with diisocyanates, namely, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4’-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) respectively using standard procedure and characterized by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Instron Tensile Testing Machine and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The tensile strength and tensile modulus for HDI-based polyurethane elastomers, 5.83±0.15 and 3.95±0.07 MPa respectively are higher than the corresponding ones for TDI- and MDI-based polymers. This is consistent with the highest crosslink density (γ) of 5.05×10<sup>-3</sup> for HDI-based polymer with corresponding average molecular weight between crosslinks (M<sub>c</sub>) of 197.87 gmol<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; The polyurethane elastomers are stable up to 250-265<sup>o</sup>C with order of stability: HDPU-1.50&gt;MDPU-1.50&gt;TDPU-1.50. The results showed that diol from <em>Ximenia americana</em> seed oil is effective for production of polyurethane elastomers with properties which are comparable to ones of the non-oil-based polymers.</p> A. E. Samuel I. C. Eremosele S. Y. Kamba D. S. Samaila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2581 2590 Assessment of Growth Characteristics, Diversity and Structure of Tree Species in Opara Forest Reserve, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria <p>Having information about the existing stands and their structure within a forest is important, as it helps in understanding the biodiversity depth and climate change adaptation potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the growth characteristics, diversity and structure of tree species in the Opara Forest Reserve on the Nigeria-Benin Republic Fringes in Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria using appropriate standard techniques. A total of 218 trees were enumerated&nbsp;and assessed.&nbsp; The results indicated that the forest reserve is primarily characterized by the prevalence of savanna species. The dominant species within the study area consists of 80 stands of <em>Anogeissus leiocarpus</em>; <em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em> exhibits the highest mean diameter at breast height (dbh), measuring 100.09 cm and <em>Acacia faidherbia </em>had highest value in height. The forest reserve is characterised by the dominance of trees within the 6-10 metre height range. In conclusion, the forest reserve exhibits a moderate level of species variety with favourable growth characteristics and the average height of the trees are typical of a savanna forest.</p> O. A. Ogidan A. F. Aderounmu A. A. Ekaun O. A. Ogundana R. T. Afolabi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2591 2596 Effects of Fly Ash on Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Lean Concrete <p>Concrete production and waste generation are among human activities that negatively impact the environment. This study investigated the effects of fly ash on compressive strength and durability properties of lean concrete using appropriate standard methods. The results showed that the compressive strength of the control mix is higher than those of fly ash concrete mixes. The compressive strength of the fly ash blended mixes decreased as the replacement level increased. However, the strength increased with hydration time, and the optimal replacement level being 5%. While the chloride ion penetration and water absorption rate decreased, the sulfate resistance increased with hydration time and replacement level. The fly ash mixes exhibited better durability properties than the control mix in all durability tests conducted. The SEM-EDX analysis showed that mixes with well-packed microstructures exhibited favorable compressive and durability properties. In conclusion, Class C fly ash is recommended for lean concrete mixes at a replacement level of up to 15% when compressive strength is the primary concern, while mixes with a replacement level of 25% or more are recommended in areas susceptible to sulfate attack.</p> J. O. Ohwofasa C. M. Ikumapayi C. Arum Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2597 2610 Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Status of Ekosodin Community Residents, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria <p>Healthy living has been known to be linked to availability of portable water supply, clean sanitation, access to good hygienic and attainment of nice healthy status. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the assess level of water supply sanitation, hygiene and health status of residents of Ekosodin community, Edo State using a structured questionnaire from 300 respondents analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22. Findings showed that residents of the community primarily relied on boreholes as their main water source, with 72.7 % of respondents indicating its usage. The sanitation facilities, such as toilets, were predominantly available, but there was a need for additional facilities, as indicated by 24.7 % of respondents. In terms of hand hygiene, 67.3 % of participants reported the availability of soap and water in their premises. Moreover, 82.7 % of respondents stated that they had separate containers for bathing and storing drinking water, contributing to improved hygiene practices. Health status’ findings revealed the prevalence of vomiting (66.7 %) among participants. Hospital/clinic facilities were the primary choice for medical treatment (74.7%), followed by herbal preparations (25.3%). In conclusion, a community-based intervention program needs to be carried out to educate the populace of Ekosodin residence on maintenance of hand washing practices, toilets and sanitary facilities.</p> E. E. Imarhiagbe C. C. Onwudiwe M. Akahomhen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2611 2618 Analysis of Empirical Rainfall Data Covering 1979-2020 as a Guide to Agriculture and Water Resources Management in Ondo State, Nigeria <p>The aim of this paper was to evaluate daily empirical rainfall data covering 1979-2020 as a guide to agriculture and water resources management in Ondo, State, Nigeria by collecting data from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Abuja, using various standard methods. Results showed that, the area observed rainfall throughout the year with March (86.4 mm) as the rainfall onset, November (56.4 mm) was the cessation, double maximum rainfall occurred in July (254.2 mm) and September (282.1 mm) with the climatological mean of 1752.2 mm. Also, the percentage (%) difference rainfall showed seven (7) positive and four (4) negative occurrences. The highest positive % difference occurred in September (10.4), while the lowest occurred in July (2.6). The highest negative % difference was -26.5 (November), while the lowest was -5.9 (August). The stations deviation from zonal average monthly rainfall showed that, Igbokoda, Ilaje LGA deviated in all the months negatively, while Okitipupa, Okitipupa LGA and Oka-Akoko, Akoko South West LGA deviated positively in eleven (11) months each. The study concluded that, rainfall varied and had declined generally over the study area. Hence, it was recommended that, the Seasonal Climate Prediction (SCP) by Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) should be down-scaled early to serve as a guide to farmers and hydrologists; irrigation should be encouraged; hybrid crops should be cultivated and more water reservoirs should be constructed.</p> E. B. Audu S. D. Francis A. S. Abubakar M. A. Emigilati H. O. Audu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2619 2627 Application of Deep Neural Network-Artificial Neural Network Model for Prediction Of Dew Point Pressure in Gas Condensate Reservoirs from Field-X in the Niger Delta Region Nigeria <p>Reservoirs of natural gas and gas condensate have been proposed as a potential for providing affordable and cleaner energy sources to the global population growth and industrialization expansion simultaneously. This work evaluates reservoir simulation for production optimization using Deep Neural network - artificial neural network (DNN-ANN) model to predict the dew point pressure in gas condensate reservoirs from Field-X in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The dew-point pressure (DPP) of gas condensate reservoirs was estimated as a function of gas composition, reservoir temperature, molecular weight and specific gravity of heptane plus percentage. Results obtained show that the mean relative error (MRE) and R-squared (R<sup>2</sup>) are 0.99965 and 3.35%, respectively, indicating that the model is excellent in predicting DPP values. The Deep Neural Network - Artificial Neural Network (DNN-ANN) model is also evaluated in comparison to earlier models created by previous authors. It was recommended that the DNN - ANN model developed in this study could be applied to reservoir simulation and modeling well performance analysis, reservoir engineering problems and production optimization.</p> P. U. Abeshi T. I. Oliomogbe J. O. Emegha V. A. Adeyeye Y. O. Atunwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2629 2635 Bioactive And Cytotoxic Potentials of the Extract Fractions of Strophanthus Hispidus on Neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) Cell Line Model of Alzheimer’s Disease <p>Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affect memory and cognitive function. Currently, the available agents used in managing this condition are associated with severe side effects and have limited efficacy in reducing or modulating events associated with AD. Hence, there is a need for an alternative therapy with fewer side effects and better efficacy. <em>Strophantus hispidus </em>(SH) is a plant product widely used in Africa for its therapeutic potential.&nbsp; This study was conducted to assess the bioactive constituent of the SH extract fractions, as well as the cytotoxic potential of these fractions.&nbsp; The root of SH was pulverized and extracted with 80% methanol. The crude extract was then fractionated with Chloroform, Hexane, and Ethylacetate. The extract and fractions were then subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).&nbsp; SH-SY5Y cell line model of AD was treated with graded concentrations (9.77 – 5000 µg/mL) of the SH extract and fractions for 24 hours. Cell viability assay was performed using WST-8 proliferation assay. The EC<sub>50</sub> was determined to be 48.4 μg/mL, 15.16 μg/mL, and 151 μg/mL for cells treated with Chloroform, Ethylacetate, and Hexane fractions of <em>Strophantus hispidus</em> respectively. The selectivity index (SI) greater than 3 of the hexane and ethylacetate fractions were determined to be safe, less toxic, and effective in improving cellular growth.</p> P. A. Akinyemi O. A. Adebesin O. M. Arotiba A. R. Adewole J. E. Okpuzor Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2636 2642 Assessment of Microbial Loads, Species Characterization and Composition in Prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) Fillets from Major Wetlands in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>The objective of this paper is to assess the assessment of microbial loads, species characterization and composition in prawn (<em>Macrobrachium vollenhovenii</em>) fillets from major wetlands (Nwaniba, Ibaka, Ibeno and Itu) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The microbial loads, species characterization and composition in prawn fillets were determined using standard microbiological procedures. Results from the study revealed total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranging from 2.10 x 104cfu/g in samples from Ibeno to 7.30 x 104cfu/g from Itu samples. Samples from Itu also recorded the highest values (3.5 x 104cfu/g) of total heterotrophic fungal counts. A total of eight bacterial (<em>Staphilococcus aureus, S. albus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Arthrobacter freundii </em>and <em>Salmonella ecterica</em>) and six fungal (<em>Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor mucedo, </em>and <em>Rhizopus sp</em>) species were isolated.&nbsp; The bacterial species, <em>Micrococcus luteus </em>and <em>Arthrobacter freundii </em>had 100% frequency of occurrence while in the fungal group it was <em>Candida tropicalis. </em>The presence of these pathogenic organisms in prawn samples from these wetland areas may infer possible threat to the health of prawn consumers especially when the products are undercooked or poorly processed before consumption.</p> M. U. Effiong A. V. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2643 2649 Garden Egg (Solanum aethiopicum) as a Mystical plant in Akabo, South Eastern Nigeria: Health and Economic Implications <p>Garden egg, popularly known as eggplant, is one of the strange and enigmatic vegetable plants that can energize and heal the body as well as the spirit. It is a manifestation of the wonders of God’s creation and magnanimity. As recorded in the holy books, God made man and woman and told them to eat vegetables to keep their bodies and spirits healthy and together. Garden egg is one fruit that is highly acceptable and valued when offered to visitors.&nbsp; In Akabo, South eastern Nigeria, there is a practice called "Ofe", which translates to "garden eggplant mystics". It is a significant mystical practice that helps to maintain harmony among people and between bodies and spirits.&nbsp; In this study, the mystical, medicinal and economic implications of garden egg as applied in Akabo community are presented. Interview data and library databases were used to analyze the sources of information by theme. The origin, classes, and chemical composition of garden eggs as it affects its medicinal efficacy have been highlighted. Insights to the cultural significance of garden egg in Africa are also documented. The overall benefits of the various parts of the eggplant, viz: fruits, leaves, stems and roots and their economic importance to the global society have been presented. This study will serve as a useful piece to the global community to unravel the untapped potentials of garden egg.</p> E. Opara G. A. Udourioh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2651 2660 Analysis of Covariance of Models of Sudoku Squares with no Treatment Effects on Concomitant Variable <p>Inclusion of concomitant variable(s) in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) model is an indication that the model is of ANCOVA model provided that there is correlation between the concomitant and response variable. This study employ numerical illustrations of the analysis of covariance of models of Sudoku square with no treatment effects on concomitant variable- Result of the illustration, showed that error variance from the ANCOVA Sudoku square models reduced 12.7761 to 5.5152 for model I; 13.6898 to 6.4690 for model II; 15.7926 to 4.8160 for model III and 16.5152 to 4.9226 for model IV respectively in which the concomitant variable had justified its inclusion in the models. The results showed that adjusted treatment effect is similar across the four ANCOVA models, the correlation coefficient for each of the ANCOVA model is highly positively and the error mean square obtained for ANCOVA models are less than the values of error mean square obtained for ANOVA models of Sudoku square.</p> A. Shehu N. S. Dauran G. A. Usman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 27 11 2661 2667