Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. en-US Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 1119-8362 JASEM has joined the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Therefore articles in JASEM are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Heavy Metals and Physicochemical Parameters Evaluation in the Upper Reaches of Bonny River, Niger Delta, Nigeria <p>The objectives of the study were to determine distribution of heavy metal contamination in water, sediments and biota (Callinectes amniciola) of the upper reaches of the Bonny Estuary and to determine the impact on physicochemical characteristics of the water body. Sampled was from January to June 2020. The physicochemical parameters of the water varied slightly across the months but were within FEPA/WHO (2003) acceptable limits. Furthermore; the study compared the seasonal variations and determination of Bio-accumulation Factor (BF) of C. amnicola with respect to sediment. The study site is a tidal creek that drains into the main Bonny River channel within Niger Delta, Nigeria. The sampled locations/stations include Trans-Amadi slaughter in Azuabie {N4°81'49.9 and E7°04'63.4}, Okpoka Creek in Abuloma {N4°78'02.43 and E7°06'66.12} and Okirika Jetty {N4°73'70.04 and E7°09'56.93}. Samples of surface water, sediments and swimming crabs were collected from three different stations which were at least 1000 meters apart. The results of this study show that concentrations of the heavy metals (Fe and Zn) were both higher in the three media than the approved limits prescribed by the local regulatory authority. Although Cu was relatively within acceptable limit in the three media. <br>There is therefore the need to control the anthropogenic activities within or around the river. This will help to prevent effluent and solid waste discharges that lead to increase in the concentration of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. Routine monitoring should be encouraged to identify the major sources of heavy metals introduction into the river and their impacts on the aquatic resources.</p> J.A. Akankali I.C. Davies Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1341 1348 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.1 Impact of Agricultural Input Supply on Agricultural Growth in Nigeria <p>Improving the production capacity of agriculture in Nigeria through agricultural input supply is an important policy goal in a country where agriculture represents an important sector in the economy. The agricultural sector provides livelihood to a significant portion of Nigerian population, especially in rural areas, where poverty is more pronounced. Thus, a growing agricultural sector contributes to both overall growth and poverty alleviation. The study specifically examined the effects of agricultural input supply on agricultural growth in Nigeria from 1990 to 2017. The objective of this study is to examine agricultural input supply in Nigeria and its implications on the growth of agricultural growth in Nigeria. The study used time series data covering 1986-2016 obtained from FAOSTAT, World Development Indicator and Central Bank of Nigeria data base. This study utilized Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to investigate the variables. The finding of the study shows that there is co-integration between the variables. The result of the study shows that gross capital formation and Fertilizer supply to agriculture were significant in influencing agricultural growth in Nigeria with coefficient values of (-0.002468), and (0.001506), with P- values of (0.0222) and (0.0171) respectively. Given the robust nature of the result, it is evident that agricultural input supply contributes in great measure to agricultural growth in Nigeria. The study then conclude that agricultural input is essential for the growth of agricultural sector in Nigeria and recommend that given the lean resources available to government, attention should be given to the inputs that contributes significantly to the growth of the sector.</p> G. Opeyemi S.S. Olusegun A. Taiwo A.O. Mobolaji Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1349 1354 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.2 Assessment of Timber Resource Exploitation in Shasha Forest Reserve, Osun State, Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Forestry <p>Records on rate of timber exploitation are very essential for sustainable forestry. They help in managing the forest sustainably. Therefore, the study collected and analysed data on rate of timber exploitation in Shasha forest reserve in Osun state. Logs arranged and set to be taken out of the forest were identified and measured every Monday between December, 2017 and June, 2018 for twenty-eight (28) weeks. The species and families of logs encountered were identified. A total of 13,944 logs were assessed. Fifteen (15) families belonging to twenty-one (21) species of logs were identified. Result revealed that Sterculiaceae family with five species was the most exploited. Ricinodendron heudelotti has the highest number of exploited logs with overall frequency of 27.71%. <em>Ricinodendron heudelotti</em> had the highest basal area and volume with values of 18018776.71cm² and 113289.36cm³ respectively. The study concludes that the population of <em>Ricinodendron heudelotii</em> tree was high in Shasha forest which made it available for extraction at high rate. The study recommends strict monitoring and enforcement of sustainable forestry laws with regular inventory and up-to-date inventory of timber exploitation rate from the reserve.</p> B.L. Olajiire-Ajayi D.A. Adenuga B.T. Olatunji O.O. Abegunrin A.S. Adebayo J.O. Adedipe Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1355 1359 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.3 3-D Seismic Structural Interpretation of High Field Offshore Western Niger Delta <p>Seismic Structural interpretation of subsurface system is a vital tool in mapping source rocks and good trapping system which enhances good understanding of the subsurface system for productive drilling operation. This study is geared towards mapping the structural traps available within the hydrocarbon bearing zones of the “High field” with the use of well log and 3D seismic data. Seven horizons (H<sub>1</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>3</sub>, H<sub>4</sub>, H<sub>5</sub>, H<sub>6</sub> and H<sub>7</sub>) were identified on well logs using gamma ray log and resistivity logs. Nine (9) faults were mapped on seismic sections across the field, two (2) of which are major growth faults (F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub>), two (2) synthetic faults (F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>7</sub>) and five (5) antithetic faults (F<sub>4</sub>, F<sub>5</sub>, F<sub>6</sub>, F<sub>8</sub> and F<sub>9</sub>). Rollover anticlines which are structural closure and displayed on the depth structural maps suggest probable hydrocarbon accumulation at the down throw side of the fault F<sub>1</sub>. Structural interpretation of high field has revealed a highly fault assisted reservoir which depicts the tectonic setting of Niger Delta basin.</p> S.S. Adebayo E.O. Agbalagba A.I. Korode T.S. Fagbemigun O.E. Oyanameh O.W. Osisanya Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1361 1369 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.4 Abundance, Distribution, Morphometric, Feeding Evaluation and the Reproductive Strategies of <i>Gymnarchus niloticus</i> in the Lower River Niger at Agenebode, Edo State Nigeria <p>The study of the numerous areas of biology of fish produces ample and relevant information that aids scientist to explore, know and maintain the survival, growth, continuity and sustainability of life of various fish species. A total of 94 specimens of <em>Gymnarchus niloticus</em> were collected from River Niger at Agenebode during the sample period that ranged from 14 – 94 cm total length (54.88± 17.92); weighed 424 - 2281g (1569.61 ± 422.85). The length weight relationship (LWR) of <em>G. niloticus</em> in this study showed a negative (b&lt;3) allometric growth pattern. Out of the 94 specimens analysed 54 males and 40 females were examined with a ratio of 1:1.4. Insects and decapods were the major food of the juveniles of <em>Gymnarchus niloticus</em> while the major food of preference of the sub adults and adults were Fish and insects with 27.12%, and 27.97% by FO. <em>Gymnarchus niloticus</em> possesses a single ovary in the female and single testis in the male which is often referred to as unpaired gonad. Fecundity ranged between 620 to 1378 eggs with a mean of 957.69 ± 112.31 eggs in females. The relationship between fecundity (F) and weight (W) and fecundity and standard length (SL) showed that fecundity is more related to weight than length of fish. Log F = 820.66 + 0.11 W and Log F = 151.23 + 5.31 SL. Fecundity had a positive significant correlation (P&lt;0.05) with both somatic weight (r = 0.714) and standard length (r = 0.657) of fish. Ova diameter showed a ranged between 3.5 and 7.9 mm with a mean of 4.72 ± SD1.69 mm and it had significant relationship (P&lt;0.05) with total weight, gonad weight and maturity stage. <em>Gymnarchus niloticus</em> in the Lower River Niger at Agenebode showed that <em>G. niloticus</em> has an unpaired gonad in both sexes, a gonochoristic reproductive pattern. Fecundity is low and the ova are large. They are small brood spawners with asynchronous breeding strategy. The attributes of <em>G. niloticus</em> obtained from this study reveals that the fish species is a good candidate for fish culture.</p> M.O. Agbugui F.E. Abhulimen A.O. Adeniyi Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1371 1377 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.5 Sustainability of an Integrated E-Payment System in Developing Countries <p>Over the recent years, there has been tremendous ease in monetary transactions; all thanks to a convenient payment platform. The Integrated e-payment system (IEPS) facilitates financial transactions electronically.This study aims to examine the factorial models necessitating the continuous use of the integrated e-payment system in the light of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) with two additional variables; processing time and processing charges proposed. The study data were collected from 285 valid respondents in Ghana through the random sampling approach. The hypothesis verification was conducted via the SmartPLS. The result of the structural equation modelling indicate that processing charges, processing time, and social influence are the critical influencers of IEPS continuous usage intention. In addition, it also implies that financial institutions and banks liaise with designers to, perhaps, consider consumers’ perspectives in their design; such that will bring about convenience, fast processing and minimal cost in order to foster continuous use.</p> P.S. Kissi P.E. Idoga Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1379 1385 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.6 Abundance and Habitat Preference of the Genus <i>Euplectes</i> in Protected and Non protected Habitats of Jos East Plateau State, Nigeria <p>The knowledge on the factors influencing habitat selection is of uttermost importance because it guides the development of conservation action plan for species. Till date, there is no baseline study on the genus <em>Euplectes</em> in Northern Nigeria thus, an attempt to investigate the habitat preference of the genus was carried out in Amurum Forest Reserve and the nonprotected habitats of Fobur. Line transects of 200m were randomly laid across the study sites. The abundance of Bishop species was highest in farmland compared to grassland and rocky outcrop. Therefore, the number of the species was significantly different between habitats (F2, 573 = 5.454, P = 0.0015). There was a significant relationship between flock size and number of seeds across habitat types. Number of individual birds increased with increase in seed number (F1, 57 = 21687.786, P &lt; 0.001). With the exception of grass height, there was a highly significant difference in relation to vegetation variables taken between plots where Bishop species were sighted and the random points where they were not seen (P &lt; 0.001). The finding suggests that farmlands should be integrated into conservation plan in the nonprotected area based on the high population of the genus recorded.</p> M.J. Francis A.A. Chaskda A. Ombugadu S.D. Karau O.C. Mathias O. Olori-Oke C.K. Yakubu Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1387 1391 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.7 Improving Hydrophobicity of Tropical Hardwood along Axial Positions <p>Wood is hygroscopic and is considered dimensionally unstable materials when exposed to wet conditions. To increase the hydrophobicity of wood, this study focused on the modification of tropical hardwood (<em>Triplochiton scleroxylon</em>) along different positions of the stem using acetic anhydride The weight percent gain (WPG) was determined and acetylation reaction was confirmed with FTIR. The dimensional stability of the wood was characterized by water absorption (WA), volumetric swelling (VS), anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), and water repellent efficiency (WRE). Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance at α0.05. It was observed that the weight gain (WG) by acetylation increases along the axial position (base to top) of <em>T. scleroxylon</em> wood. IR-spectra confirmed properly the substitution of the acetyl group. The treatment resulted in a marked improvement in the WA and VS, ASE, and WRE of acetylated <em>T. scleroxylon</em> wood were also found to improve considerably from base to top of the wood. It could be said that the WPG and hydrophobicity increased, but the percentage of water absorption and volumetric swelling diminished. Hence, the modified wood showed good hydrophobicity and improved dimensional stability.</p> O.A. Adegoke F.G. Adebawo O.O. Ajala E.A. Adelusi A.J. Oloketuyi Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1339 1343 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.8 Isolation and Characterization of <i>Photorhabdus Spp.</i> (Enterobacteriaceae) Isolated From <i>Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora</i> in Kashere, Nigeria <p><em>Photorhabdus</em> bacteria are symbiotically associated with the infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Heterorhabditis. These bacteria after infecting a susceptible host, produces a host of lethal toxins that killthe insect hosts within 24 to 72 hours. Consequently they have emerged and are trending as excellent biological control agents against insect pests of agricultural crops. Therefore, this study aim to isolate, identify and test the pathogenicity of <em>Photorhabdus</em> bacteria isolated from <em>Heterorhabditis bacteriophora</em>, entomopathogenic nematode from Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. To this end phenotypic and biochemical tests were conducted. The tests conducted showed that the isolate exhibited characteristics similar to those of <em>Photorhabdus</em> bacteria that have been identified. Last instar larvae of <em>G. mellonella</em> exposed to different concentrations of the bacterial isolate showed some level of susceptibility of the larvae to the bacterial isolate confirming its biological control potential.</p> H.U. Aliyu F. Tahir E.B. Agbo S.L. Kela Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1345 1348 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.9 Impacts of Anthropogenic Stressors on Hydrochemistry, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Sediment Characteristics of the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria <p>The anthropogenic impact on the water, benthic macroinvertebrates and sediment grain size of Lagos lagoon was investigated between July and October, 2019. Ten sampling stations were selected based on their importance as likely sources of different forms of anthropogenic stressor to the lagoon. Water temperatures, pH and salinity were measured in situ. Water and benthic samples were collected monthly and analysed using standard methods. Nutrient levels were determined using a spectrophotometer. The hydrochemistry of the stations differed significantly (p&lt;0.05) with the exception of temperature and pH. The sediment grains across the study stations consists basically of sand and mud, with sand dominating the grain type. A total of 502 individuals comprising 3 phyla, 4 classes, 10 families and 11 species was recorded. The phylum mollusca which contributed 92% to the total number of individuals was represented by two Classes; <em>Gastropoda </em>and<em> Bivalvia</em>, with the gastropod <em>Tympanotonus fuscatus</em> having the highest number of individuals (321). <em>Thephylum Annelida</em> represented by one Class, <em>Polychaeta</em> and two Species <em>Nereis</em> sp. and <em>Capitella capitata</em> contributed 6% to the total number of individuals. The class <em>Crustacea</em>, representing the <em>Phylum Arthropoda</em> was the least sampled (7 individuals) constituting about 1.4% of the total population Result showed that different pollution sources have negatively impacted the water chemistry of the lagoon and reduced the diversity and abundance of its benthic macroinvertebrates community. The sedentary nature of this group of benthic fauna could be the major reason why they are most impacted.</p> O.F. Fasuyi W.A. Yusuf J.A. Nkwoji Copyright (c) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 25 8 1349 1356 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.10 Influence of Vehicle Traffic Emissions on Spatial Variation of Ozone and its Precursors in Air of Port Harcourt City, Nigeria <p>This study aimed at assessing the influence of vehicle traffic on spatial variation of ozone (O3) and its vehicular emission precursors in the air of Port Harcourt city. Sampling was carried out in ten (10) sites, eight (8) located within the high traffic density area (study sites) and two (2) located within the very low traffic density area (reference sites). The precursor pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCSs). Ozone and the precursor pollutants were measured in situ using AeroQUAL 500 series portable ambient air analyzer while traffic flow survey was achieved by direct counting. Measurements were carried out at morning, evening and off-peak traffic periods respectively. The mean concentrations of ozone and the precursor pollutants were significantly higher (p = 0.05) in the study sites than in the reference sites. Mean concentrations were higher at peak traffic periods than at off-peak traffic periods except for ozone that was higher at off-peak than at morning peak. There was significant correlation between traffic density and each of the pollutants including ozone. The spatial variability in concentration of pollutants was influenced by vehicular traffic. VOCs and NO2 levels were higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) limit of 0.05 ppm and 0.04 – 0.06 ppm respectively, O3 concentration was below the standard limit (0.06 ppm) but was at the verge of exceeding. Traffic emission within the city was significant and could be mitigated through regular monitoring and control.</p> I.E. Okon K.I. Omoniyi E.D. Paul P.A. Ekwumemgbo Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1357 1363 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.11 Determination of Fuel Properties of Biodiesel from Sand Apple Seed Oil with Automotive Gas Oil Blend <p>The objective of this study was to determine the fuel properties of Sand Apple Ethyl Ester (SAEE) and its blends with Automotive Gas Oil (AGO).using eggshell as catalyst. Sand apple seed oil (SASO) obtained was characterized based on America Society for Testing and Material (ASTM D6751) to determine acid value, saponification, iodine content, density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. Sand Apple fruits were processed and oil extracted using solvent extraction method. Raw eggshells were calcined at 800oC for 120 min in the muffle furnace. SAEE was blended with AGO at 5 – 25 % mix. Data obtained was analyzed using ANOVA at P &lt; 0.05 significant level. Cloud and pour points obtained for SASO are 4.68 and 3.09℃ . Flash point was 103℃ which fell within ASTM D93 range indicating that SASO is safe for handling and storage. Heating value was 42.61 MJ/kg, slightly lower than that of diesel oil of 44.8 MJ/kg shows that AGO has ability to produce heat of combustion than SASO. Iodine value was 80.71 g I/100g while acid value was determined to be 2.62 mgKOH/g, which was higher than that of ASTM D6751 of 0.5 mgKOH/g. Sulphur contents for AGO and SASO–AGO blends were 0.006, 0.009, 0.014, 0.016 and 0.004%, respectively. Low sulphur values indicates that hazardous sulphur dioxide emission of SAEE has reduced. This study established that all the properties obtained, except acid value, fell within the ASTM specification and could suitably be compared with those of fossil diesel.</p> D.T. Adeyemi A. Saleh F.B. Akande O.O. Oniya F.A. Ola Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1365 1369 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.12 Remote Sensing of City Extension and Vegetal Cover Changes along Lagos-Ibadan Access Strip in Nigeria <p>The paper employed Remote sensing data in a multi-decadal assessment of vegetal to urban land cover transition along Lagos-Ibadan expressway. The forty-year assessment commenced in 1980 and ended in 2020. Landsat imageries acquired for the respective periods were subjected to supervised classification. Results reveal massive conversion of vegetated areas into built-up areas. The transition became pronounced from the second decade with 30,226 and cumulative of 48,455 Hectares of vegetation transforming into built-up area. During the third decade (2000 to 2010), additional 44,780 and cumulative of 93,235 Hectares of green area was converted into built-up areas. The largest transition was recorded in the last decade (2010 to 2020) during which vegetated area covering 50,827 Hectares was converted to living or industrial areas giving a cumulative transition of 141,065 in year 2020 Pearson moment correlation showed a high negative correlation with a coefficient value of -0.86. Hectares of vegetal areas into built-up or bare surfaces.</p> J.A. Oyedepo D.E. Oluyege E.I. Babajide Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1371 1377 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.13 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Comfort of an Office Building Equipped with Hybrid Downdraft Evaporative Cooler <p>In office buildings, provision of thermal comfort for occupant’s high intellectual concentration, efficiency and productivity is imperative. This study experimentally and numerically investigates the thermal comfort performance of HDEC system equipped to an office building. The experiment was carried out in September, October and November for 24 working days and the thermal comfort Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index being the objective function was determined using Centre for Built Environment thermal comfort tool. DesignBuilder CFD simulation software was employed to numerically determine the PMV index of the test office using ASHRAE Standard-55 thermal comfort range of PMV=±0.5. Minitab 19 software was used to validate the numerical results against the experimental results. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the P-value at 95% confidence level were 0.717 and 0.00 respectively while the RMSE computed was 0.653 indicating a good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results. Both PMV results indicate that the HDEC system is suitable for the provision of thermal comfort in office buildings and any other similar building.</p> I.U. Haruna I.A. Rufai D.B. Yahaya Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1379 1384 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.14 Assessment of Impact Rainfall Variability on Water Supply in Ibadan South West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria <p>The effect of rainfall variability on water supply in Ibadan South West L.G.A was investigated in this study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. The result of the analysis shows that there is a weak positive relationship between annual rainfall received and the public water supply in the study area during the selected (2006-2020) years. The results obtained from the computation of correlation were used to test for the validity of the first hypothesis. It was discovered that water demand by each household is almost similar from zone to zone which shows that the people are with similar water needs with 52.92% of the population needing 401 to 600 liters of water per day while 10.48% consumes over 800 liters of water per day The result also shows that the calculated value (3.807) is greater than the tabulated value (2.167). Therefore we reject the null hypothesis which states that there is no relationship between rural water supply and rainfall variability in the study area to accept the alternative hypothesis which states that there is a relationship between rural water supply and rainfall variability in the study area confirming that water availability and water supply is vulnerable to climate change and rainfall variability. The study recommends that the people, civil society organizations, government as well as non-governmental organizations should rededicate their efforts of ameliorating the adverse effect of climatic change and rainfall variability on water supply through massive development of ground water sources and rain harvesting techniques.</p> A.O. Adetayo Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1385 1388 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.15 Comparative Study on Mechanic Workshop Polluted Soil Treated With Lime (<i>Citrus Aurantifolia</i>) Juice, Powder and Inorganic Lime Fertilizer <p>An assessment of mechanic workshop polluted soil treated with 16.6% lime juice (MSAL), mechanic workshop polluted soil treated with lime powder (MSLP) and mechanic workshop polluted soil treated with inorganic lime fertilizer (MSLF) was conducted for a period of 56 days. The study revealed higher microbial counts in the treated soils compared to mechanic oil free soil (MFS). The total viable bacterial counts observed ranged from 1.6×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g to 6.8×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSF, 2.2×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g – 26.2×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSAL, 1.2×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g -17.2×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSLP and 6.8× 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g – 16.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSLF while fungi counts ranged from 2.5×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g to 6.4×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MFS, 4.0×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g – 16.4×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSAL, 2.6×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g -3.8×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSLP and 2.1× 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g – 4.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g for MSLF. Organisms isolated&nbsp; in the course of the study includes <em>Pseudomonas sp,&nbsp; Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus sp, Escherichia coli,&nbsp; Proteus sp, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor sp,&nbsp; Saccharomyces sp, </em>and<em> Rhizopus sp.</em> The physicochemical results showed that MSAL had higher moisture content, organic matter content, organic carbon, and nitrate than MSF, MSLP and MSLF. There were significant differences in pH, organic matter content, organic carbon, nitrate and phosphorus at 0.05 probability level, but there was no significant different in the moisture content of the soil undergoing treatment. This is an indication that Lime juice has a greater potential in bioremediation of mechanic workshop polluted soil compared to lime powder and inorganic lime fertilizer.</p> E. Stephen O.O. Oyebamiji O.J. Otorkpa S. Latena A.I. Sunday P.A. Idoko Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1389 1393 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.16 Comparative Morphology and Taxonomic Study of <i>Chlorophytum sabiense</i> And Two Other Species in the Genus <i>Chlorophytum</i> Ker-Gawl <p><em> Chlorophytum sabiense</em> Omok. (a newly identified species in the family Asparagaceae) is unique, having multiple styles emerging from fused ovaries. This specialized character may be overlooked in conjuring up archetype for the genus <em>Chlorophytum</em>, since the genus is characterized by single and simple style. Comparative morphology and taxonomic study of <em>Chlorophytum sabiense</em> and two other species in the genus (<em>Chlorophytum macrophyllum</em> and <em>C. stenopetalum</em>) was carried out to appraise level of relatedness of <em>Chlorophytum</em>. sabiense and these existing members. Distribution of the three species is sympatric in the North Central part of Nigeria. <em>Chlorophytum sabiense</em> may be confused with either of the two species because of the attributes they have in common. Samples collected were raised in a garden and closely observed for duration of three years. Data collected from morphological studies were analyzed statistically. The three species show similarity in most of the vegetative characters studied, however <em>Chlorophytum sabiense</em> is distinguished from the two others having; multiple styles, smaller fruit size and shorter length of pistil relative to the stamen. Exceptional characteristics exhibited by <em>Chlorophytum sabiense</em> makes it stand out among species in the genus, while its close resemblance with its allies accounts for reason why it had escaped recognition for a long time.</p> B.S. Omokanye O.T. Mustapha A.D. Animasaun S.O. Oyewole O.S. Kolawole Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1395 1399 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.17 Assessment of Vegetation Structure of the African Buffalo (<i>Syncerus caffer</i>) Habitat in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the relative abundance and vegetation structure of African buffalo (<em>Syncerus caffer</em>) including plant parameters: frequency, diameter at breast height (dbh), tree height, diversity, evenness, richness, Margalef, dominance in Kainji Lake National Park. Point – Centered Quarter method was used for woody species enumeration. A total of twenty-eight (28) randomly sampled plots of 150m by 100m given 112 points per plot were established in the study area. The abundance and distribution, tree frequencies, heights, dbh and plant biodiversity indices were calculated using the Paleontological Statistics Software (PAST) for scientific data analysis. The results revealed that relative abundance of African buffalo in both morning and evening of dry and wet seasons in various habitats of the Park were 13.33 ± 4.41 and 11.33 ± 4.40 respectively. The study showed the highest mean value of 21.75 ± 6.94 representing 87 individuals in dry season compared to wet season with mean value of 15.25 ± 5.11 representing 61 individuals. A total of 91 woody plant species and 29 tree families were recorded in African buffalo habitats representing 80, 77, 68 and 59 tree species respectively. The highest average girth size of tree species was class between &gt;10cm -50cm with 59.14 ± 4.06 and the highest mean tree height was height class of &gt;3 - 10m with 91.43 ± 5.44. There were significant differences at (p&lt;0.05) between the values of dbh, tree height, diversity, richness and evenness of plant species recorded in different habitats studied in the Park.</p> I.M. Goni E.A. Agbelusi B.G. Ogunjemite O.K. Azeez A.A. Ogunjinmi S.O. Odewumi O.O. Oyeleke Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1401 1408 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.18 Identification of Methicillin Resistance <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> From Clinical Samples and Environments of a General Hospital in Osogbo <p>Infections associated with <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (<em>S.aureus</em>) have high mortality rate and lead to economic loss with a long stay in the hospital. Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens which are acquired in the health care facilities. The objective of the study is to investigate the presence of methicillinresistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) in clinical sources and hospital environments. Samples were collected, cultured and identified morphologically. Likewise, the antibiotic susceptibility profile was done. Identification was also done molecularly using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method. Sixty-three isolates were positive for <em>S. aureus</em> out of 370 clinical samples (urine, wound, nasal swabs and pus) and 37 positives out of 262 samples from hospital environments. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin, novobiocin and majority were resistant to ceftazidine, cloxacillin and augmentin. Seventy-one to ninety- five percent and 51-72% exhibited multi-drug resistance among clinical samples and hospital environments respectively. Both samples were positive for nuc and mec A genes. The detection of methicillin-resistant <em>S. aureus</em> (MRSA) in hospital environments may pose a great danger to patients especially those of compromised status.</p> O.C. Adekunle O.S. Bolaji A.O. Olalekan T.O. Oyakeye Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1409 1414 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.19 Tree Species Diversity and Abundance of Akure Forest Reserve, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>This study was carried out to examine the tree species diversity and abundance in a natural forest ecosystem in the Southwestern region of Nigeria. Data were collected from a four equal size sampling plot of 50×50m in a permanent sample plot section of Akure Forest Reserve. All living trees with DBH ≥ 10cm were measured and identified. A total of 956 trees were encountered. These trees were from 42 genera and 20 families. Celtis zenkeri belonging to the family of Ulmaceae was the species with the highest population distribution while Sterculiaceae was the dominant family in the study area. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (Hˈ) of 3.196 and species evenness of 0.84 were obtained from the study area. The high values of diversity indices obtained indicated that the forest is rich in biodiversity and hence should be protected from any forms of disturbance to enhance sustainability as well as protect the rare species in it from going into extinction.</p> O.M. Ogundele P.O. Ige Y.T. Owoeye D.E. Abanikanda O.O. Komolafe Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1415 1419 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.20 Effect of Palm Oil, Palm Olein, Palm Kernel Oil and Their Blends on the Lipid Profile of Albino Rats <p>Edible oils play an important role in the body as carriers of essential fatty acids, this essential fatty acids are not produced in the body but gotten from diet we consume. This study examined the effect of palm oil, palm olein, palm kernel oil and their blends (PKO: POL and POL: PKO) on the lipid profile of Albino rats. The aim was to investigate the nutritional and health effects of these oils. Serum was used in the biochemical analysis of lipid profile using Randox Laboratories (England) kit. High density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed diets containing unheated and unblended PKO was lower than the recommended range and palm olein and their blends were all higher than the recommended range of 40-59mg/dL. Palm kernel oil fortified diet significantly increased triglyceride levels while; total cholesterol levels were considered to be acceptable except for palm kernel oil and its blends. Palm kernel oil and higher blend of palm kernel oil increased significantly very low density lipoprotein cholesterol above the recommended limit of 2-30mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol values in this study were far below the recommended limit for PKO and higher blends of PKO. In conclusion palm oil helps to lower total cholesterol concentration by stimulating the synthesis of protective HDL-C. Palm kernel oil increases total triglyceride and total cholesterol levels.</p> O.B. Imoisi V.O. Ezoguan M.I. Imafidon Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1421 1425 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.21 Sub-Chronic Toxicity Evaluation of Tannery Waste Water to <i>Clarias gariepinus </i>Juveniles <p>This paper was conducted to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity of tannery effluents sourced from Challawa industrial estate Kano, Nigeria using Clarias gariepinus. The study covered physicochemical parameters, haematological, and biochemical stress enzymes assessments. The water quality results revealed mean value of Temperature (29.92±1.93oC), pH (8.14±0.85), DO (1.60±0.38mg/l), BOD (0.77±0.16mg/l), Salinity (7.75±0.60mg/l), Nitrate (1.19 ± 0.05mg/l) and Phosphate (16.48±0.85mg/l). After termination of 21 days sub-chronic test, haematological and biochemical changes analysed were generally considered significantly different (P&lt;0.05) within the treatments. The haematological indices revealed a decrease and sudden increase in concentration of estimated values of PCV, Hb, RBC, MCHC and MCH, while WBC and MCV fluctuated. These may be attributed to stress, the duration of exposure and levels of pollutants in the effluent. Furthermore, oxidative stress enzymes followed an order of SOD &gt; CAT &gt; GSH. This could be due to level of pollutants in the effluent. The results of the data indicated tannery effluent to have a toxic effect on the experimented organism. The information calls for a more enrich toxicity testing that should involve wide range of organisms. It should entail reproductive aspects of the species, detail relationship and enhanced methodological procedures.</p> S.S. Ibrahim T.S. Imam I.U. Zungum Copyright (c) 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 25 8 1427 1434 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.22 Impact of Gibberellic Acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) on Growth, Yield and Nodulation on Two Accessions of Cowpea (<i>Vigna unguiculata (L.)</i> Walp) <p>Cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em>) is one of the most ancient crops known to man and is grown across various climatic zones, most commonly in the dry savanna regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate the impact of Gibberelic acid on the growth and yield of cowpea. Field experiments was conducted during the 2019 rainy season at the Botanical Garden of Federal University of Lafia. The cowpea accessions were submerged into various concentrations of GA<sub>3</sub> (90mg/L, 120mg/L, and 150mg/L). The results showed varying response of the accessions in varying GA<sub>3</sub> concentrations. Both Accessions (TVU-1 and TVU-4) recorded no significant difference across all treatments in the number of flowers. In TVU-1 accession, the least concentration, 90mg/L recorded the highest number of flowers (0.22) at 12(WAP); while in TVU-4, the seeds exposed to the highest concentration recorded the highest number of flowers. Similar result was observed in the number of pods of both accessions (TVU-1 and TVU-4) were there was no significant difference (P≤0.5) recorded. There was increase in the number of root nodules with increased in the growth hormone concentrations as treatment 150mg/L showed the highest number of root nodules in both accessions; even though no significant difference was recorded. It is therefore recommended that different accessions at different concentrations of gibberelic acid be tired to see their responses.</p> B.P. Mshelmbula E. Ogale S. Bello H.A. Kana M.Y. Sulayman M.H. Allahnana S.A. Sirajo Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1435 1439 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.23 Acetylcholine and Rivastigmine as Corrosion Inhibitors of Cu – Sn - Zn – Pb Alloy in Hydrochloric Acid Environment: DFT & Electrochemical Approach <p>The study on the action of Acetylcholine and Rivastigmine as Corrosion Inhibitors of Cu – Sn - Zn – Pb Alloy in Hydrochloric Acid Environment was carried out using density functional theory, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Potentiodynamic polarization, Scanning electron microscopy and weight loss. The result revealed that both Acetylcholine and Rivastigmine expired drugs were good inhibitors of Cu – Sn - Zn – Pb Alloy in Hydrochloric Acid Environment. This was confirmed from results of weight loss (99.1 % and 95.0 %), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) (92.5 % and 91.8 %), and Potentiodynamic polarization (97.4 % and 87.1 %). Both inhibitors were able to increase the charge transfer resistance and corrosion current densities of the electrical solution and reduce the double layer capacitance of the metal – solution interface. Inhibition was as a result of adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the Cu – Sn - Zn – Pb surface. Thermodynamically, inhibitors showed greater stability on metal surface, spontaneous in the forward direction and reduction in level of disorderliness. Inhibitors demonstrated a mixed type inhibition while physical adsorption mechanism was proposed for the inhibitor – metal interaction. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was obeyed as data fitted adequately to the isotherm and regression coefficient was approximately unity. A monolayer adsorption was deduces.</p> B.U. Ugi V.M. Bassey M.E. Obeten S.A. Adalikwu E.C. Omaliko D.N. Obi Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1441 1448 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.24 Bayesian Change Point Detection of Vegetation Cover Dynamics of Akure Forest Reserve, Ondo State in Southwestern, Nigeria <p>This study uses satellite acquired vegetation index data to monitor changes in Akure forest reserve. Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series datasets were extracted from Landsat images; extraction was performed on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The datasets were analyzed using Bayesian Change Point (BCP) to monitor the abrupt changes in vegetation dynamics associated with deforestation. The BCP shows the magnitude of changes over the years, from the posterior data obtained. BCP focuses on changes in the long‐range using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, this returns posterior probability at &gt; 0.5% of a change point occurring at each time index in the time series. Three decades of Landsat data were classified using the random forest algorithm to assess the rate of deforestation within the study area. The results shows forest in 2000 (97.7%), 2010 (89.4%), 2020 (84.7%) and non-forest increase 2000 (2.0%), 2010 (10.6%), 2020 (15.3%). Kappa coefficient was also used to determine the accuracy of the classification.</p> P.A. Ukoha S.J. Okonkwo A.R. Adewoye Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1449 1452 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.25 Remote Sensing of City Extension and Vegetal Cover Changes along Lagos-Ibadan Access Strip in Nigeria <p>The paper employed Remote sensing data in a multi-decadal assessment of vegetal to urban land cover transition along Lagos-Ibadan expressway. The forty-year assessment commenced in 1980 and ended in 2020. Landsat imageries acquired for the respective periods were subjected to supervised classification. Results reveal massive conversion of vegetated areas into built-up areas. The transition became pronounced from the second decade with 30,226 and cumulative of 48,455 Hectares of vegetation transforming into built-up area. During the third decade (2000 to 2010), additional 44,780 and cumulative of 93,235 Hectares of green area was converted into built-up areas. The largest transition was recorded in the last decade (2010 to 2020) during which vegetated area covering 50,827 Hectares was converted to living or industrial areas giving a cumulative transition of 141,065. In year 2020 Pearson moment correlation showed a high negative correlation with a coefficient value of -0.86. Hectares of vegetal areas into built-up or bare surfaces.</p> J.A. Oyedepo D.E. Oluyege E.I. Babajide O.D. Onayemi Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1453 1459 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.26 Extraction and Formulation of Perfume from <i>Cymbopogon citratus</i> (Lemongrass) <p>This work aimed to extract perfume from the leaves of <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> using three extraction methods viz: distillation, solvent extraction and expression or effleurage. About 150 g of dried lemons grass were extracted using ethanol as the solvent to obtain essential oils required for the formulation of perfumes. The result of the hydrodistillation process showed that 1.23 g of essential oil per 130g of dry lemongrass produce 0.95% oil at 78 °C, while the effleurage method was 2.55 g of essential oil per 130 g of dry lemongrass sample thereby producing 1.96% oil yield. The solvent extraction method gave 2.7 g of essential oil per 130 g of dry lemongrass sample. This gives about 2.08 % yield of essential oil at a temperature of 78°C i.e. the boiling point of ethanol. The solvent extraction method yielded 2.08%, the effleuragemethod yielded 1.96% and the hydrodistillation method yielded 0.95% essential oil respectively. In conclusion, solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of less exposure to air and heat, which is highly recommended as the most suitable method for the extraction of essential oil.</p> O.E. Ameh J.I. Achika N.M. Bello A.J. Owolaja Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1461 1463 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.27 Comparative Investigation on the Concentrations of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Testosterone Levels in Infertile Males attending a Private University Teaching Hospital, in Rivers State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to determine the concentrations of Dehydroepiandrosterone hormone (DHEAS) and testosterone in infertile males and compared with fertile males attending Madonna University Teaching Hospital (MUTH) Elele. Thirty apparently infertile males and 30 apparently fertile male as control had their Dehydroepiandrosterone hormone (DHEAS) and testosterone determined using competitive immune enzymatic colorimetric method and Enzyme Immunoassay while the semen analysis was done using Microscopy method. There was significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in DHEAS of 1.23+0.07 ug/ml obtained in infertile male compared with 3.78 +0.13 ug/ml in the control. There was significant difference in Semen count of 56.27 +2.82million/ml in fertile males compared with 7.73+ 0.10 million/ml while testosterone in infertile males of 2.53+0.09 was significantly lower than 7.52+0.31 in fertile males(P&lt;0.05). The study showed that DHEAS is elevated in infertility hence should be considered an indicator of infertility.</p> I.M. George-Opuda A.O. Adegoke O.E. Bamigbowu C. Nwaganga Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1465 1469 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.28 Factors Affecting Occurrence of Claims in Building Projects in Lagos State, Nigeria <p>The occurrence of claims prevails in all projects, making the successful completion of projects within the predetermined budget a mirage. This is recognized to have added to costs of projects and adversely affected project performance. This paper aims at investigating critical factors influencing occurrence of claims in building projects in Lagos State, Nigeria. Forty-three (43) construction project attributes affecting project performance were identified through literature and presented to the key stakeholders in the study area using questionnaire survey. Two hundred and seventy-six (276) copies of the questionnaire were randomly administered to key stakeholders involved in the building construction process. One hundred and fifty-one (151) were retrieved representing 57.61% response rate. Principal component analysis of responses to a set of 43 characteristics identified through literature review extracted four components. The results indicated important factors such as: ‘Project Participant Characteristics’, ‘Basic Project Characteristic’, ‘Procurement Characteristics’, along with ‘Complexity Characteristics’ were factors influencing the occurrence of claims. It was concluded that the construction stakeholders should effectively manage these factors in minimising claims occurrence and thereby improving building projects delivery.</p> A.A. Ajayi O. Babalola A. Morakinyo A. Anjonrin-Ohu Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1471 1476 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.29 Process Capability Analysis in a Polypropylene Bag Manufacturing Company <p>Process capability analysis combines statistical tools and control charts with good engineering judgment to interpret and analyze the data representing a process. This work analyzes the process capability of a polypropylene bag producing company. The case study organization uses two plants for production and data was collected over a period of nine months for this study. Analysis showed that the output spread of plant 1 was greater than the specification interval spread which implies poor capability. There are non-conforming parts below the Lower Specification Limit (LSL: 500,000 metres) and above the Upper Specification Limit (USL: 600,000 metres) and that the output requires improvement. Similarly, the capability analysis of plant 2 shows that the overall output spread is greater than the specification interval spread (poor capability). The output centre in the specification and overall interval are vertically aligned, thus specifying that the output from plant 2 is also process centered and requires improvement. Recommendations were made to improve the outputs from each production plant.</p> O.F. Odeyinka F.O. Ogunwolu O.P. Popoola T.O. Oyedokun Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1477 1482 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.30 Effects of alcoholic extract of <i>Myristica fragrans</i> (nutmeg) on pregnancy outcome in female Wistar rats <p><em>Myristica fragrans</em> has been reported to be a medicinal plant as it possesses hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antiulcer, anticancer and immunostimulatory properties, as well as antifertility potentials. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of alcoholic extract of <em>M. fragrans</em> on dam size, litter size, pup weight, ovarian follicles, endometrial glands and histopathological indices on pregnancy outcomes in female Wistar rats using standard methods. Pregnancy was induced in forty-eight (48) female Wistar rats that were randomly selected and assigned into four (4) groups of twelve (12) rats each: Group 1 (pregestational phase of pregnancy), Group 2 (germinal phase of pregnancy), Group 3 (embryonic phase of pregnancy) and Group 4 (Fetal phase of pregnancy). The treated animals all received 1500 mg of alcoholic extract of <em>M. fragrans</em>. Administration of distilled water and the extract was by orogastric tube. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the IBM SPSS statistics software (Statistical Package for Social Science) (Version 25) and relevant statistical values were obtained. The extract prevented the proliferation of ovarian follicles and endometrial glands. In addition, during the pregestational, germinal and embryonic phases, there were significant increases in weight of pups when the treated animals were compared to the control group. The dams also showed decreases in body weight during the embryonic phase. This study therefore demonstrated that alcohol extract of Myristica fragrans may serve as a contraceptive agent in view of its anti-fertility effect.</p> C.L. Sakpa D.O. Eguavoen Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1483 1491 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.31 Effect of Different Sowing Media on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of (Golden Shower Tree) <i>Senna fistula L</i> <p>This study investigated the effect of sowing media on the seed germination and subsequent seedling growth of <em>Senna fistula L.</em> Treatments were T1 (Top soil), T2 (River sand), T3 (Grinded coconut husk) and T4 (weathered sawdust), replicated two times for seed germination. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the data generated was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance, while mean separation where appropriate was done using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The different sowing media used had positive effect on the seed emergence, the seeds planted in river sand had the highest emergence percentage of 70%. The different sowing media used did not have any significant effect on the vegetative growth parameters, statistically, they had same effect on the parameters measured. Nonetheless, seedlings from river sand produced highest number of leave (20.4), seedlings from topsoil produced highest plant height and largest leaf area of l0.62 cm and 37.l4 cm<sup>2</sup> respectively. The seedlings from weathered sawdust produced the highest stem diameter of 0.79 mm, while seedlings from grinded coconut husk had lowest values for all the growth parameters measured. Therefore, it is recommended that river sand or weathered sawdust can be used to propagate <em>Senna fistula</em> seeds.</p> O.A. Majekodunmi I.O. Abiola A.M. Aderemi J.O. Adedipe O.G. Ogunwale O.O. Oyewole Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1493 1496 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.32 Isolation of <i>Ganoderma lucidum</i> (Curtis) P. Karst. From the Wild in Lagos through Tissue Culture Techniques and Cultivation on Sawdust of Six Nigerian Hardwoods <p>Cultivation of <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> (Curtis) P. Karst, a medicinal mushroom known for antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities is not practiced in Nigeria. Tree species used for cultivation in Asia, America and Europe are not available in Nigeria. The present study investigated indigenous hardwoods and their supplementation with rice and wheat bran as substrates for its cultivation. Six hardwoods (<em>Mansonia altissima</em> (A Chev.) A Chev., <em>Avecennia germinans</em> (L.) L, <em>Lophira alata</em> Banks ex Gaertn.,<em> Triplochiton scleoxylon K. Schum, Uapaca guineensis Mull. Arg, Nauclea diderrichii</em> (De Wild. &amp; Th. Dur.) Merrill) were investigated as potential growth substrates and potentially improve biological efficiency. The mushroom was collected from the wild and identification confirmed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA-ITS fragment with ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Tissue culture of the mushroom collected from the wild was initiated successfully with modified malt extract agar and grain spawn developed from it. The substrates were incubated after inoculation with grain spawn at room temperature for 30-60 days. Substrates were given cold treatment for 7days to induce fructification which was achieved with 9-10h/day regime and daily watering. There was full mycelial ramification of all substrates by the mushroom. Fruit bodies were harvested from all substrates but Lophira alata. The highest yield (308.76±5.81g/kg) was recorded with <em>Mansonia altissima</em> (Biological Efficiency-31.42±4.55%) and the least yield (31.45±5.44g/kg) was recorded in <em>Nauclea diderrichii</em> (B.E- 5.25±0.58%). The substrates with wheat bran performed significantly better than rice bran supplemented substrates. Commercial cultivation of native <em>G. lucidum</em> in Nigeria is possible with local agricultural wastes.</p> E.M. Adongbede A.F. Atoyebi Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1497 1503 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.33 Assessment of the Physicochemical Parameters of Bodo Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria: A Pre-spill, Post-spill and Post-clean-up Review <p>Water bodies are a source of ecosystem services such as water supply, production, recreation, and aesthetics. In 2008, two major oil spills took place in Bodo creek. A major challenge with the assessment and monitoring of an environment is the lack of baseline data. However, Bodo Creek has been studied extensively. This paper, therefore, reviews pre-spill, post-spill, and post-clean-up studies on physicochemical parameters in Bodo Creek. This paper revealed that the difference in the levels of the physicochemical parameters including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and temperature in Bodo Creek, before and after the oil spill was not statistically significant (P &gt; 0.05); other physicochemical parameters examined in this paper are alkalinity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS). This paper also revealed that pH and temperature were higher in the post-cleanup study, while DO and conductivity were higher in the pre-cleanup study. BOD was significantly higher in the post-spill study than the pre-spill study, indicating a high level of pollution as a result of the oil spill. This review also shows that there are higher pH and temperature levels in post-clean-up studies than the pre-cleanup studies. Preclean-up DO and conductivity were higher than the levels in the post-clean-up study.</p> D.K. Nkeeh A.I. Hart E.S. Erondu N. Zabbey Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1505 1512 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.34 Growth And Yield of Sorghum (<i>Sorghum bicolor</i> (L.) Moench) Varities in Sokoto Sudan Savanna of Nigeria <p>Field trial was carried out during the 2019 rainy season (June to October) at the Dryland Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to determine the growth and yield of sorghum varieties in the study area. The treatments consisted of five (5) sorghum varieties (Samsorg 45, Samsorg 46, Janjari, Yartawa and Jardawa), the treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three (3) times. Data were collected on the growth and yield of the crop. Janjari and Jardawa varieties were higher in plant height. Jardawa and Yartawa varieties were higher in number of leaves. Janjari and Yartawa varieties were higher in total dry weight. Janjari, Jardawa and Yartawa varieties were higher in harvest index. Yartawa variety was higher in leaf area, leaf area index and 1000-grain weight. Jardawa variety was higher in panicle length. Janjari variety was early in number of days to heading, flowering, and maturity and was higher in dry stalk weight. The grain yield (249 – 1506kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>) was higher in Janjari and Yartawa varieties (1268 – 1506 kg ha<sup>-1)</sup>. Based on the findings of this research, it could be concluded that Janjari and Yartawa varieties performed better than other varieties in the study area.</p> A.S. Gunu M. Musa Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1513 1518 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.35 Quantification of Some Metals in Commonly Consumed Canned Foods in South-west Nigeria: Probable Pointer to Metal Toxicity <p>Canned foods are one of the most commonly consumed products, due to benefits like the taste, handiness and convenience derived from them. On the other hand, these dietary products may be a means of heavy metal exposure and toxicant. This study aimed to quantify metals content in some frequently consumed canned foods in Nigeria as a possible source of toxicity. Twenty-two different commonly consumed brands of canned foods (Sweet corn, Green peas, Corned beef, Hotdog, Mushroom, Tin tomato, Mixed fruit, Baked beans, Mackerel (tomato sauce canned fish), Sardine (canned fish in vegetable oil) and Red kidney were analyzed for Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb and Al using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer after wet digestion. The results showed that the heavy metals concentration in the samples under study ranged from 0.55 to 0.86mg/kg (Ni), 0.00 to 0.41mg/kg (Cr), 1.40 to 1.76 mg/kg (Pb), 0.07 to 0.2mg/kg (Cu) and 4.71 to 16.4mg/kg (Al). The levels of Pb, Ni and Al were above FAO/WHO recommended limit of 0.01mg/kg, 0.05mg/kg and 7mg/kg respectively. The presence of heavy metals like lead (Pb) above the permissible limit calls for caution during production and in the frequent consumption of canned foods which may lead to accumulation of metals, toxicity and the sequelae.</p> O.J. Ojezele F.J. Okparaocha P.O. Oyeleke H.I. Agboola Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1519 1525 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.36 Levels of Heavy Metals in Soil, Water and Vegetables around Industrial area in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria <p>This study examined the levels of heavy metals in soil, water, and vegetables (<em>amaranthus, hibiscussabdariffa, </em>and<em> allium cepa</em> leaves) around the industrial area Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. The composite samples of soil, water, and vegetables were collected and determine the level of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, and As) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The level of the heavy metals decreased in the order of Mn &gt; Zn &gt; Pb &gt; Cd, Pb &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Cd, and Mn &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Cd in the soil, water, and vegetables respectively. Among the vegetables, amaranthus had the highest heavy metals level followed by allium cepa leaves and <em>hibiscus sabdariffa</em>. The levels of heavy metals obtained were below the tolerance level recommended by the world health organization (WHO). The bio-concentration factors of the heavy metals for the studied samples were below one except Zn in amaranthus. The daily intake of metals for Mn was found to be the highest in amaranthus for children and estimated to be 1.149 mg/person/day. Health risk index of Zn for <em>amaranthus</em> and<em> allium cepa</em> leaves for children and Pb for <em>amaranthus, hibiscus sabdariffa </em>and<em> allium cepa</em> leaves for both children and adults were above 1, except in hibiscus sabdariffa for adults, signifying provable of health risks for the consumption of the vegetables in the study area. Therefore, the consumption of these vegetables as food could pose a health hazard, and regular monitoring is recommended to prevent metal accumulation with their associated health implications in the consuming public.</p> B.A. Sulaiman MB Sulaiman A. Ahmed I.A. Maigari A.F. Tijjani Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1527 1533 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.37 Assessment of Vehicular-Induced Emissions in some Selected Areas in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria <p>Vehicular emission is a major environmental health problem in the world today especially in developing countries including Nigeria. This study was centered on assessing the vehicular emissions pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrogen Sulphide (H<sub>2</sub>S), Formaldehyde (HCHO) and Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC) in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The sampling of the CO and H<sub>2</sub>S gaseous pollutants was done using H-4S gas analyzer while JCG60 gas detector was used to measure TVOC and HCHO. The meteorological parameters were measured with HTC-1 hygrometer thermometer. AQI was calculated to determine the status of the ambient air quality of the study areas. Carbon monoxide concentration obtained from the result ranges from 3.12-16.1 ppm with location C having the highest amount of 16.1 ppm which exceeds the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) standard of 10 ppm. The calculated AQI shows that the study areas are all polluted. Continuous measurement and inventory of air pollutants should be encouraged, as this will enable the policymakers to effectively implement control measures on air pollution.</p> W.A. Raji L.A. Jimoda J.K. Odobor A.O. Popoola Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1535 1539 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.38 Effect of Different Sowing Media on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of (Golden Shower Tree) <i>Senna fistula L</i> <p>This study investigated the effect of sowing media on the seed germination and subsequent seedling growth of Senna fistula L. Treatments were T1 (Top soil), T2 (River sand), T3 (Grinded coconut husk) and T4 (weathered sawdust), replicated two times for seed germination. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the data generated was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance, while mean separation where appropriate was done using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The different sowing media used had positive effect on the seed emergence, the seeds planted in river sand had the highest emergence percentage of 70%. The different sowing media used did not have any significant effect on the vegetative growth parameters, statistically, they had same effect on the parameters measured. Nonetheless, seedlings from river sand produced highest number of leave (20.4), seedlings from topsoil produced highest plant height and largest leaf area of l0.62 cm and 37.l4 cm<sup>2</sup> respectively. The seedlings from weathered sawdust produced the highest stem diameter of 0.79 mm, while seedlings from grinded coconut husk had lowest values for all the growth parameters measured. Therefore, it is recommended that river sand or weathered sawdust can be used to propagate <em>Senna fistula</em> seeds.</p> O.A. Majekodunmi I.O. Abiola A.M. Aderemi J.O. Adedipe O.G. Ogunwale O.O. Oyewole Copyright (c) 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 25 8 1547 1550 10.4314/jasem.v25i8.40