Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US JASEM has joined the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Therefore articles in JASEM are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (Prof. Michael Horsfall Jnr) (Ms Green Ekwere Ufot, (BSc, Management)) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 10:57:53 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of Fluid Properties on Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP) Performance and Run Life in a Well <p>The primary goal of every operator is to optimally recover reserves at minimal operating costs. Unfortunately, due to inherent primary drive mechanisms that may not be strong enough and poorly designed completion jewelries that increases the complexity of well configurations, most reservoir are not efficiently depleted. This study investigates the impact of fluid properties on electric submersible pumps (ESP) performance and run life in a well. It was observed that the pump speed increases with increase in API gravities and vice-versa. However, decrease in pump speed was observed with crudes having high API gravity from wells with high water-cut (HBSW). High water-cut increases the viscosity of the crude and thus decreases the pump speed. The pump speed also increased as the GOR increases, howbeit, decreased as the GOR exceeds a certain optimum value due to cavitation. The pump intake pressure and the production rate were also investigated. The higher the intake pressure, the higher the pump speed and thus, the higher the&nbsp; production. Well specific models for real-time ESP performance prediction were also developed for each property against the pump<br>speed and they exhibited cubic relationships. It was also observed that the quality of the crude significantly affects the performance of ESP’s and therefore, must be checked to prevent early failure and short run life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Electric submersible pumps, Fluid properties, Run life, Performance, Failure rate</p> A. Joseph, A.O. Adeoti Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth of <i>Senecio biafrae</i> (WOROWO) OLIVE & HIERN <p>Soils have shown a negative balance in nutrient budget which poses a great threat to sustainable soil management for increase in growth and crop yield. This study thus investigated the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of Senecio biafrae (Oliv. &amp;Hiern). Topsoil, organic (poultry manure) and inorganic fertilizers (NPK 15:15:15) were used. The fertilizers were weighed and applied to the soil at 5g, 10g, 15g each; control topsoil without application of fertilizers and were replicated five times. Growth&nbsp; parameters including height, number of leaves and stem diameter were taken weekly for the period of the experiment. Application of<br>poultry manure and NPK fertilizer had significant effects on all the growth parameters considered. The application of poultry manure resulted into significant increase in the growth parameters towards the latter part of the study. This study has shown that organic manure has great potential for improving soil productivity and plant growth.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Senecio biafrae, investigate, organic, inorganic, plant yield</p> O.O. Akintola, I.O. Abiola, O.O. Akinola, K.O. Babatunde, A.A. Ekaun, B.L. Olajiire-Ajayi Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Hydrological Variables on Macrophytes in a Black Water River Ecosystem <p>This study assessed the influence of hydrological variables on macrophytes in a Black Water River ecosystem of Enyong River in Itu and Ibiono Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom and Cross Rivers States, Nigeria. Four vegetation plots were chosen and in each of the plots, four belt transect were laid. In each transect, macrophyte were systematically sampled in four 10 m × 10 m quadrat at regular intervals. Macrophytes were identified to species level and their frequency and density determined. Water samples were obtained in each quadrat where the macrophytes were sampled and analyzed for their physicochemical properties using standardized methods. Altogether, 10 macrophyte species were encountered. Vossia cuspidata had the highest density (100.00±8.00 st/ha) and frequency values (100 %). Sacciolepis africana had the least density of 7.10±0.45 st/ha while Ludwigia octovalvis, Persicaria senegalensis, and<br>Sacciolepis africana had the least frequency of 25 %, respectively. The pH of the water was strongly acidic (5.54±0.03), electrical conductivity was low (20.00±5.77 µs/cm), temperature (29.00±1.10 ºC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (9.20±0.12 mg/l) and turbidity (7.10±0.06 NTU) values were high while Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) (2.00±0.29 mg/l) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (10.00±0.29 mg/l) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were low (5.00±1.15 mg/l). Water Nutrients followed this decreasing order; chloride (3.55±0.02 mg/l) &gt; nitrate (2.45±0.03 mg/l) &gt; sulphate (2.02±0.06 mg/l) &gt; phosphate (0.08±0.01 mg/l) and sulphide (0.03±0.02 mg/l). Heavy metals also followed this descending order; Pb (0.50±0.03 mg/l) &gt; Zn (0.07±0.02 mg/l) &gt; Cu (0.03±0.02 mg/l). Canonical Correspondence Analysis delineated 11 hydrological variables (temperature, pH, sulphate, turbidity, phosphate, BOD, nitrate, DO, TDS, sulphide and TSS) which exerted great influence on macrophyte distribution. V. cuspidata had affinity to pH and temperature, Sacciolepis africana had affinity to turbidity and BOD, Ludwigia octovalvis and Nymphaea lotus had affinity to sulphate and chloride, respectively, while Ipomoea aquatica and Alternanthera sessils had affinity to phosphate. On the other hand, <em>Persicaria senegalensis, Salvinia molesta, Azolla pinnata</em> and <em>Ceratophyllum demersum</em> had affinities to sulphide, DO, TSS and TDS, respectively. Since hydrological variables regulate macrophyte diversity and distribution, this study calls for consistent, monitoring and management of this ecosystem against future environmental changes. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aquatic plants, Black water, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, Ordination </p> E.D. Anwana, F.O. Ogbemudia, R.E. Ita, P.E. Sunday Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Phytochemicals in Methanolic Extracts of Hurricane Weed (<i>Phyllanthus amarus</i> Schumach. &Thonn) Plant <p>The phytocomponents of the leaf and root extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae) were studied. The constituents of the leaves and roots were identified and quantified by using GC-MS. Result from the phytochemical analyses showed the presence of saponins, tannins, phenolics, anthocyanins, and glycosides in both leaves and root of the plant. Alkaloids and triterpenoids were, however only absent in the root of P. amarus but present in the leaves of the plant. Flavonoids, coumarins and steroids were absent in the leaves but present in the root part. The mean concentration of the phytochemicals investigated in leaves are 0.73±0.01%, 1.85±0.03%, 1.12±0.01%, 1.80±0.01%, 1.59±0.50%, 0.13±0.10%, and 0.86±0.01%, for saponins, tannins, phenolics, anthocyanins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and glycosides respectively, while the mean concentration of the phytochemicals investigated in roots are 0.91±0.01%, 1.53±0.03%, 0.70±0.01%, 2.97±0.10%, 2.47±0.03%, 0.62±0.01%, 0.90±0.01% and 2.02±0.10% for saponins, tannins, phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, glycosides and coumarins respectively. Furthermore, the GC-MS analysis of methanol extracts of the leaves and root of P. amarus revealed the presence of three medicinally important bioactive compounds, which are: 9-Octadecenoic acid which has percentage of abundance of 92.23% and 82.46% in leaves and roots of the plant respectively, followed by n-Hexadecanoic acid and Tetradecanoic acid with their corresponding percentage of abundance of 7.7% and 17.54% for leaves and root. These analytical results suggest the plantto possess a significant role in phyto-medicine. The importance of this plant was discussed in line with the role they play in ethnomedicinal life of the people.</p> <p><strong> Keywords</strong>: <em>Phyllanthus amarus;</em> Phytochemicals; GC-MS; methanolic extract; Phytocomponents </p> O.A. Ameen, A.A. Hamid, Q. Yusuf, O.G. Njoku, T.O. Oseni, W. Jamiu Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Petrophysical Parameters of Reservoir Sand Wells in Uzot-Field, Onshore Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria <p>Evaluation of the petrophysical parameters in Uzot-field was carried out using Well log data. The target for this study was the D3100 reservoir sand of wells Uz 004, Uz 005, U008 and Uz 011 with depth range of 5540ft to 5800ft across the four wells. Resistivity logs were used to identify hydrocarbon or water-bearing zones and hence indicate permeable zones while the various sand bodies were then identified using the gamma ray logs. The results showed the delineated reservoir units having porosity ranging from 21.40% to 33.80% indicating a suitable reservoir quality; permeability values from 1314md to 18089md attributed to the well sorted nature of the sands and hydrocarbon saturation range from 12.00% to 85.79% implying high hydrocarbon production. These results suggest a reservoir system whose performance is considered satisfactory for hydrocarbon production.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Petrophysical parameters, porosity, permeability, hydrocarbon saturation, Niger Delta Basin </p> UC Omoja, T.N. Obiekezie Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy Metal Contents in Topsoil of Selected Public Primary Schools Playground in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria <p>This study was carried out to determine some physicochemical properties and heavy metals level in primary school playground located in Benin City, Southern Nigeria using standard methods. A total of 10 topsoil samples were collected from five primary school playgrounds from different locations in Benin metropolis, Southern Nigeria in February, 2017. The mean levels of pH and EC ranged from 5.53 to 7.02 and 200.05 - 410.00 µS/cm respectively. The mean concentrations for heavy metals ranged from 337.15±64.28 and 464.10±19.37 for Fe, 23.40±7.50 and 29.70±4.81 for Mn, 45.95±8.70 and 67.95±4.74 for Zn, 8.48±1.61 and 12.90±3.82 for Cu, 5.10±2.33 and 7.41±1.54 for Cd, 4.42±2.02 and 8.39±7.09 for Cr, 6.17±2.82 and 13.82±6.76 for Pb, 0.99±0.09 and3.24±3.73 for Ni respectively. Heavy metal concentrations were in the following order. In Ogiegbaen, Eresoyen and Ekosodin Primary schools (PS) playground, the order was Fe&gt; Zn&gt; Mn&gt; Cu&gt; Pb&gt; Cd&gt; Cr&gt; Ni while the order in Agbado PS and Olua PS were Fe&gt; Zn&gt; Mn&gt; Cu&gt; Pb&gt; Cr&gt; Cd&gt; Ni and Fe&gt; Zn&gt; Mn&gt; Pb&gt; Cu&gt; Cd&gt; Cr&gt; Ni respectively. Enrichment factor (EF), Contamination factor (CF) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were used to evaluate the pollution status of the soil. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Topsoil, Playground, Heavy metals, Assessment Indices</p> E. Biose, C.F. Amaechi, C. Nwaemene Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Two Blanching Methods on the Nutritional Values of Tomatoes and Pumpkin Leaves <p>Various blanching methods were applied to tomatoes and pumpkin leaves (Telfairia occidentalis) to investigate the effect of the&nbsp; different blanching method on some of its nutritional content. The effects of steam and water blanching as a pretreatment on raw tomatoes and pumpkin leaves (control) were investigated in this study using standard methods. For tomatoes, the %nitrogen, potassium, vitamin A, C and E) mg/100g for raw were;0.48, 68.82mg/100g, 0.88mg/100g, 38.82mg/100g, 0.78mg/100g respectively. 0.45, 69.68mg/100g, 0.58mg/100g, 32.43mg/100g and 0.55mg/100g for water blanched respectively and 0.42, 69.14mg/100g, 0.47mg/100g, 29.66mg/100g, 0.42mg/100g respectively for steam blanching. * For pumpkin leaves, the %nitrogen, potassium, vitamin A, C and E) mg/100g for raw were; 0.98, 46.82mg/100g, 4.63mg/100g, 60.41mg/100g, 0.89mg/100g respectively. 0.95, 46.73mg/100g, 2.38mg/100g,<br>41.08mg/100g and 0.59mg/100g for water blanched respectively and 0.94, 46.10mg/100g, 1.20mg/100g, 32.16mg/100g, 0.52mg/100g respectively for steam blanching. The results indicate that water and steam blanching significantly reduce the nutritional content. The values of the nutrient were higher in water blanching compared to steam blanching.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Fruits, vegetable, steam, water, blanching </p> M.O. Sunmonu, M.M. Odewole, E.O. Ajala, R.O.A. Sani, A.O. Ogunbiyi Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Cassava Processing Techniques on the Livelihood of Agro-Forestry Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria <p>: Post harvest losses resulting from inadequate processing have been one of the problems affecting farmers’ income. This study was carried out to examine the contribution of cassava processing techniques on the livelihood of agroforestry farmers in Edo state. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 125 respondents which served as sample size for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results showed that 90.4% were aware of the cassava processing techniques such as the peeling, slicing, grating, sieving and frying machines. Furthermore, majority of the farmers agreed that the processing techniques were effectively in increasing productivity and 45.6% of the farmers had an increase in their annual income of up to N200,000. All the farmers attested that their income increased thus resulting in an increase in their livelihood. Chi-square results (p &gt; 0.05) revealed that there was no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of the farmers and the constraints faced in the utilization of<br>the technique. Results of correlation showed that there was a significant relationship between the processing techniques and the constraints faced in the utilization of techniques. Thus, it was recommended thatthe technologies be made simple for effective utilization in order to increase productivity</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Agroforestry, Processing, Livelihood, Techniques, Utilization </p> A.S. Adeleye, E.S. Omoghie, A.S. Yusuf, C.A. Ojedokun, K.Y. Ibikunle Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Fabrication of a Manually Operated Vegetable Leaf Slicing Machine <p>This paper entails the design and fabrication of a manually operated vegetable leaf slicing machine. The developed machine consists of a hopper, the cutter housing, the cutting blades, the rotating shaft, and a wooden handle. The machine was designed to enhance the hygienic slicing of vegetable leaf materials and for prevention of knife-related injuries for both domestic and commercial use. The machine was tested with a slicing efficiency of 95.52 % with a provision of an alternative quick vegetable cutting process with no injuries, no electric power supply and with little or no noise to the operating environment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Vegetables, slicing, cutting blade, knives, hopper</p> E. Ikpoza, E.J. Usiobaifo, I.D. Erhunmwun Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematical Modeling of Effect of Pumping Rate on Contaminant Transport in Riverbank Filtration System <p>Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a natural technology that is used for river water treatment. This research seeks to investigate the effect of pumping rate on the transport of colloids in RBF. However, this work considered Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) as a nutrient for bacteria. The mathematical model consists of groundwater flow equation and colloids concentration equations. The equations were solved analytically using parameter expanding method and Eigen function expansion techniques. The results obtained are presented graphically and discussed. It was observed that increase in pumping rate value enhance both the hydraulic head and concentration of colloids which slightly reduces the quality of pumped water from RBF.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Riverbank filtration, analytical model, colloids, hydraulic head and pumping rat</p> A.D. Abubakar, R.O. Olayiwola, A.A. Mohammed, A.T. Cole Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Occupational Satisfaction on Performance among Employees of a Forest Resources Management Institution in Nigeria <p>An organization usually sees an average worker as the source of quality and productivity gains. The study examined the impact of&nbsp; occupational satisfaction on performance among employees of a Forest Resources Management institution in Nigeria using a&nbsp; structured questionnaire for data collection. The data analysis from the study revealed that employee’s level of education enhanced job satisfaction. Furthermore, chi-square results showed that there was no significant relationship (p&gt;0.05) between personal characteristics and their satisfaction level. In addition, correlation results showed that there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance. Thus, the study recommends that organizations should intensify efforts in the area of non-financial rewards as a means of influencing greater performance from the employees as well as getting more employee commitment to the organization. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Assessment, Employee Performance, Occupational Satisfaction, Organization </p> E.S. Omoghie, A.A. Banjo, A.S. Adeleye, U.F. Aliboh, V.B. Simpson Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Impacts of Taurine on Oxidative Stress Indices in Sera and Brain of Rats Exposed to Cypermethrin <p>Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide applied for pest control on animals and the environment. Taurine is a putative antioxidant and bioprotective amino acid. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the impacts of taurine on oxidative stress indices in the sera and brains of rats exposed to cypermethrin. Forty rats were assigned to five groups of eight rats each. Distilled water was given to the first group, while the second group received soya oil (2 ml/kg). Cypermethrin (20 mg/kg) was administered to the third group. The Taurine50+Cypermethrin group received taurine (50 mg/kg) and cypermethrin, while the Taurine100+Cypermethrin group was administered with taurine (100 mg/kg) and Cypermethrin. The treatments were given once daily by oral gavage for 35 days. Sera were obtained from the blood samples of the rats after the completion of the study for the determination of the oxidative stress indices (malondialdehyde concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes). Oxidative stress indices were analysed in the brains. Taurine significantly (P&lt; 0.05) augmented the superoxide dismutase activity in the sera. However, other oxidative stress indices were not ameliorated by taurine in the sera and the brains. Cypermethrin (20 mg/kg) did not overtly evoke oxidative stress in the sera and the brains of the rats in this study, probably because it is a moderately toxic insecticide. This is the first study that has investigated the effects of taurine on cypermethrin toxicity. Further research is warranted to expound the mechanisms of action of taurine and&nbsp; cypermethrin in biological systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Taurine, Cypermethrin, Serum, Brain, Oxidative Stres</p> M.G. Akande, S.M. Okoronkwo, S.E. Abalaka, S.I. Idoko, S.A. Ubah, K.O. Abah, D.D. Akumka, A. Mohammed Copyright (c) Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Analysis of <i>Fadogia andersonii</i> Robyn Plant Extrac <p>Medicinal plants extracts are now generally considered as effective medicines that play a major role in modern pharmacy. The plant Fadogia andersonii belonging to the Family Rubiaceae, which is used in ethno-medicine was studied. Preliminary phytochemical analyses of the whole plant revealed the presence of the following metabolites: Saponins, terpenes, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and carbohydrates. Anthraquinones was found to be absent. Antimicrobial screening of the methanol plant’s extract carried out (in vitro) on <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albican </em>and<em> Aspergillus flavus</em> showed that the extract has activity on the tested microorganisms. However, it showed no inhibitory effect against <em>Escherichia coli.</em> The extract was found to inhibit the growth of <em>S. aureus, B. cereus, S. pyogenes </em>and <em>C. albican</em> at 25mg/ml with a corresponding MBC at 50mg/ml. S.<br>typhi and S. pneumonia were inhibited at 50mg/ml with a corresponding MBC at 100mg/ml. It also inhibited the growth of<em> P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia </em>and<em> A. flavus</em> at 100mg/ml with a corresponding MBC at 200mg/ml. The observed antimicrobial effects were believed to be due to the presence of active principles which were detected in the phytochemical screening.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Phytochemicals, Antimicrobials, Fadogia andersonii Robyn</p> J. Nzeako, G.I. Ndukwe, J.D. Habila, E.A. Oluwabukola, I. Owoicho Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Energy-Based Criterion for Testing the Nonlinear Response Strength of Strong Nonlinear Oscillators <p>This article proposes a simple energy-based criterion developed to characterize four commonly identified responses, namely: linear, weakly nonlinear, moderately nonlinear and strongly nonlinear regimes. The response of the nonlinear simple pendulum was used for benchmarking the boundary conditions for each of the four response regimes and the test criterion was demonstrated using relevant examples. The test presented in this article is important for clarifying the obscurity surrounding the accuracy and range of validity of recent approximate analytical schemes used to investigate strong nonlinear oscillators. Furthermore, it is meant to create awareness of the need to develop more robust testing criteria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> strong nonlinear oscillation; periodic oscillation; approximate analytical solution</p> Akuro Big-Alabo Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Integrating Resistivity Techniques for Optimum Groundwater Exploration and Development within a Hotel Facility in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria <p>This work is an attempt to combine dipole-dipole profiling and vertical electrical sounding techniques of electrical resistivity methods to investigate the groundwater potential within the premises of a 3-star hotel facility in Osogbo, Nigeria by delineating the geoelectric layers, delineating the low resistivity layers, determining the lithologies and hence, delineating the groundwater bearing zones. The five vertical electrical sounding data were collected along two pre-surveyed dipole-dipole traverses at right angle to each other beside the fences of the premises using the ABEM SAS 300c terrameter. The observed data were interpreted quantitatively using curve matching and computer-assisted iteration method using the WinResist and Dipro software. The results of the inversion show that the lithology comprises of the top soil and an intermittent sequence of sand and lateritic clay having varying resistivity and thickness. The aquiferous layer was observed to be located at a depth of 23 m to 25 m due to the low resistivity and high thickness of the aquiferous layer. The result of the 2-D imaging closely correlates with the result of the vertical electrical sounding. Thus, combining these techniques in groundwater investigation has achieved similar result as the Werner technique and has reduced ambiguity and error in positioning for drilling.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Resistivity, Groundwater Exploration, Dipole-Dipole</p> A. Ojo, E. Babafemi, E. Faleye, O. Shado Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Missing Observations in Split-Plot Central Composite Designs: The Loss in Relative A-, G-, and V- Efficiency <p>The trace (A), maximum average prediction variance (G), and integrated average prediction variance (V) criteria are experimental design evaluation criteria, which are based on precision of estimates of parameters and responses. Central Composite Designs(CCD) conducted within a split-plot structure (split-plot CCDs) consists of factorial (𝑓), whole-plot axial (𝛼), subplot axial (𝛽), and center (𝑐) points, each of which play different role in model estimation. This work studies relative A-, G- and V-efficiency losses due to missing pairs of observations in split-plot CCDs under different ratios (d) of whole-plot and sub-plot error variances. Three candidate designs of different sizes were considered and for each of the criteria, relative efficiency functions were formulated and used to investigate the efficiency of each of the designs when some observations were missing relative to the full one. Maximum A-efficiency losses of 19.1, 10.6, and 15.7% were observed at 𝑑 = 0.5, due to missing pairs 𝑓𝑓, 𝛽𝛽, and 𝑓𝛽, respectively, indicating a negative effect on the precision of estimates of model parameters of these designs. However, missing observations of the pairs- 𝑐𝑐, 𝛼𝛼, 𝛼𝑐, 𝑓𝑐, and 𝑓𝛼 did not exhibit any negative effect on these designs' relative A-efficiency. Maximum G- and Vefficiency losses of 10.1,16.1,0.1% and 0.1, 1.1, 0.2%, were observed, respectively, at 𝑑 = 0.5, when the pairs- 𝑓𝑓, 𝛽𝛽, 𝑐𝑐, were missing, indicating a significant increase in the designs' maximum and average variances of prediction. In all, the efficiency losses become insignificant as d increases. Thus, the study has identified the positive impact of correlated observations on efficiency of experimental designs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Missing Observations, Efficiency Loss, Prediction variance </p> Y. Yakubu, A.U. Chukwu Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical and Mineral Analysis of Fish Pond Water; Implications for the Environment <p>This study examined the physicochemical parameters of fish pond water to ascertain if they pose any risk to the environment after disposal. Water samples were collected from metallic, tarpaulin and concrete ponds from Anambra, Imo and Lagos states, Nigeria and analysed for minerals and physicochemical parameters using standard analytical methods. The results obtained were as follows; pH 6.30±0.06 – 6.94±0.01, turbidity 40.00±0.01-315.00±1.73 NTU, TSS 324.00±9.59 – 1346.00±20.53 mg/L, TDS 24.2 ±2.20 – 45.6 ±17.2 mg/L, hardness 18.6±3.9 – 24.3±3.80, phosphate 0.12±0.01 - 0.23±0.01, nitrate 0.42±0.02 – 1.17±0.01, BOD 1.43.33±1.41 – 577.67±2.8, DO&nbsp; 27.67±1.41 – 57.67±0.02, Zn 0.12±0.03-0.92±0.02, Cu 0.18±0.03 – 0.53±0.01, Fe 0.24±0.02 – 0.55±0.02 and Ca 0.19±0.02 – 0.51±0.02. The results varied from one pond to another depending on the residence time of the samples and the nature of the pond. All parameters were within the established limit for effluent disposal except biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)and dissolved oxygen (DO).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Physicochemical parameters, Fish pond, Aquaculture, Freshwater, Fish</p> N.M. Mgbemena, I. Ilechukwu, E.U. Amalu, C. Anierobi Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Proximate and Elemental Analysis of African Star Apple (<i>Chrysophyllum albidum</i>) <p>The proximate and elemental analysis of African star apple (<em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em>) using standard analytical techniques was investigated. The proximate composition of the plant showed the values of 54.57 % for carbohydrate, 13.25 % of fat, and 3.85 % of crude protein. The crude fiber and ash content indicates the values of 6.60 % and 4.70 % respectively. The moisture content present (17.03 %) reveals the possibility of having low antimicrobial activities of the plant. The mineral elements present in different concentrations are Ca (706.850 mg/kg), Mg (325.500 mg/kg), Fe (40.875 mg/kg), Cu (3.275 mg/kg), and Zn (4.625 mg/kg). The result shows that the fruit have essential minerals required by human for normal life activities.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em>, Star apple, Proximate compositions, Mineral elements</p> H. Ibrahim, A. Haruna, N. Abdullahi Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-reproductive efficacy of <i>Adansonia digitata</i> Powder against <i>Dinoderus porcellus</i> Associated with Yam Chips Spoilage in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria <p>This study assessed the reproduction inhibition effects of Adansonai digitata plant part powders against <em>D. porcellus</em> affecting yam chips. Reproduction of adults <em>D. porcellus</em> were monitored with various doses of <em>Adansonai digitata</em> plant part powders and untreated yam chips as negative control (0 g). The finding of the research indicated that all treatments exhibited anti-reproduction potential and strong inhibition of <em>D. porcellus</em> emergence. The result of analysis of variance showed significant difference between the treated samples and the control (untreated) after 37 days. Adansonai digitata stem bark powders (10 g) was able to achieve no reproduction<br>(0.00) after 37 days exposure. Based on this results, combining yam chips with 10 g of Adansonai digitata stem bark powders could ensure adequate management of <em>D. porcellus</em> destroying yam chips and yam tubers as a whole.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Adansonai digitata, D. porcellus,</em> yam chips, Stem bark powder, Leaf powder</p> W.C. John, K. Richard, M. Ishaya, O. Olori-Oke, B.S. Kyaharle, M.S. Chomini Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Plant Population Density and Methods of Weed Control on The Yield of Pepper (<i>Capsicum annum</i> L.) in Northeastern Nigeria <p>Field experiments were conducted at Yola and Garkida in Adamawa State, North-Eastern Nigeria during the 2017 rainy season. In the Yola location the experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, and in Garkida it was conducted at Garkida village in Gombi Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The experiment was designed to study the effect of plant population density and methods of weed control on the yield of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). The treatments consist of three spacings, 25 x 30cm, 35 x 40cm and 45 x 50cm with four (4) different herbicides rates (No herbicide, pyrithiobac sodium 65.5kg a.i/ha, pendimethalin 1kg a.i/ha + pyrithiobac sodium 65.5kg a.i/ha and Haloxyfop 108g a.i/ha + hand hoe weeding. The experimental design was a split-plot design replicated three times. Spacing was assigned to the main plot while methods of weed control as subplots. Parameters measured were weed density, number of pepper fruits per plot, and fruit yield per hectare. All data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriate to the split-plot design. The results of the experiment showed that herbicide pyrthiobac sodium 65.5kg a.i/ha recorded the highest number of fruit per plot of 72.4 while herbicide haloxyfop 108g a.i/ha followed by hand weeding recorded the least number of fruits of 50.1. The result of the experiment shows that there was a significant effect on spacing in both locations. Concerning yield per hectare spacing 25x30cm obtained the highest yield per hectare of 945kg in Garkida, while the least was from the Yola location which recorded 537kg. It was concluded that pepper yield depends on the proper spacing and proper use of herbicide which will suppress weed and increase yield significantly. </p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Weed Density, Weed Control, Yield, Pepper</p> A.B. Mustapha, T. Felix, M.C. Tashiwa, N.A. Gworgwor Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Unresolved Water Conflicts by Water Sector Institutions in Ewaso Ng’iro North River Sub-Basin, Kenya <p>Water conflicts have huge impacts on livelihoods and without proper redress, have capacity to stall economic development of a community. This paper therefore explicates the impacts of unresolved water related conflicts in Ewaso Ng’iro North River sub-basin in Kenya and their persistence despite past major institutional and policy reforms in the water sector. Repetitive unresolved water conflicts curtail the prosperity of the communities on river basins. Study&nbsp; objective was to assess continued unresolved conflicts albeit the numerous and robust water reforms. Mixed methods research design was adopted to capture both primary and secondary data. Game Theory supported the study explicating how water users both upstream and downstream are players whose payoffs if not transparent cause conflicts. Sampling formula was utilized to derive a sample size of 384 respondents and employed simple random sampling. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaires, Key Informant interviews, Focused Group Discussions and Transect walks. Results show that water users aware of regulations in place governing water on river basins however had weak compliance. The legal and policy reforms need to be up scaled to enhance capacity to resolve conflicts by WRUAs and WRA. Compliance to regulations governing water to be enforced by mandated institutions to curb the repetitiveness of unresolved water conflicts.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ewaso Ng’iro, Institutional reforms, Water Resources, Water Users, Unresolved Conflicts.</p> S. Lesrima, G. Nyamasyo, K. Kiemo Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Seasonal Changes of the Electric Field Pattern in Ibadan Nigeria on Some Meteorological Parameters <p>The objective of this work is to investigate the variation of the electric field in the atmosphere to specific meteorological parameters such as (temperature, heat and relative humidity) in Ibadan using data collected from the Nigeria Meteorological (NiMet) Office in Lagos. The data obtained were used to analyze the patterns of electric field in every season in thislocation for a period of one year ranged from September to October.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Electric Field, Relative Humidity, Temperature, Pressure, Wind, Polluted Aerosols </p> A.A. Adetoyinbo, A.K. Bello, S.A. Akinwale Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological Evaluation of some Oral Antacid Suspensions Sold in Delta State, Nigeria <p>Pharmaceutical products (non-sterile) are faced with the challenges of not exceeding the minimum limit of microbial presence tolerated for the respective formulations. Antacid suspensions which are multi-dose drug products that are utilized in the neutralization of gastric acid. This drug with neutral pH makes them to be liable to microbial contamination. This study was conducted to evaluate antacid suspensions marketed in Delta State, Nigeria based on their microbial quality. Six different brands of antacid suspensions were collected from different Pharmacies in Delta state and were analysed microbiologically to isolate and quantify the implicated bacteria and fungi using conventional cultural and biochemical techniques. The microbiological evaluation of these samples was determined using the agar-well diffusion method. Five out of the six brands evaluated were found to be populated with a huge<br>number of bacteria (2.5 x 10<sup>2</sup> to &gt; 2.2 x 10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml) and fungi (2 x 10<sup>2 </sup>to 8 x 10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml). <em>Staphylococcus aureu</em>s was absent in any of the antacids brands studied. However, there were presence of objectionable microorganisms, <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em> in three of the six brands. The results of this study reveal the microbial contamination level of some of the antacid (suspensions)&nbsp; marketed in Delta State which may be due to poor adherence to current good manufacturing practice by the manufacturers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antacid suspensions, Microorganisms, Microbiological quality, Brands.</p> C.O. Anie, S.E. Okafo Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Foraminiferal Biozonation of Late Eocene - Early Oligocene sediments of BC-1 well, Onshore, Western Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria <p>Foraminiferal analysis was carried out on forty (40) ditch cutting samples from BC-1 well in the Onshore, Western Niger Delta at depth intervals of 5590 ft. - 8300 ft. Lithologic description of the samples together with the gamma ray log analytical data indicated the presence of four lithostratigraphic units composed of shale, sandstone, sandy shale and shaly sand corresponding to the continental Benin and paralic Agbada Formations. A total of twelve (12) species defined into eleven (11) genera, six (6) subfamilies and eleven (11) families were recovered. Benthonic and planktonic foraminiferal species constitute approximately 82 % and 18 % respectively. The calcareous benthics make up 44.4 % while the arenaceous benthics representing 37.7% of the total foraminiferal assemblages.&nbsp; Foraminiferal index marker species - <em>Globorotalia opima</em> <em>nana, Nonion oyae, Cassigerinella chipollensis </em>and<em> Spiroplectammina wrightii</em><br>revealed that the age of the studied well is from Late Eocene - Early Oligocene epoch. This indicated that both the planktonic and benthonic foraminiferal recovered from the well contained the transition between the Priabonian and the Rupelian age. Three (3) informal foraminiferal zone were established - <em>Nonion oyae zone, Cassigerinella chipollensis zone</em> and undiagnostic zone. The zones compares with foraminiferal markers species whose stratigraphic ranges are well established in the Niger Delta and globally.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Lithostratigraphic units, Agbada Formation, Eocene, Oligocene and Biozone.</p> F.O. Amiewalan, J.A. Edegbai Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Insecticidal Effect Of <I>Adansonia digitata</I> Stem Bark And Leaf Powders On <I>Dinoderus porcellus</I> <p>This study evaluated insecticidal activity of different doses of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> stem bark and leaf powders on yam beetles dinoderus porcellus. Obtained plant parts from Federal colloge of Forestry, Jos were pulverized into powders. Phytochemical constituents of the plant were extracted by Soxhlet extraction and identified using standard procedure. Mortality testing was done by exposing dinoderus porcellus to yam chips mixed with various doses of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> stem bark and leaf powders. Yam chips without treatment served as the control. The experiments were laid out in randomized complete design with three replications. Data obtained were analysed using analysis of variance (P≤ 0.05). The result of the phytochemical examination of ethanolic extract of <em>A. digitata</em> revealed the presence of saponins, phenols, tannins and alkaloids flavonoids. The finding revealed the superiority of yam chips mixed stem bark and leaf powders over the untreated. The effect of plant extracts on percentage mortality showed significant difference (p&lt;0.05) among the treated and control. The sample treated with 15g of A. digitata stem-bark powder gave the highest mortality. The research hence recommends the use of 15 g of A. digitata stem-bark powder in elimination of Dinoderus porcellus infecting yam chips.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>A. digitata,</em> Insecticida, Mortality, flavonoid, <em>Dinoderus porcellus</em></p> W.C. John, M. Ishaya, O. Olori-Oke, C.J. Ukanyirioha, M.S. Chomini, B.S. Kyaharle Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000