Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US JASEM has joined the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Therefore articles in JASEM are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (Prof. Michael Horsfall Jnr) (Ms Green Ekwere Ufot, (BSc, Management)) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 14:14:42 +0000 OJS 60 Use of Livestock and Plant Agro-Waste in the Production of Organic Feed and Its Effect on the Physiology of Albino Wistar Rats <p>The need to consider agricultural wastes as resources for organic feed formulation has been of interest to researchers. This study was aimed at investigating the use of some livestock and plant agro-wastes in the production of organic feed and its effect on the physiology of albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 weaning rats were separated into six (6) different groups with 5 rats per group. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with known commercial feed -Vital, Top and Hybrid feeds respectively, Group 4 was fed with corn only, while Groups 5 and 6 were fed with indigenous formulated feed FF1 and FF2 respectively - derived from some local livestock and agro-waste. Phytochemical constituents and proximate composition of the various feeds were carried out. The animals were fed for 7 weeks during which anthropometric measurement and data were collected. Blood samples were collected via venipuncture after seven weeks for biochemical and haematology analysis. The result of the proximate analysis of the formulated feeds showed protein values of&nbsp; 30.00±3.00 (FF1) and 22.00±1.00 (FF2) as against 18%, 21% and 22% for Vital, Top and Hybrid feeds respectively. The haematology&nbsp; indices showed that the various feeds improved erythropoietic functions. Similarly, the Biochemical functions of the commercial feeds and Formulated diets can support growth and maintain homeostasis. Conclusively, this study has demonstrated an added advantage in the use of agro-wastes and their biotransformation into a cost-effective replacement for commercial feeds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Commercial feeds, Formulated feeds, Wistar rats, Corn</p> B.M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, B.C. Amadi, M.O. Wegwu Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ethanolic Extract of Ground <I>Vernonia Amygdalina</I> Stem Exhibited Potent Antibacterial Activity and Improved Hematological Bio-Functional Parameters in Normal and Monosodium Glutamate-Intoxicated Rats <p>Herein, Vernonia amygdalina stem ethanolic extract, VASEE, was elucidated for its antibacterial activity in vitro by disk-diffusion technique and, in vivo effect on some hematological parameters of normal and monosodium glutamate, MSG-intoxicated rats. For in vivo study, 20 male albino rats assigned into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) were, for 14 days, respectively administered MSG (8000 mg/kg body weight, bw), VASEE (200 mg/kg bw), Control (Vital feed and tap water), MSG (8000 mg/kg bw + VASEE, 200 mg/kg bw), and MSG (8000 mg/kg bw + VASEE, 400 mg/kg bw). In vitro, the VASEE-related activity against the tested bacterial pathogens was significant (P &lt; 0.05), dose dependent and comparable to that by the standard antibacterial drug, Ciprofloxacin. In vivo, VASEE compared to control and MSG groups improved (P &lt; 0.05) and, notably at the highest tested dose modulated the monosodium glutamate intoxication-related effect on, the studied hematology of rats. Thus, VASEE exhibited potent activity against the tested bacterial pathogens, improved, and potentially modulated MSG-intoxication-related effect on, the rats’ hematological functions. The study underscored a promising antibacterial application of the extract of hitherto wasted bitter leaf stem that could offer novel therapeutic benefits on the hematology of especially MSG-intoxicated rats, warranting further studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hematology, intoxication, bitter leaf stem, packed cell volume, Red blood cell</p> A.C.C. Egbuonu, R.P. Amadi Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution of metals in <i>Labeo coubie</i> (Ruppel, 1832) from a National Park river in Nigeria <p>This study assesses heavy metals distribution in body parts of Labeo coubie (African carp) from<br>River Oli, in Kainji Lake National Park as pollution index of the ecosystem. Fish parts samples (gills, muscles and<br>vertebra bone) were prepared and specifically analyzed for the levels of Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd using Atomic<br>absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of metals in the samples at different concentrations ranged from<br>0.001±0.000 μg/g for Cd to 224.87±4.07 μg/g of Fe in the fish gill. There is significant (p&lt;0.05) differences in the Pb,<br>Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations across the different fish parts with gills accumulated the highest levels metals while Cr<br>levels significantly (p&lt;0.05) differed in the fish body parts and accumulated more in the muscles (10.75±0.15 μg/g).<br>The mean concentrations of metal elements in the fish parts had shown some distinguish connection in its distributions<br>with Pb and Cu; Gills &gt; Muscles &gt; Vertebra bones, Fe and Zinc; Gills &gt; Vertebra bones &gt; Muscles while Cr was<br>distributed in Muscles &gt; Gill &gt; Vertebra bones. However, it is revealed that Labeo coubie, a euryphagus fish probably<br>absorb these metals through ingestion of contaminated food or absorption by the gills and bioaccumulate in different<br>fish parts. It is therefore established that River Oli is contaminated with heavy metals as presence of these metals in<br>fish is an indication of its immediate environment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: absorption, bioaccumulation, fish parts, heavy metals, pollution</p> K.M. Adelakun, A.O. Ibrahim, D.A. Joshua, A.S. Adedeji, A. Sulyman, S.B. Ojo Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ameliorative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Date Palm Fruits (<i>phoenix dactylifera</i>) on high fat diet- induced Liver Damage in Adult Wistar Rats <p>Elevated cholesterol level is a major cause of disease burden in developing Nations. This study seeks to evaluate the ameliorative and hepatoprotective potentials of aqueous extract of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) on high fat diet-induced liver damage. Thirty (30) adult wistar rats weighing 110-180g were randomly divided into six group of five animals each, group A served as control while B was exposed to high fat diet only (using margarine brand); Groups C, D and E were given high fat diet with co-treated with the extract at low, medium and high doses respectively while group F was received the drug Atrovastin as a gold standard to enable comparative effects of date palm administration. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were anaesthetized using chloroform blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture to investigate the activities of liver enzymes, and liver tissue was harvested through a midline incision for histological analysis. There were evidence of vascular congestion and periportal infiltration in rats given margarine<br>only indicative of hepatocellular disruption. Animals that received moderate to high dose of the fruit extract show mild to total reversal of the damaged liver cells and activation of kupffer cells with concurrent changes in serum albumin level. Aqueous extract of phoenix dactylifera was seen to ameliorate the fat induced liver damage with notable changes in hepatocyte configuration as observed when treated with standard drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phoenix dactylifera, Hyperlipedermia, Liver, Wistar rat</p> P.O. Onyilo, S.O. Innih, G. Ihemeson, L.U. Ogereka, S.M. Nweke, E.I. Obele, I.N. Nwalie Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis, Occurrence and Ecological Risk Assessment of Diclofenac and Ibuprofen Residues in Wastewater from Three Wastewater Treatment Plants in South-Western Nigeria <p>Despite the frequent detection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) worldwide in the aquatic environment, there is currently a paucity of studies from Africa, including Nigeria, on the occurrence and potential ecological risks of two commonly used NSAIDs diclofenac and ibuprofen in wastewater and effluent receiving water. In this work, diclofenac and ibuprofen were determined in wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and effluent receiving water in South-Western Nigeria. Instrumental analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ecological risk was assessed for four trophic levels: fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The method quality parameters were satisfactory for the accurate determination of target NSAIDs in wastewater and effluent receiving water. Maximum concentrations of diclofenac and ibuprofen in wastewater were 166.1 µg L-1 (UCH influent) and 62.0 µg L-1 (Ijaiye effluent), respectively. Ibuprofen posed high risk to fish in all effluent and effluent receiving water samples. Bacteria<br>were the most sensitive organisms to the presence of diclofenac while fish was the most sensitive to ibuprofen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence and ecological risk assessment of diclofenac and ibuprofen residues in wastewater from Nigerian municipal and hospital WWTPs. More efficient wastewater treatment processes and technologies are recommended for the investigated WWTPs to reduce the discharge of target NSAIDs and other pharmaceuticals into the Nigerian aquatic environment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, wastewater, ecological risk assessment, Nigeria</p> A.S. Ajibola, A.O. Adebiyi, D.O. Nwaeke, F.O. Ajibola, G.O. Adewuyi Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Artisanal Petroleum Refining and Occupational Dynamics in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria <p>This study examines the occupational dynamics of the population as a result of artisanal refining of crude oil in the Niger Delta using structured questionnaire administered to 240 household heads selected from two settlements, one far from area of artisanal refineries (controlled settlement) and the other in area of artisanal refineries (experimental settlement). The questionnaire covered location and demographic characteristics of the respondents, as well as the typology of occupations. The pair-wise Student t-test and simple percentages were used to analyse the data collected. The study revealed that there were significant dynamics (t = -0.22, df =12, p&lt;0.05) in the number of respondents in identified occupational typologies as indirect impact of artisanal refining in the experimental and controlled settlements. The study recommends the intensification of efforts to implement existing laws on environmental protection and provision of employment for teeming population. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Artisanal Refineries, Occupational structure, Environmental&nbsp; degradation, Niger Delta.</p> J.L. Igben Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Substance Abuse: Awareness and Attitude among Secondary School Students in Sapele, Nigeria <p>Substance abuse is an intricate behavior seen to be most prevalent amongst young people across the world. This study assessed the awareness and attitude towards substance abuse among students from selected secondary schools within Sapele, Delta State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study design was utilized among 315 students who gave informed consent. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data for the study from participants. Data was presented as simple percentage using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 16.95 ± 0.09 SEM. A prevalence of substance abuse was 19.4%, which was seen more with males than the females. About 13.97% of the students had taken alcohol, 10.79% had taken tramadol, and 3.81% had taken rohypnol. School and mass media were the main sources of information on drug abuse, while peer pressure was the most predisposing influence towards substance<br>use. Depression and its use as a confidence booster were main reasons given for the substance use. Adolescent substance use and abuse remains an ongoing challenge with a prevalence rate of 19.4% in this study. The study emphasizes the need for implementing drug abuse information and education in schools’ curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adolescent, alcohol, depression, drug abuse.</p> E.K. Umukoro, A.T. Eduviere, E.E. Ahama, E.G. Moke, K.E. Edje, L.I. Omorodion, C. Ovigue Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Organic Matter from Shale Sediments along Isugwuato – Okigwe Axis, Anambra Basin, SE Nigeria <p>TRACT: The Cretaceous sediments in the Anambra Basin (SE Nigeria) consist of a cyclic succession of coals, carbonaceous shales, silty shales and siltstones&nbsp; interpreted as deltaic deposits. The objective of this study is to compare the hydrocarbon generation potential of organic matter from shale sediments along Isugwuato-Okigwe axis in the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Data obtained indicates the presence of Type III kerogen with Tmax values are between 424 and 441ºC indicating that the shales are thermally immature to marginally mature with respect to petroleum generation. Hydrogen Index (HI) values range from 14 to 388.9mgHC/gTOC while S1 + S2 yields values ranging from 0.2 to 1.0mgHC/g rock, suggesting that the shale have gas generating potential. The TOC values ranges<br>from 1.3 to 3.0%, an indication of a good source rock of terrestrially derived organic matter. The high oxygen index (OI) (16.3 mgCO2g-1TOC), TS (1.35) and TOC/TS (1.5) suggest deposition in a shallow marine environment. Based on the kerogen type, shales from the studied area will equally generate oil and gas if its organic matter attained sufficient thermal temperature.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Shale, kerogen type, maturity, oil generation.</p> M.U. Uzoegbu, C.U. Ugwueze Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cost–Benefit Analysis of Associated Gas Flaring in the Niger – Delta Area of Nigeria (a case study of 1958 – 2004 <p>CT: Associated gas flaring has been revealed as a significant contributor to the warming of the local climate<br>of the communities where these flare stacks are located. Associated gas flaring has also been revealed as a major casual<br>factor to the degradation of the environment, air pollution and consequent health effects of the inhabitants of these host<br>communities. This study goes a step further to assess the economic benefit of total utilization of associated gas as an ante<br>dote to these problems as it is been argued that flaring this gas is cheaper than total utilization. The research uses as its case<br>study the Niger – Delta region of Nigeria a West African country with 1958- 2004 been the years under review. The study<br>adopted the Cost – Benefit approach/ Method of analysis as well as relied on secondary face to face interview. Results from<br>the study revealed that the economic benefit of total utilization of associated gas far outweighs the cost of flaring associated<br>gas. Results from the study also reveal that if Nigeria had utilized the associated gas from crude oil exploitation from 1958<br>-2004; the country would be $32 billion richer. This is without the estimation of the multiplier effect of reinvesting these<br>monies. The research further reveals that the country requires another Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant 1.4 times the<br>capacity of the Bonny LNG plant to totally processthese associated gases for onward utilization. In the light of these<br>revelations the study recommends a strategic legal framework for the formulation of an act for the operation and governance of the Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) be put in place by the government as this is a major bottleneck to the development of the sector. Also in the development of strategic plans and policy guidelines for the enactment of the act, the host communities should be in full participation. This is to ensure transparency and equity which will further result in total cooperation and compliance by all stakeholders. Furthermore, the study recommends a time frame be set for routine review of the plans and policy guidelines so as to update lapses for further and future development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cost – Benefit Analysis, Gas flaring, Total Utilization, Non Utilization, Utilization Economic Cost </p> C.F. Amaechi, M.J. Emejulu Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Potential of <I>Ricinus communis </I>L. For Removal of Heavy Metal in Contaminated Soil <p>Heavy metal contamination has become a serious ecological problem due to its toxic effects on soils, plants and human. Experimental study was conducted on dumpsite soil to assess the potential of <em>Ricinus communi</em>s to accumulate heavy metals from the soil using bioconcentration (BCF) and tanslocation factors (TF). Heavy metals concentration (mg/kg) in dumpsite and control soil before planting were Mn (50.68- 220.08); Zn(29.01- 135.56); Cu (8.92- 86.88), Pb (5.88-48.86), Ni (3.01-7.99) and Co (1.78-6.88) while the concentration in soils after planting were Mn(29.89- 135.21); Zn (15.11-88.21); Cu (3.89-50.22), pb (3.68-31.56), Ni (1.22-3.56) and Co (0.67-2.68) in Mg/kg. <em>Ricinus communis</em> showed BCF greater than 1 for Ni and Co and less than 1 for Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb while TF is greater than 1 for all the determined heavy metals. The dumpsite soils have higher heavy metal concentration than the control soil. The levels of heavy metals concentration in soils and plants are in the order of Mn&gt; Zn&gt; Cu&gt; Pb&gt; Ni. Significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) was observed in the heavy metal concentrations in the soils before and after planting indicating their accumulation in the plants. Results of this study indicate the accumulation of heavy metals in <em>Ricinus communis</em> plants and its potential for effective removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co and Mn from the dumpsite soils.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Heavy metal accumulation, R<em>icinus communis,</em> Dumpsite soil, Translocation factor, Remediation</p> O.O. Akintola, I.O. Abiola, E.K. Abodunrin, O.S. Olokeogun, A.A. Ekaun, A.T. Ademigbuji, K.O. Babatunde Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the Geochemical Composition and Paleo-Depositional Environment of Ubo and Ikpeshi Marble Deposit, Southwestern Nigeria: A Comparative Study <p>The marble deposits at Ubo and Ikpeshi areas of Edo state, Southwestern Nigeria, were studied in order to determine the major elements and the paleo-depositional environment of the original sediments using standard methods.&nbsp; Results obtained using test of difference between Ubo and Ikpeshi marbles showed that CaO (51.977±0.922 &amp; 54.726±0.23), MgO (3.034±0.829 &amp; 0.499±0.115), Na<sub>2</sub>O (1.7±0.73 &amp; 0.024±0.008), MgCO3 (6.337±1.734 &amp; 1.034±0.238), Cu (24.589±0.692 &amp; 27.447±0.711), Ni (23.907±0.854 &amp; 30.979±0.494), all for Ubo and Ikpeshi respectively; with Ni showing highest significance with P&lt;0.01. The Ubo marble deposit occurs as a lensoid body within the younger metasedimentary sequence. The major element composition reveal a mean chemical composition of CaO (51.97 and 54.73 %), MgO (3.0 and 0.49 %), SiO<sub>2</sub> (0.74 and 0.70%), K<sub>2</sub>O (0.08 and 0.04%), Na2O (1.70 and 0.02%), Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (0.75 and 0.25%), Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (0.34 and 0.25%), and Loss on Ignition - L.O.I (43.34 and 49.31%) in Ubo and Ikpeshi marbles respectively, which is indicative that the marble samples were all calcitic. The low values of the total alkali content in the marble samples from the two locations indicate that the environment of deposition of the original carbonate materials that metamorphosed into marbles from both locations must have&nbsp; been a shallow, highly saline environment with probably little influx of salty brine water in the basin. Silica was used as an abscissa in these plots because it shows substantial variations among the marbles with most of the linear relationship between silica and the&nbsp; various oxides showing negative correlation, this probably reflects the admixture of the carbonates with chert. The trend of the plots of&nbsp; Na<sub>2</sub>O + K<sub>2</sub>O vs. SiO<sub>2</sub> for the marbles from both locations show a variation in the salinity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ubo, Ikpeshi, Marble, Marine Environment, Metasedimentary </p> J. Ailegbo, A.O. Ehinlaiye, P. Bassey, J.O. Odia-Oseghale Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Pharmaceutical Waste Generation and Handling on Environmental Health in Developing Countries: COVID – 19 Pandemic in Perspective! <p>The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel Covid-19 pandemic currently ravaging the world as a global mishap due to its wide-spreading across different nations. As the number of confirmed cases continues to increase daily, there will be a great need for the delivery of pharmaceutical palliatives to developing nations for them to manage the situation. Most pharmaceutical supplies used in many developing countries such as test kits and protective suits are a complex mixture of toxic and non-degradable compounds that are improperly disposed into open dump sites. The increase in Covid-19 cases and strategic attention to grapple will lead to multiple waste generation problems, thereby posing another health risk if not properly handled and disposed. In this review, we have highlighted the composition, categories, and hazards associated with pharmaceutical wastes and also appraised the current disposal practices and recommended some appropriate disposal methods of these associated wastes</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pharmaceutical wastes, Hazardous materials, Covid-19, Health risk, Waste handling</p> O. Ejeromedoghene, M.C. Nwosisi, G.O. Tesi, E.J. Noragbon, R.O. Akinyeye Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and NMR Characterization of Ursane-Type Triterpenoid from the Leaves of <I>Peperomia pellucida</I> <p><em>Peperomia pellucida</em> is a member of the Piperaceae family. Extraction of plant material was carried out by Soxhlet extraction method using hexane and ethylacetate as solvents respectively. The extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator, followed by isolation and purification using column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. Fraction C20 showed a clearly defined single spot with Rf value of 0.51. Using 1HNMR, 13C-DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC and by comparison with literature values, the structure of the compound was established as an Ursane-type triterpenoid. The use of P. pellucida in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various ailments could be attributed to the Ursane-type triterpenoid and other bioactive chemical compounds present in the plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Peperomia pellucida,</em> extraction, isolation, chromatographic techniques, ursane-type triterpenoid</p> J.C. Ibe–Diala, O.U. Igwe, C. Friday, U.C. Akwada Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design, Construct and Evaluation of a Single Row Hand-Pushed Mechanical Weed Control Machine <p>Weed control is one of the major problems in crop and vegetable production in Nigeria. Most of the peasant farmers use manual weeders in their cultivation, a process that is costly, labour intensive and time consuming. The process does not also give the farmer adequate returns to enable him breakeven. It is, therefore, necessary to design a weeding equipment which minimize the human effort and provide efficient work output for the peasant farmer. This study focus on designing, construction and evaluation of a hand-pushed weed control machine that would eliminate the challenges being faced by the farmer in weeding. Materials selected to suit the construction of the weeder are durable and locally available, easily replaced if damaged and at affordable cost. They include mild steel (3mm, 5mm), 30 mm circular (hollow) pipes, 10 mm diameter steel rod, and 40 cm pneumatic tyre. The developed weeding machine was evaluated in the experimental farm of IAR with impressive results. It works well in sandy loam soil of about 25.65% moisture content and requires less labour force compared to the manual hoe. It has about 84.7% weeding efficiency, 0.0129ha/hr effective<br>field capacity, 0.019ha/hr theoretical field capacity and 68% field efficiency. The average cost of the weeding is N21, 000:00.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Manual weeding, hand-pushed weeder, weeding efficiency, field efficiency</p> A. Saleh, M.L. Suleiman Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design, Fabrication and Performance Study of Co-Pyrolysis System for Production of Liquid Fuel from Jatropha Cake with Polystyrene Waste <p>The increasing quantities of plastics and their disposal has been a major public concern. This paper therefore describes a fixed bed co-pyrolysis system designed and fabricated to obtain liquid fuel from a combination of Jatropha seed cake and polystyrene (plastic) waste using appropriate standard technique. The characterization of the feedstock materials (Jatropha cake and polystyrene) were carried out based on proximate and ultimate analysis. The products of the experiment were: liquid fuel, char and gas, while char and gas were considered as by-product. The parameters that were found to influence the product yields significantly includes: feed ratio, temperature and reaction time. The optimum liquid yield obtained from the co-pyrolysis of Jatropha cake with plastic (polystyrene)&nbsp; waste was 65.0 wt% (that is at the optimum parameters of feed ratio 1:1, temperature 500 <sup>o</sup>C and reaction time of 45 minutes). The&nbsp; liquid fuel obtained at these optimum conditions were analyzed based on physical and chemical properties, and compared to that of conventional diesel. The results of the liquid fuel obtained and conventional diesel in terms of viscosity, density and pH were 3.8 cP, 3.5 cP, and 830 kg/m<sup>3</sup> , 853 kg/m<sup>3</sup> , and 1.0, and neutral respectively. Elemental analyses of the liquid fuels from Jatropha cake with polystyrene waste showed that there is high contents of carbon and hydrogen, 87.2 and 8.3 respectively, which indicates that the liquid fuels may support combustion. The calorific value of liquid fuel from copyrolysis of Jatropha cake with polystyrene waste was 42.3 MJ/Kg, and closer to that of conventional diesel 45.5 MJ/Kg. Considering the results obtained from the study, the liquid fuel from Jatropha cake and polystyrene waste can be used as an alternative fuel </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Co-pyrolysis, Jatropha cake, Polystyrene waste, calorific value</p> S.A. Babajo, J.S. Enaburekhan, I.A. Rufa’i Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Wildlife Hunting Activities in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State Nigeria <p>The study was conducted to assess hunting activities in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information from fifty hunters using a simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that 96% of hunters in the study area were men. Most of the respondents were married (84%) and within the age bracket of 31 and 50 years (48%). About 34% and 40% of respondents had primary and secondary education respectively while 13% had no formal education. They had between 20 and 29 years’ experience in wild animal hunting. Sixty-eight percent of the hunters in the study area engaged in part-time hunting while 32% were full-time hunters. The study further revealed that the hunters engaged in hunting for financial gain (64%), leisure (34%) and family tradition (38%). About ten types of species of wildlife animals were commonly killed by the hunters, and the animals were sold within the community market (42%), outside the community market (32%) and to visiting bushmeat marketers (26%). The study therefore recommends a policy that will control hunting activities<br>in the study area, knowing that animal hunting serves as another source of livelihood to the hunters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hunters, wildlife, bushmeat, community market, occupation </p> K.T. Layade, A.A. Layade, O.J. Kehinde, S.A. Alaye, W.A. Jayeoba Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Health Risk Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals in Infant Nutrition Formula in Cross River State, Nigeria <p>The aim of this study is to ascertain the level of some heavy metals namely; Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt and Lead in baby milk or infant formulas used in the country and evaluate the health risk associated with their consumption. Five (5) brands of popularly consumed and most preferred or recommended infant formula foods for children in Nigeria were bought from the main (Watt) market in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria and were coded and labeled V, W, X, Y and Z respectively. The samples were digested in the fume cupboard using aqua regia and analyzed for heavy metals using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The results showed that the concentration of Arsenic was less than 0.001mgkg-1 across all the five (5) brands. Cadmium concentration ranged between 0.010 - 0.052 mgkg<sup>-1</sup> , and it was detected in all the samples. Cobalt ranged between 0.002 - 0.010 mgkg<sup>-1</sup> , and it was detected in 3 out of the 5 samples. Chromium concentration ranged between 0.002 - 0.004 mgkg<sup>-1</sup> was detected in 4 out of the 5 samples or brands of infant formula studied. Lead amount ranged between 0.080 - 0.014 mgkg<sup>-1</sup> and was less than 0.001 mgkg-1 in 2 brands out of the five brands sampled. These results are low and within the permissible limits of WHO. The Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) of these metals were all less than 1 except for Cadmium in brand V that was 1. This indicates that there is no health danger associated with the imgestion of the infant formulas at the moment</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Health risk, Heavy metals, Infant formula, Calabar-Nigeria </p> M.A. Akpe, P.U. Ubua, S.E. Ivara Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Soil Erodibility Factor for Hydrologic Processes in Kereke Watershed, North Central Nigeria <p>: Soil erodibility factor plays essential role in determining how susceptible soil is to hydrological processes such as detachment and removal by rainfall and runoff that could influence soil erosion and sediment entrainment by flooding in an area. This paper therefore determined the erodibility k-value of soil in the Kereke watershed with the purpose of assessing its susceptibility to hydrological processes. Data was collected on some soil properties such as soil texture, soil structure, soil organic matter content, soil carbon content, soil porosity, soil bulk density, soil moisture content and soil erodibility k-value. The systematic sampling procedure was used to select thirty-two settlements which served as catchment areas for data collection; from which thirty-two soil samples were collected for analysis. Tables and graph were used to present the data, and percentages were used to depict variations in the data set. Results of the study shows that the soil samples have high percent sand particles (71.6%), moderate amount of clay particles (15.7%), silt<br>(12.7%), organic carbon (0.6%), organic matter (1.1%), bulk density (1.4 gcm<sup>-3 </sup>), porosity (45.2%), moisture content (14.0%) and low soil erodibility k-value of 0.018. The soil erodibility k-value in the study area was considered to be low, and therefore the soils are moderately erodible. This probably accounts for the moderate intensity of soil erosion channels and entrained sediments by flooding observed in the study area. It is therefore recommended that soil management practices should be encouraged by farmers especially planting of cover crops, shifting cultivation and fallowing system. This will allow nutrients gain and improved bulk density to limit soil erodibility capacity and good soil management in the area.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Soil erodibility factor, hydrological processes, Kereke watershed, North Central Nigeria</p> G.A. Songu, R.D. Abu, N.M. Temwa, S.T. Yiye, S. Wahab, B.G. Mohammed Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Effect of Horse Dung and Pig Dung on The Early Growth of <I>Nauclea diderrichii</I> (De Wild) Seedlings <p>The research work examined the effect of horse dung and pig dung on the early growth of Nauclea diderrichii seedling. The experiment was carried out at the back of library of Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan. The experiment consisted of five treatments which were replicated nine times in a completely Randomized design (CRD). The following materials were used: Topsoil, Polythenepot, seeds of Nauclea diderrichii, Horse dung and pig dung, sieve, wheel barrow, venier caliper, ruler, field record book and pen. Data on the number of stem girth, height, leave production and leave area were recorded fortnightly starting from a week after transplanting. The data collected were analyzed through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The result revealed that 15g of horse dung + 2kg of top soil had the&nbsp; highest mean number of height value of 12.49cm followed by 10kg of horse dung +2kg of topsoil,(10.15cm). While topsoil only had the least mean number of height (8.25cm). The result further showed the highest mean stem girth (0.30cm) followed by 0.27cm and produced least mean stem girth of 0.24cm in treatments T12, T1 and T5 respectively. Also, in the leaf production the result revealed that 15g of horse dung +2kg of topsoil had the highest mean number of 16.69cm followed by treatment one 12,56cm and topsoil only produce the least mean leaf production of 9.40cm. The result further showed highest mean leave area (134.50cm<sup>2</sup> ) followed by treatment one 124.60cm<sup>2</sup> and (T5) produced the least mean leaf area of 108.06cm<em><sup>2</sup>.</em> Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for plant height, stem girth, leaf production and leaf area also indicated that the treatment applied <em>Nauclea diderrichii</em> seedlings showed no significant effect. Generally 15g of horse dung + 2kg of topsoil produced the best result in terms of plant height, stem girth, leaf production and leave area of Nuclea diderrichii seedlings, hence treatment two (T2) is best suitable for raising <em>Nuclea diderrichii</em> seedlings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Forest, Horse dung, Pig dung, Nauclea diderrichii</p> O.D. Ayeni, M.O. Ojo, B.O. Okumodi Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bioaccumulated trace metal profiles of <i>Tympanotonus fuscatus, Periophthalmus barbarous and Guinearma (Sesarma)</i> alberti collected from a perturbed freshwater mangrove swamp in Warri, Nigeria <p>Bio –concentrated levels of trace metals; Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in three (3) freshwater mangrove fauna; <em>Tympanotonus fuscatus (periwinkle), Periophthalmus barbarous (mudskipper) and Guinearma (Sesarma) alberti (West African Sesarmid Crab)</em> was investigated utilizng atomic absorbance spectrophotometery. Faunal sampling was conducted at five (5) sites in the Falcorp wetland area of Warri, Delta State, once monthly for an eighteen (18) month period. Maximal mean Fe and Zn values; 349.7 9 µg/g, dried wt ±15.64 and 16.92 µg/g, dried wt ±1.65 were recorded for the respective mudskipper and crab samples while minimal mean Fe and Zn values; 124.14 µg/g, dried wt ±7.85 and 7.71 µg/g, dried wt ± 0.96 were documented for the digested periwinkle tissues. The differences in the mean Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd values was siginificantly different at different levels (P&lt;0.001, P &lt;0.01 and P&lt;0.05). The detection of significant&nbsp; bioconcentration of these metals especially Cd, is a possible indication of the wide reaching deletrious ecological effects of&nbsp; anthropogenic activities in the affected area.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Falcorp mangrove swamp, Bioaccumulation, Trace metal, benthic bio-indicator</p> O. Odigie, J.O. Olomukoro Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Temperature between Forest and Non-Forested Domains in Oyo State, Nigeria <p>This study was carried out to assess the concentration levels of CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature and also to correlate their values among selected locations in Oyo State, Nigeria. CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature readings were taken using a portable CO<sub>2</sub> meter, and a GPS was use to capture co-ordinates of sample points, this was done twice a day. Data were collected from 7am to 11am for morning session while afternoon session data were collected between 1pm and&nbsp; 5pm making a total of 8 hours monitoring. There were negative correlation between CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature in all the forests while we have positive correlation between CO2 and temperature in non-forested domains, this,&nbsp; by implication, means that presence of trees in the forest reserve help to reduce Carbon dioxide during the day since trees&nbsp; manufacture their food using CO<sub>2</sub> in the presence of sunlight. Also, the positive correlation between CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature in the towns is due to high rate of human anthropogenic activities during the day. The values of CO<sub>2</sub> obtained in this study were higher when&nbsp; compared with IPCC limit of 435 ppm (parts per million) of CO2 emission. Routine monitoring of carbon dioxide and public education is recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Carbon dioxide, Temperature, Forest, Non-Forest, Forest Reserve</p> B.M. Awosusi, I.S. Adamu, A.R. Orunkoyi, D.O. Atiba, A.A. Obe, M.D. Amori, E.D. Adedoyin Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Values of the Potentials of Mountains and Hills for the Development of Tourism in Ekiti State Southwest Nigeria <p>: This study examined the perceived values of the potentials of mountains and hills for the development in Ekiti State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 500 respondents from community residents and 384 visitors while questionnaires were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentages, and means, while inferential statistical tools such as t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficient and regression were used to test the hypotheses. The results of the hypotheses showed that there was statistically significant difference between the way community residents and visitors perceived the values of mountains and hills tourism development in Ekiti State in terms of non-use value (t=5.06**, p&lt;0.01), recreation value (t=6.63**, p&lt;0.01), intrinsic value (t=8.68**, p&lt;0.01), use value (t=2.77**, p&lt;0.01). The implication of the study is that the development of mountains and hills tourism in these communities will create both positive and negative responses arising from their varied opinions which will help to shape the entire structure and its future growth and development. It was recommended that the government of Ekiti should partner with the interested individuals and private sectors to develop mountains and hills in Ekiti communities so as to give tourism a jolt to prominence. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Communities, Visitors, non-use, recreation, intrinsic, use</p> P.A. Agbebi, A.A. Ogunjinmi, O.O. Oyeleke, B.O. Adetola Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Thermal Resistance Evaluation of Raffia Palm Ash Concrete <p>T: This research attempts to empirically investigate the behavior of Raffia Palm Ash (RPA) concrete under elevated temperature of different percentages of RPA inclusion in the concrete. Raffia palm ash was obtained after the calcination of the raffia palm for 3 hours at 550<sup>0</sup>C. X-ray Florescence (XRF) analysis performed revealed that the sample of Raffia Palm Ash (RPA) is a Class C pozzolana, which contains 51.8% of (SiO<sub>2</sub> + Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> + Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) and has a specific gravity of 2.8. The compressive strengths were determined at 0 0C, 718 <sup>0</sup>C and 821 <sup>0</sup>C at 0 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes respectively. The result revealed that workability of the concrete declined with the increment in the percentage of raffia palm ash in the concrete. The compressive strength of the concrete cubes as well decreased with the rise in temperature for the entire samples tested. The average loss in strength of the control (0% RPA) is about 15.3% at 718<sup>0</sup>C<br>and 25.3% at 812<sup>0</sup>C while for Raffia palm ash concrete with 5% (optimum replacement) gives a minimum loss in strength of about 21.3% at 718<sup>0</sup>C and 28.5% at 812<sup>0</sup>C, which is about 6% at 718<sup>0</sup>C and 13.2% at 812<sup>0</sup>C, more than the control. The Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) imaging indicates that the concrete subjected to temperature of about 821<sup>o</sup>C produces fewer flakes when compared to the concrete subjected to temperature of about 718<sup>0</sup>C.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Compressive strength, Raffia Palm Ash (RPA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermal resistance, X-ray Florescence (XRF)</p> U.N. Wilson, J.E. Sani, A.A. Adefila, I.S. Mohammed Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Weed Management Strategies and Organic Matter in Plantain (<i>Musa paradisiaca L</i>. ABB) Yield in Agricultural Research Farm, Afaha Nsit, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>Effects of weed infestation on plantain bunch yield in Nigeria is very alarming coupled with low nutritional status of the tropical soil. Therefore, field experiments were carried out in 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 to investigate the effects of weed management strategies and organic manure on the performance of plantain (<em>Musa paradisiaca</em> L.ABB). The experiments were carried out in Agricultural Education Research Farm, College of Education, Afaha Nsit. Seven treatments were replicated three times. These were sweet potato (20,000 plants/ha) + poultry manure (20t/ha); sweet potato (20,000plants/ha) + sawdust (40t/ha); hand-slashing at three months interval + poultry manure (20t/ha); hand-slashing at three months interval + sawdust 40t/ha; sweet potato + egusi-melon + poultry manure (20t/ha); sweet potato + egusi-melon + sawdust (40t/ha) and weedy + no organic manure. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design. Analysis of variance was carried out on data obtained on weed studies and plantain performance. Means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% probability level. The unfertilized weedy plot reduced plantain bunch yield by 89.7% followed by 41.9% and 43.0% obtained from the sawdust treatment plots integrated with egusi-melon plus hand-slashed and sweet potato respectively. The treatment plot of sweet potato integrated with egusi-melon plus poultry manure (20t/ha)&nbsp; significantly controlled weeds satisfactorily, accelerated plantain growth, reduced 50% flowering time by 23.5% and significantly&nbsp; enhanced plantain bunch yield hence; it is recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Plantain, sweet potato, hand-slashing, organic manure.</p> T.U.U. Ekpo, N.T. Ekpo Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytoremediation Of Crude Oil Impacted Soil Using Purple Nutsedge <p>The present study investigated the viability of purple nutsedge in the phytoremediation of a crude oilcontaminated land in the Kom-Kom community, Oyigbo, Rivers state, Nigeria. 150g of soil samples were randomly collected from two (2) different points on the polluted site and a control site and analyzed for Petroleum Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and Heavy metals ( Pb, Cd, Cr &amp; Ni). in soils and plants before and after phytoremediation. Plants were transplanted into the contaminated and contaminated soil after soil sample collection.After planting,the progress of plant growth was observed and recorded biweekly for 3 months before harvesting. From the results obtained, over 80% and 66% PAHs and TPHs phytodegradation efficiencies were achieved using the plant while Cd, Pb and Cr were removed by 90%, 67% and 39.2% respectively. The Bioaccumulation Factor (B.F) of the heavy<br>metals in study plant were found to be greated than 1 which makes it suitable for phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, the study suggests that purple nutsedge can be useful in the phytoremediation of a crudeoil polluted soil.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hydrocarbons, Heavy metals, Phytoremediation, Crude oil, Purple nutsedge</p> E.O. Nwaichi, C.O. Chukwuere, P.J. Abosi, G.I. Onukwuru Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Zeros in Phase Space Reconstruction for Small and Large Solar Radiation Data Points during Wet and Dry Seasonal Modeling and Prediction <p>The effect of zeros in the behaviour of nature system has been a major global concern which have been reported to bias the output of the analysis. This study examines the effect of zeros on small and large solar radiation data points in Nsukka from a nonlinear dynamic perspective. The solar radiation data used were collected from National Research for Space and Development Agency (NARSDA) and covers the period of two years (January 2012–December 2013). The influence of zeros on average mutual information method for delay time (𝜏), False nearest neighbour (FNN) for embedding dimension (𝑚), and phase space reconstruction is investigated by considering two different cases (one hour and five minutes interval for small and large data points on monthly basis respectively). The results reveal that the phase space trajectories of the raw and non-zero small data points for dry and wet seasons show evidence of an attractor<br>in a well-defined region while raw and non-zero large data points have no attractor like shape but regular patterns and well-defined shapes are visible in dry and wet seasons. These imply low-dimensional and deterministic chaotic nature of the underlying dynamics of raw and non-zero data for small and large data points during wet and dry seasons. It is observed that there is little or no significant difference in the phase space reconstruction of raw and non-zero data for both small and large data points due to the low percentage of zeros in the time series data.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> mutual information method, Phase space reconstruction, False nearest neighbour, chaotic nature. </p> A.E. Adeniji Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Age Related Changes Associated with Exposure of Wistar Rats to Dichlorvor on some Haematological Parameters <p>Different studies proved that exposure over prolonged periods to pesticides increase the likelihood of developing adverse effects. 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) is a predominant pesticide used in controlling insects. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the age related changes in hematological indices of animals exposed to DDVP. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were grouped into three major groups of ten animals each. Group one animals served as young group (5 - 6 weeks) while group two and three was the middle-aged (2 months) and old groups (3-4 months) respectively. All the groups were subdivided into control and DDVP group with five animals in each subgroup. The DDVP groups were exposed to DDVP for five weeks. At the end of fifth week, they were euthanized with blood collected through cardiac puncture, hematological indices were analysed with auto<br>hematological analyzer.Exposure to DDVP significantly increased white blood cell counts and basophiles in old group. Platelets count and plateletcrit (PCT) were significantly decreased in young animals that were exposed to DDVP while platelet distribution width (PDW) and Mean platelets volume (MPV) were not significantly different across the groups. Red blood cells count, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin concentration, Mean cell volume, Mean cell hemoglobin and Mean cell hemoglobin concentration also show no significant difference across groups. Exposure of Wistar rats to Dichlorvos has no impact on haematological parameters in middle agerats. However, dichlorvos affects young and old animals proving age dependent effect of DDVP on hematological parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: DDVP, hematology, white blood cells, platelet, age</p> S.F. Ige, M.A. Seriki, B.S. Olateju, V.A. Oladipupo Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000