Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management <p>The journal publishes original research findings and occasional interpretative reviews from health sciences, pure and applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and environmental management sciences provided the methodology and reporting meet current standards of adequacy. Studies relating to food, water, atmosphere, ocean, and consumer products, industrial and agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical products, safety, security and environment, biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationship between environmental contamination and toxicology are considered. Studies addressing the physiological, anatomical, biochemical or pathological changes produced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, and all aspects of in-vivo toxicology are covered.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US JASEM has joined the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Therefore articles in JASEM are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (Prof. Michael Horsfall Jnr) (Ms Green Ekwere Ufot, (BSc, Management)) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 11:02:29 +0000 OJS 60 Lipid Profile, Haematological Assay and Tissue Histology of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Administered Extracts of <i>Vernomia amygdalina</i> (Bitter leaf) and <i>Gnetum africanum</i> (okazi leaf) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Diabetes mellitus is predominant in numerous nations of the world with millions of deaths directly linked to it. The utilization of plants in providing answers to this pandemic has expanded over the years. This study investigated changes in some haematological parameters and tissue histology of alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats administered combined leaf extracts (CLE) of <em>vernonia amygdalina</em> (bitter leaf (BI)) and <em>gnetum africanum</em> (okazi leaf (OK)). Aqueous extracts of bitter leaf and okazi leaf were prepared using the conventional method. Forty Wistar rats were grouped into eight of five rats each. Groups A and B were normal and diabetic control respectively, groups C to G (diabetic groups) were treated with varied mixtures of extracts of <em>vernomia amygdalina</em> and <em>gnetum africanum</em> at (10:90BI/OK), (30:70BI/OK), (50:50BI/OK), (70:30 BI/OK) and (90:10% BI/OK) ratios respectively. Group H, the diabetic control was administered the standard drug (Metformin). The animals were sacrificed on the 28th day, blood samples and liver tissue were collected for biochemical analysis and histological examination. There was a significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction in the lipid profile of the diabetic groups (C-G) especially in triglycerides with the highest reduction in (50:50 BI/OK) combination (0.70±0.07) while the least reduction was seen in (30:70 BI/OK) combination (1.37±0.08). There were time and ratio-dependent variations in the haematological indices. Hepatic histology showed evidence of varying levels of restoration of cellular structural integrity by the combined extracts. These results suggest that the combined extracts of <em>vernomia amygdalina</em> and <em>gnetum africanum</em> could be used to manage diabetes mellitus.</p> </div> </div> </div> R.B. Oshotse, M.O. Ifeanacho Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematical Analysis of a Diarrhoea Model in the Presence of Vaccination and Treatment Waves with Sensitivity Analysis <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In this study, the diarrhoea model is developed based on basic mathematical modelling techniques leading to a system (five compartmental model) of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Mathematical analysis of the model is then carried out on the uniqueness and existence of the model to know the region where the model is epidemiologically feasible. The equilibrium points of the model and the stability of the disease-free state were also derived by finding the reproduction number. We then progressed to running a global sensitivity analysis on the reproduction number with respect to all the parameters in it, and four (4) parameters were found sensitive. The work was concluded with numerical simulations on Maple 18 using Runge-Kutta method of order four (4) where the values of six (6) parameters present in the model were each varied successively while all other parameters were held constant so as to know the behaviour and effect of the varied parameter on how diarrhoea spreads in the population. The results from the sensitivity analysis and simulations were found to be in sync.</p> </div> </div> </div> E.I. Akinola, B.E. Awoyemi, I.A. Olopade, O.D. Falowo, T.O. Akinwumi Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening and Identification of Bioactive Constituents of the Chloroform Extract of <i>Icacina trichantha</i> Tuber Peel <i>Oliv</i> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study was carried out to identify the bioactive constituents of the tuber peels of <em>Icacina trichanthalinna</em> of the <em>Icacinales</em> family. This plant is basically selected due to its widespread use in herbal treatment. Nine compounds were identified in the chloroform extract of the tuber peel. Undecane (43.254%),2-hexanone (23.299%), Dodecanoic acid ethyl ester (6.244%) and 9-octadecynoic acid (5.915%) appeared to be the most prevailing compounds and they are known to possess antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimycobacterial, hypercholesterolemic activities. Also identified was triarachine which has been reported to have some biological activity.</p> </div> </div> </div> O.U. Akoh, O.M. Mac-Kalunta Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Identification of Fungi Associated with Habanero Pepper (<i>Capsicum chinense</i> jacq) Using Basic Molecular Techniques <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Habanero pepper (<em>Capsicum chinense</em> Jacq.) is an economically important vegetable. It is used as spices for foods and for medicinal purposes in many parts of the country. Despite the importance of the crop, it has been observed that during storage, the fruits of the Habanero pepper (HP) shelf-life is reduced by several post-harvest diseases caused by fungal pathogens. A study was conducted to identify the common fungal pathogens causing post-harvest rot of Habanero fruits at the daily market in Omoko Aluu Town, Rivers State. The DNA of the most common fungal isolate HP-02 was molecularly characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) molecular marker. The HP-02 isolate DNA sequence was aligned using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for nucleotide (BLASTN) 2.8.0 version of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The results indicated that the HP-02 isolate sequence was 79% identical to <em>Mucor irregularis</em> and also <em>Rhizomucor viriabilis</em> isolate SAPB3. These findings showed that <em>Mucor irregularis</em>, which was formerly known as <em>Rhizomucor variabilis</em> is one of the emerging causal fungal pathogens of post-harvest Habanero pepper.</p> </div> </div> </div> G.C. Ikechi-Nwogu, A.B. Odogwu, J. Ukomadu, E.P. Usiakponebro Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Health and Ecological Risks Associated with Heavy Metal Contamination in Surface Soils from Lagos Lagoon Wetlands, Lagos, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Wetlands quality and spatial distribution are being threatened by anthropogenic drivers in addition to the emerging threats of climate change. In this study, selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soils from Lagos lagoon wetlands were investigated to assess spatial distribution, ecological and health risks. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using GraphPad 7.0 and SPSS 22.0. Spatial distribution mapping of heavy metals was performed using ArcGIS10.0 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) with Kriging interpolation. Results showed that heavy metals in the soil varied significantly (p&lt;0.05). The contamination factors (CF) were generally low with the values for Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn very low (&lt;1). The CF values for some of the sampling points showed that the soils are generally moderately contaminated by Pb, Cd and Cu. The modified degree of contamination of Pb (2.35) indicates a moderate degree of contamination while that of Cd (12.60) indicates a high degree of contamination of these wetland soils. The potential ecological risk index (RI) of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were 70.40, 2264.40, 0.68, 1.55, 13.65, and 2.29, respectively. The RI for Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were less than 100, hence, low, while the RI value of Cd was a very high risk (RI ≥ 400). Soils from this wetland’s areas show serious significant potential ecological risk due to Cd. Additionally, children were more susceptible to the potential health risk irrespective of the carcinogenic or non – carcinogenic risk. There were no significant carcinogenic and non – carcinogenic risks for adults and children. This wetland assessment provided important information for policymaking to reduce the potential effects of soil contamination on humans and the eco-environment.</p> </div> </div> </div> A.A. Adesuyi, L. Kelechi, D.N. Olayinka, O.A. Jimoh, M.O. Akinola Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Estimating Aboveground Biomass Using Allometric Models And Adaptive Learning Rate Optimization Algorithms <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is imperative in the study of climate change and the carbon cycle in the global terrestrial ecosystem. Developing a credible approach to estimate forest biomass and carbon stocks is essential. Four allometric models were used with two optimization algorithms; Modified Root Mean Square Propagation (Modified RMSProp) and Modified Adaptive Moment Estimation (Modified Adam) were also used to train each model. Convergence was achieved after 1000 iterations of Modified RMSProp and 200 iterations of Modified Adam for all the models. A learning rate of 0.01 and exponential decay rates of 0.9 and 0.999 for the first and second momentum. A loss function of 0.5 Mean Square Error (0.5 MSE) was used and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was used to judge the accuracy of the models. The study showed that the optimization algorithms were both able to accurately optimize three of the four allometric models. While Modified Adam was the more efficient optimizer, it had the highest RMSE value 2.3910 and Modified RMSProp had the least RMSE value 0.37381. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the models optimized by both algorithms.</p> </div> </div> </div> S.J. Okonkwo, Z.H. Mshelia Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Soil Bacteria from the Rhizosphere of Two Selected Tree Species (<i>Anogeissus leiocarpa</i> and <i>Pterocarpus erinaceus</i>) in Shere Hills, Plateau State, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The comparative study of soil bacteria from the rhizosphere was carried out using samples obtained from the soil (rhizospheres) of <em>Anogeissus leiocarpa</em> and <em>Pterocarpus erinaceus</em> using purposive sampling method. The soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-30cm and 30-60cm around the rhizosphere of the studied tree species and away from the rhizosphere used as a control. The method by Ibitoye (2008) was used to test for physico-chemical properties and method by Cheesborough (2006) was used for stocking, culturing, incubating and gram staining. Result for the mean physical properties shows, <em>P. erinaceus</em> had highest mean values for clay and silt which wasn’t significant (p= 0.067 and 0.381 respectively). <em>A. leiocarpus</em> had the second highest clay and silt. Sand and bulk density was highest for the control which was highly significant (p = 0.000 and p=0.044 respectively). For mean chemical properties among plant species, pH, EC, OC, OM, N, Na, Ca and CEC were highly significant (p&lt;0.05), while p, K, Mg and EA were not significant. <em>Pterocarpus erinaceus</em> had the highest mean for all the chemical elements assessed with ten (10) bacteria species identified. <em>Anoigessus leiocarpa</em> had the second highest biochemical elements present with six (6) species of bacteria identified, <em>Bascillus subtilis</em> was most common. It is therefore necessary that these tree species are allowed in their natural habitat to preserve and conserve these microbes in the ecosystem.</p> </div> </div> </div> C. Kambai, V.I. Joshua, O.R. Olatidoye, C.K. Yakubu, B.O. Adaaja, J.J. Olaniyi Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and Investigation of Nonlinear Behaviour of Radio Refractivity during the Rainy and Dry Seasons in the Coastal Region of Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The transmission and receiving of good quality of signals globally has been impaired due to the internal activities of the troposphere linked to the nonlinear behaviour of the meteorological parameters. This paper focusses on characterizing and investigating the nonlinear behaviour of radio refractivity during the rainy and dry seasons in the coastal region of Nigeria using temperature, pressure and relative humidity data collected over a period of two years by the Centre for Atmospheric Research, National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) from Lagos state. Data obtained were analyzed by False Nearest Neighbour (FNN) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). The results show that recurrence techniques are able to identify the periods where there are high predictability and low predictability. The investigation of nonlinear effects of meteorological parameters and the hydrometeors on the troposphere help to avoid fading of radio signals along with the radio communication links.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> A.E. Adeniji, E.M. Ajeigbe, K.S. Ojo Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on the Thermal Stability of Peroxidase from Leaf of Oil Palm (<i>Elaeis guineensis</i>) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Peroxidase was extracted from leaves of oil palm tree with 0.01M phosphate buffer pH 7.0. It was partially purified using 70% ammonium sulphate ((NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) precipitation. This resulted in peroxidase with activity of (26U/ml) and specific activity of 35.8U/mg. Effect of heat on the activity of peroxidase was studied at temperature of 323-363°K. After gel filtration on sephadex G100, the peroxidase activity increased to 27U/ml, with specific activity of 55U/mg .The overall purification fold was 4 with 51.9% enzyme recovery. The peroxidase partially purified from leaves of oil palm tree showed pH and temperature optima of 5.0 and 50°C respectively. High pH and temperature stabilities of pH 5.0 to pH 9.0 and 50°C to 70°C were obtained respectively. Also, the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction was - 21.616kj/mol. The free energy changes (ΔG) were 96008.64, 96315.59, 97901.63, 94132.33 and 97146.75kj/mol at 323,333,343,353 and 363°K respectively. It was observed that the D-values were decreasing with increasing temperature with a Z-value of 0.044. The enthalpy results suggest that the reaction was exothermic, non-spontaneous and reversible.</p> </div> </div> </div> J.N. Ozioko, B.O. Ezema, K.O. Omeje, S.O.O. Eze Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal Activity of <i>Hyptis spicigera</i> Methanol Leaf Extract and Flavonoid Fraction <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Control of plant fungal diseases using synthetic fungicides continue to cause major problems to human health and the entire ecosystem. The aim of this research was to investigate the phytochemical and antifungal properties of <em>Hyptis spicigera</em> methanol leaf extract and flavonoid fraction on <em>Aspergillus</em> and <em>Fusarium</em> species, with a view to uncovering effective bio-fungicides for development as substitutes to chemical fungicides. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols and triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. The quantitative analysis showed that saponin (690 mg/g GAE), phenolics (220 mg/g GAE) and flavonoids (140 mg/g GAE) were found to be in high concentration. The antifungal effects of <em>H. spicigera</em> methanol extract on <em>F. graminearum</em> (21 mm) was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than the control fungicide (Mancozeb). Similarly, the flavonoid fraction was more effective on <em>A. parasitic</em> (18 mm) than the control fungicide used. The extract and fraction exhibited MIC with range 3.13-12.5 mg/mL and MFC 6.25-12.5 mg/mL, indicating promising antifungal efficacies against <em>A. flavus</em> and <em>F. graminearum</em>. Our findings have revealed that <em>H. spicigera</em> flavonoid rich fraction has potential for development as effective bio-fungicide to control plant fungal diseases of the <em>Aspergillus</em> and <em>Fusarium</em> species.</p> </div> </div> </div> K. Adamu, H. Musa, A.B. Aliyu, A.O. Musa Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects Of <i>Maytenus senegalensis</i> (L) and <i>Cassia alata</i> (L) Extracts on the Liver Enzymes of Albino Rats, Infected with Schistosomes Cercariae <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This reaearch aim was to evaluate some liver enzymes of albino rats subjected to administration of methanol and water extracts of <em>Maytenus senegalensis</em> and <em>Cassia alata</em> after infection with schistosome cercariae. As curative agents, the extracts were well tolerated by rats. The total protein (69.0-77.9g/l and 71.8- 79.1g/l) for methanolic extracts of and (64.3-74.3g/l and 70.3- 77.5g/l) for water extracts for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and <em>C. alata</em> respectively. The Alkaline phosphate values range from (145-226iu/l and 189-207iu/l) for methanol and (143-234iu/l and195-207iu/l) for water as for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and <em>C. alata</em> extracts. The Aspartate aminotransferase values were (7.7-8.7iu/l) for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and (8.0- 8.6iu/l) for <em>C. alata</em> with methanol extraxts and (7.1-8.8iu/l) for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and (8.4-8.9iu/) for <em>C. alata</em> water extracts. The Alkaline aminotransferase values range from (5.1-6.3iu/l) for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and (3.5-6.4iu/l) for <em>C. alata</em> in methanol and (4.2-6.3iu/l) for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and (4.1-6.4iu/l for <em>C. alata</em> with water extracts. The Total Bilirubin values of both methanol and water extracts for <em>M. senegalensis</em> (6.3-18.9μm/l) and (9.0-12.7μm/l) for <em>C. alata</em> and (4.2-6.3μm/l) for <em>M. senegalensis</em> and (4.1-6.4μm/l) for <em>C. alata</em> respectively were all within the normal values. This indicates that all these extracts were well tolerated. However the 9g/kg body weight of the water leaf extracts, although having normal values were toxic to other organs such as the lungs.</p> </div> </div> </div> G.A. Domo, S.L. Kela, S.M. Panda, A.B. Samaila Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Eggshell: A Heterogeneous Catalyst in Transesterification of Sand Apple (<i>Parinari polyandra</i>) Seed Oil <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The objective of this study was to characterize a low cost heterogeneous catalyst from the transesterification of sand apple (<em>Parinari polyandra</em> B.) biodiesel. Sand apple fruits were processed and oil was extracted using solvent extraction method. Raw eggshells were calcined at 800°C for 120 min in the muffle furnace. Surface properties of the raw and calcined eggshell were characterized using Fourier Transformed Infrared Radiation (FTIR) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Transesterification of the Sand Apple Oil (SASO) with ethanol in the presence of the calcined catalyst to produce ethyl ester and glycerol were optimized using Central Composite Design at different temperatures and time. Reactants for the transesterification process were the raw SASO and anhydrous ethanol. The study shows that raw eggshell was more stable with hydrogen bond form at 2,724 cm<sup>-1</sup>an while oil yield of 53.13 % was obtained from sand apple kernels. Ethyl ester yield of 90% was obtained from SASO. The results of transesterification shows the maximum biodiesel yield of 90% was obtained at reaction temperature of 65°C and time of 120 min, while the minimum yield of 70% was obtained at temperature of 55°C and time of 60 min; indicating that biodiesel increase with increase in time. Similarly, yield of ethyl ester of SASO also increased when the reaction temperature increased. The percentages of biodiesel yield obtained from SASO transesterification in this study showed that sand apple is promising oil for biodiesel production as compared with other vegetable oil crop obtained in previous studies</p> </div> </div> </div> O.O. Oniya, A. Saleh, F.B. Akande, D.T. Adeyemi Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Plastic Pollution of Soil on the Growth and Survival of Bacteria and Fungi <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The study examined the effect of plastic waste on soil bacteria and fungi. The test soil samples were collected from Lokoja international market waste dump site and the control soil sample was collected from non plastic contaminated garden in Salem University, Lokoja. The samples were analysed using Gas chromatography with mass spectrometer. The test soil sample soil sample had high quantity of plastic contaminant which were Methylene chloride 17.45mg/kg, hexane 10.05mg/kg, chloroform 1.56mg/kg, toluene 5.87mg/kg, tetrachloroethylene 1.48mg/kg as compared to the control garden soil sample, which had methylene chloride 0.54mg/kg, hexane 0.26mg/kg, chloroform 0.31mg/kg, toluene 5.87mg/kg and tetrachloroethylene 0.01mg/kg. The result showed the presence of plastic in the soil and it effect on bacteria and fungi. The totals of 11 bacteria were isolated from both soil samples using nutrient agar. The bacteria isolated are; <em>Corynebacterium</em> spp. (12%), <em>Enterobacter</em> spp. (8%), <em>Acinetobacter</em> spp. (6%), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (16%), <em>Epidermis, Bacillus subtilis</em> (15%), <em>Serratia</em> sp. (8%), <em>Proteus</em> spp. (4%), <em>Micrococcus luteus</em> (7%), <em>Flavobacterium</em> spp. (10%), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (15%). <em>Micrococcus luteus</em>, <em>Flavobacterium</em> spp. and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginose</em> were not isolated in plastic composted soil sample due to the presence of plasticizers. The total of 6 fungi were isolated, namely <em>Penicilliun expansion</em> (12%), <em>Sacchromyces</em> sp. (24%), <em>Aspergillus niger</em> (19%), <em>Fusarium</em> spp. (20%), <em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em> (10%) and <em>Mucor piriformis</em> (15%). This study reveals the effect of plastic waste, as it inhibits the growth of microorganism that is important for soil activities, thereby reducing the soil nutrients, fertility and productivity.</p> </div> </div> </div> U. Udochukwu, S.E. Emmanuel, E.O. Ehinmitan, R.S. Bodunde, J.O. Isheke Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Toxicological Impact and Risk of using Talcum Powder as a Factor for Ovarian Cancer among Women in three Metropolitan Cities of Southwestern States, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study evaluated the public awareness level on the toxicological nature of talcum powder and the perceived risk of ovarian cancer among women in order to design effective interventions that will ultimately improve public health among all women in Nigeria. A risk perception survey was developed to capture the public awareness level about talcum powder as an emerging contaminant and risk of ovarian cancer, inquiring whether risk is viewed positively or negatively and the extent of worry or concern. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered and returned, analyzed and interpreted for policy decision making. Each questionnaire contains mostly Likert type questions featuring a set of risks with fixed response alternatives. Basic descriptive statistics was considered for explanatory variables: age, educational attainment and generalized risk sensitivity. Majority of respondents use talcum powder for different purposes. 28% of respondents use talcum powder for genital hygiene, out of which 42.86% use this cosmetic product on a daily basis. Poor level of awareness was generally observed as most respondents do not know whether talcum powder could be considered a potential risk factor for ovarian cancer. Majority (66.43%) were very concerned about the risk of ovarian cancer but perceived less risk for ovarian cancer when asked to compare risk with their respective age groups. Notably, poor level of awareness about the toxicological nature of talc and the relatively high level of perceived risk of developing ovarian cancer due to previous talc exposure was evident among respondents in our study.</p> </div> </div> </div> K.O. Omoyajowo, A.L. Ogunyebi, O.A. Adenekan, T.I. Bakare, B.O. Omoyajowo, O.E. Odipe, I.A. Samuel Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Drought on <i>Acacia senegal</i> (L.) Willd: Gum Yield within a Soil Moisture Gradient in North Eastern Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>There had been a discernible shift in climate affecting the Sahelian zone of northern Nigeria. This attribute of drought influenced the rate of gum Arabic production in the North eastern axis. Therefore, these called for the studied of the Influence of drought on <em>Acacia senegal </em>(L.) Willd. Gum yield within a Soil moisture gradient in north eastern Nigeria. Two studied areas were purposively selected based on the availability (Gujba and Nguru). Complete Randomised Design was employed with three (3) samples examined at six (6) levels in six different tapping periods. Also, systematic line transect of 1Km was laid at the middle of both plantations where 1m by 1m transect were further laid in four transect sample plots. The soil samples were collected with the aid of soil auger at different levels (0-25 cm, 25-50 cm, 50-75 cm, 75-100 cm, 100-150 cm, 150-200 cm). Data was subjected using analysis of variance with statistical analysis system and descriptive statistic was also employed. The results showed that mean yield of Gum Arabic is Gujba is higher than Nguru (45kg and 30kg) respectively. Furthermore, physiochemical properties showed that pH, aluminium calcium and magnesium in both plantations were very high which is harmful for plantation development. Therefore, there is need for proper conservation and silvicultural management for both study areas.</p> </div> </div> </div> A.U. Jibo Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Digital Elevation Models to Map Out The Groundwater Resources Base Of Kuje Area to Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This research work examined the use of digital elevation model in the evaluation of groundwater resources in Kuje Area, Nigeria. This was achieved through the acquisition of topographic maps, Digitization of the topographic maps which were glued and interpolated to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and Mapping of groundwater potential areas using ArcGIS 9.2 and ArcView 3.2a software. Findings from this research show that the study area have elevations ranging from 333 m to 429 m above sea level with a moderate groundwater potential in areas with elevation ranging from 286 m and 333 m above sea level. Some areas also have ground water problem, these areas were classified as mountainous areas and are located at very high elevations. The rocky nature of the high elevated environment makes these areas have very little hope of assessing groundwater. It was suggested that government should properly monitor groundwater, inhabitants should be made to accept laws which will help them in the conservation of ground water resources and efforts should also be made by the government towards creating incentives that will encourage people to obey these laws, Conservation methods such as retardation of surface runoff, control of vegetation and groundwater withdrawal rates should be employed.</p> </div> </div> </div> J.O. Mephors, C.O. Ogunmuyiwa, O.S. Afolabi, C.F. Agbor, O.M. Ogoliegbune, C.S. Ofordu Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Groundwater Quality Assessment of Abandoned Dumpsite in Osogbo Suburb, Nigeria: Hydrogeological and Geophysical Condition Six Years after Initial Study <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In this paper, we describe the result of a recent hydrogeological and geophysical investigation carried out within and around Aduramigba - Onibu-Eja Estate dumpsite with the aim of detecting evidence of contamination as well as depths to contamination of the groundwater after a previous study six years ago. Twenty water samples from shallow water wells and boreholes were analyzed for their physico-chemical constituents while five vertical electrical soundings and five electromagnetic ground penetrating radar surveys were conducted. The result shows high concentrations of anions of nitrates (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>), bicarbonates (HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>), chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>) and sulphate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>) with values of 73.97 mg/l, 91.5 mg/l, 331.2 mg/l, 222.4 mg/l respectively, cations values of Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, and K<sup>+</sup> having value of 25.44 mg/l, 6.23 mg/l, 37.31 mg/l and 35.41 mg/l, respectively, which were far above the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWS). Heavy metal components such as Lead, Zinc, Copper and Nickel were also observed to be on the high side, having been contributed from effluents from rust metallic materials cum chemicals dumped within the dumpsite. Detailed geophysical study reveal the depth to contamination at between 4.1 meters in VES 3 to 5.9 meters in VES 2 with resistivity as low as 5.12 Ωm in VES 2 to 7.12 Ωm in VES 3 while ground penetrating radar (GPR) revealed that the leachate has permeated to a depth of 3.5 – 5.25 meters in traverse 4 and 4.0 – 6.0 meters in traverse 3 which correspond to the depth to unconfined aquifer within the dumpsite. The study conclude that this would pose a greater threat to residents living in this vicinity and as such, this might have contributed to the closure of the dumpsite.</p> </div> </div> </div> A.O. Ojo, A.C. Oyelami, E.M. Babafemi Copyright (c) Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Ni Toxicity to Fungi and Bacteria in Oil Tainted Soils in Greater Port Harcourt Area, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Intensified urbanization and industrialization are rapidly triggering the release of pollutants to the environment. This study determined the extent of soil contamination with Nickel (Ni) in oil mining areas and its effect on the levels of Ni tolerance by fungi and bacteria. The total CFUs/g of soil were enumerated after a culture period of 7 days at 28°C and LC50 was determined using probit and regression analysis. The mean values of Ni were 1.38±0.23 in industrial area, 1.41±0.36 ppm in agricultural area and 1.02±0.64 in urban area. The mean values of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) were 4,405.46 ppm in industrial area, 55.65 ppm in agricultural area and 1,304.53 ppm in urban area. Nickel’s peak concentration indicating growth of both fungi and bacteria at 150 ppm. There was significant difference (p ≤ 0.000) in the mean levels of LC<sub>50</sub> for fungi among the study sites. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of TPH in soil and LC<sub>50</sub> of fungi (r = -0.169) and bacteria (r = 0.042). In conclusion, TPH influenced the levels of fungi and bacteria tolerance to Ni in soils. Moreover, it was observed that LC<sub>50</sub> can be a reliable method for monitoring chemically resistant microorganisms directly in the environment to improve the use of microorganisms for the bioremediation of oil contaminated soils and in monitoring of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in natural ecosystems.</p> </div> </div> </div> M.P. Wanjala, L. Odokuma, I. Etela, R. Ramkat, B.A. Odogwu, K.O. Boadu, E.J. Koranteng-Addo Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Capacity of Agroforestry of Cocoa Trees in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Reduction <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The emission of greenhouse gases into the earth’s atmosphere has been credited as the major cause of climate change which is being experienced all over the world. Climate change mitigation is one of the strategies that have been suggested as a way of stabilising&nbsp; the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This study assessed the capacity of agroforestry of cocoa trees in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The carbon content in the cocoa plant variables made up of bean, litter, leaf and podhusk were determined in the laboratory through standard procedure. The laboratory results were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The study showed the magnitude order of carbon storage in cocoa agroforestry as cocoa bean (2.86 kg) &gt; pod husk (2.73 kg) &gt; cocoa litter (2.65kg) &gt; cocoa leaves (2.62 kg) &gt; soil (1.14 kg)..The ability of cocoa and forest soils to retain nitrogen, leaf and litterfall to stock more carbon proved that cocoa agroforestry has a higher potential of mitigating climate change in the tropical region. The study recommended the adoption of agroforestry systems which are capable of sequestering carbon as a means of addressing the challenge of climate change.</p> </div> </div> </div> F.O. Oderinde, O.S. Afolayan Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bioaccumulation and Consumption Safety of a Sea Food, Gastropod Mollusc (<i>Thais coronata</i>): Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Perspective <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Seafood and other environmental matrices are major entry route of harmful pollutants into humans due to constant contamination of the aquatic environment hence requires monitoring. This study scientifically explored the hypothesis that benthic gastropods bioaccumulate harmful pollutants that pose health risk to consumers of the sea food. Fifty samples of <em>Thais coronata</em> were collected per site from major regional fish landings. Two hundred samples were collected monthly for eight months to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-PAH and possible health risks due to consumption using regulatory limits for guidance. Total PAH concentrations (μg/kg) varied between 65.68–173.52 suggesting differences in consumed concentrations at different times. The concentration of individual PAH congeners (1.376 ± 0.07-40.356±2.21 μg/kg) and PAH4 were below the European Union maximum limits. The Daily Dietary Intake values ranged from 0.075-2.212 μg/kg for individual PAH congeners while that of PAH4 was 1.359 μg/kg and were all below their respective reference oral doses. The carcinogenic potencies of the PAH congeners ranged from 0.001-143.389, the carcinogenic toxic equivalents (TEQs) of all PAH congeners was 0.1522 while that of PAH4 was 0.0044. The Excess cancer risk (ECR) value (10<sup>-8</sup>–10<sup>-5</sup>) was within USEPA guideline of 10<sup>-6</sup> while the margin of exposure (MOE) of individual PAHs and PAH4 were higher than critical border line of 10,000 given by European Food Safety Authority but diagnostic ratio suggested PAH sources of pyrogenic origin in samples monitored. The study concluded low health risk for consumers of the shellfish (<em>Thais coronata</em>) in the study region but with recommendation advisory for regular monitoring to observe changes.</p> </div> </div> </div> M. Moslen, I. Aniekan, J. Onwuteaka, C.A. Miebaka Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Distribution of Insect Diversity in Selected Locations within Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>With the increase in the rate of tree removal and construction of buildings within the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria premises, there has been concomitant rise in habitat modification. These changes in habitat composition affect the insect population. This study therefore investigated the insect species diversity and abundance within some selected locations within FRIN with the view to determining different insect species available in FRIN premises. Sweep nets were used to trap the insects along a predetermined line transect. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Paleontological Statistics were used for the data analysis. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and species diversity and composition were all assessed. A total number of 1073 individual insects belonging to 6 orders, 27 families and 34 species were recorded across the three locations. Out of this, Order Lepidoptera had the highest relative abundance (53%), followed by Coleoptera (22%), then by Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Heteroptera and Diptera with 10%, 9%, 4% and 2% relative abundance respectively. The result of ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference in species composition/richness across the locations at probability level of 5%. The insect species diversity, evenness and richness also varied across the locations. This study therefore, brings to the fore the diversity and abundance of insects within FRIN premises and highlighted the need for a more intensive study by the entomology section and for sustainable actions to be taken in conserving beneficial rare species while, managing the abundant pestiferous ones.</p> </div> </div> </div> O.A. Aina-Oduntan, Q.A. Onilude, J.A. George-Onaho, A.I. Woghiren, O.R. Jeminiwa Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Geo-spatial Analysis of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Changes in Oluwa Forest Reserve and its Environs <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Mankind’s existence and modification of the landscape have had a profound effect on the natural environment. Anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, mining, deforestation and construction have influenced the shifting patterns of land use. This has resulted in a significant effect on local weather and climate. The use of remote sensing data in recent times has been of immense help in monitoring the changing pattern of vegetation. Therefore this study utilized remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) methods to identify factors responsible for land use land cover (LULC) changes in Oluwa Forest Reserve between 1984 and 2017. The result showed that Primary forest was reduced by about 5% between 1984 and 2000 and by about 12% between 2000 and 2017 and the non-forest got increased by about 4% and 2% from 1984 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2017 respectively. Future forecast shows that primary forest will decrease by about 3% while the non-forest will increase by 5% by 2034. The results also revealed that the changes in forest cover between 2000 and 2017 were actively influenced by the closeness of settlements to the forest. It is therefore recommended that the findings of this study should be adopted by relevant authorities as a useful forest management tool.</p> </div> </div> </div> E.O. Toyinbo, R.A. Fasasi, C.F. Agbor, C.O. Fakorede Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Open Grown Trees Composition and Diversity in Selected Research Institutes in Peri-Urban Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Urban green spaces are rapidly deteriorating in most parts of Nigeria. The study assessed open grown trees composition and diversity in selected Research Institutes within Ibadan Region with the aim of comparing the ecological diversity in the study locations. This was achieved through species identification and mensuration of all open grown trees species that were accessible in the study areas. Open grown trees with Diameter at breast height ≥ 10cm were assessed for growth characteristics of total height and diameter at breast height. Basal area and volume were estimated from measured growth characteristics. Tree species were identified by a taxonomist at Federal Herbarium in Ibadan. Biodiversity indices of Shannon diversity index, species evenness and species dominance were computed to see variation in tree community of the areas. The Shannon diversity index calculated was higher in IITA with a value of 3.04 compared to that of CRIN with a value of 2.36. A dominance value of 0.15 and 0.05 was obtained for CRIN and IITA respectively. The study concludes that both institutes are repository of large diversity of tree species thereby, helping in the conservation of biodiversity while ameliorating weather. It is recommended that educational institutions from all levels located within the region as well as private organizations and individuals should plant trees within their domains in order to create conducive green environments that would promote sustainable environment in the region. This is possible when government provide adequate incentive and annual rewards for establishments with the best green environments.</p> </div> </div> </div> B.L. Olajiire-Ajayi, R.T. Ibode, A.A. Tunde-Francis, S.O. Okeleke Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Extent and Causes of Fuelwood Collection in the Surrounding Communities of Kasewe Reserved Forest, Sierra Leone <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Seven (7) communities living in and around the Kasewe forest reserved were sampled to assess the extent and causes of fuelwood collection from the reserved forest involving 50 individuals in stratified random technique with a view to evaluate the degree and reasons for fuelwood collection from the Kasewe reserved forest. Data obtained indicate a high frequency of fuelwood harvest in the forest throughout the year. The significant factors affecting such decisions were availability and accessibility, ensure fast cooking process, and cost-effective. In addition, fuelwood activities were intensive throughout the year but peaks late dry season. Hence 48 (96%) of respondents stated forest degradation as one of the significant threats posed by fuelwood collectors to the forest. The study indicates that 100% of the collector are unemployed this was mainly the reason why residents of those communities collect fuelwood from the reserved forest. However, this study concluded that fuelwood collectors were selective over the kind of species they harvest, but the preferred species were not replanted. Fuelwood in the study area is not restricted to domestic use as it is also sold to augment local income. The sale of fuelwood is probably the biggest threat to sustainable utilization of fuelwood and the forest. Therefore, this study recommends that alternatives sources of livelihood and energy be created, among other recommendations for resident communities that will reduce the frequency of harvest from the forest.</p> </div> </div> </div> A.H. Koroma, A. Mansaray, A. Sesay Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy Metal Toxicosis and Male Fertility: The Role of Pentahydroxyflavone Quercetin: a Review <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The effect of heavy metals (HMs) has been extensively studied. They cause diverse clinical manifestation through various mechanisms. Male fertility is among the most disturbing effect of HMs affecting family life in human and reproduction in animals. Notably among these effects is interference with the reproductive hormones, morphology and function of reproductive organs, sexual behaviors, and the spermiogram. Quercetin is a dietary flavanoid from edible plants and, has proven pharmacological properties in the treatment and management of many disease conditions. Quercetin ameliorates the adverse effects of HMs on male reproductive hormones by increasing the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β- HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in the synthesis of testosterone. Quercetin chelates HMs, scavenge free radicals, and other cytotoxicant capable of disrupting the morphology and function of the male reproductive system. Apart from it neuroprotective activity on the pituitary gland and increased steroidogenesis, quercetin mitigate neurotransmitter that aid in copulation and improve histopathological changes in the brain due to HMs toxicity to improve sexual behavior. Quercetin was also found to be effective in increasing sperm count, daily sperm production, mortility, viability, and also decreased in the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology due to HMs toxicity. In conclusion quercetin was found to be effective in mitigating HMs toxicity that affects male fertility, and so, it is recommended to be incorporated into the treatment and management of HMs toxicity. Individuals who are at risk of HMs toxicity should take dietary plants that contain quercetin to minimize the effects of these metals.</p> </div> </div> </div> S.I. Salihu, I.L. Yusuf, A. Abba, M.B. Tijjani, U.A. Maina, B.U. Shamaki Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Biogas Quantity and Quality from Digestion and Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Cow Dung <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The aim of this study is to assess the quantity and quality of biogas produced from single substrate digestion of food waste and cow dung as well as co-digestion of food waste and cow dung. Laboratory sized 25 litre plastic biodigesters were used in this study and the digestion processes was carried out for a 30 day retention period. The results revealed that the cumulative biogas production for the single substrate digestion of cow dung was 7,975 ml, the cumulative biogas produced for the single substrate digestion of food waste was 7,742.5 ml while the cumulative volume of biogas produced for the co-digestion of cow dung and food waste was 16,482.5 ml. The results also showed that the total volume of methane produced for the single substrate digestion of cow dung was 955 ml while the total methane produced for the single substrate digestion of the food waste was 765. The total production of methane for the co-digestion of cow dung and food waste was found to be 2,655 ml. This study revealed that though the co-digestion process improved biogas quantity and quality, the percentage methane present in the biogas very low. There would be a need to stimulate the digestion and co-digestion process in order to improve the quality of biogas produced.</p> </div> </div> </div> O.M. Ojo Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Intrasound Therapy Improves the Mechanical Properties and the Morphology of Tendons in Fluoroquinolone-Induced Achilles Tendinopathy <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Fluoroquinolones (FQs), especially Pefloxacin (PEF) have been reported to increase risk of Achilles tendon rupture. However, prior studies showed that intrasound therapy (ITR) significantly improved the morphology of the healing tendon. This study aimed to compare the effects of 7, 14 and 21 days intrasound treatment on the mechanical properties and morphology of the Achilles tendon in fifty (50) male Sprague-Dawley rats induced with FQ and randomized into three main categories designated as Normal control (A), Experimental control (B) and Treatment groups (C). All animals in groups B and C were orally administered PEF 400mg/kg in a fixed volume of 2.5 ml/kg daily for 6 consecutive days. The Achilles tendon of both hind limbs in group C were treated with the lowest intensity ITR 5 minutes daily for 7, 14 and 21 consecutive days. All the animals were serially sacrificed on days 8, 15 and 22 and the tendons excised and processed. Data were analyzed with RSTUDIO version 4.0.02 and the level of significance set at 0.05. Kruskal Wallis showed no significant differences (p &gt;0.05) in all the biomechanical parameters across all the groups. Compared with group B, ITR 14 days treatment had the best improvement in all biomechanical variables, though insignificant (p&gt;0.05). In the Intrasound groups, there were significant positive correlations of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) with ultimate tensile stress and tensile load (p= 0.005; p=0.003) respectively. Intrasound treatment to the Achilles tendon for 14 days improved the mechanical properties&nbsp; and morphology of tendons in Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> A.I. Aiyegbusi, O.A. Ajibola, T.A. Samuel, O.J. Balogun, F.I. Duru Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Seed Germination of <i>Faidherbia albida</i> (Delile) A. Chev as Influenced by Different Pretreatments <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><em>Faidherbia albida</em> is an agroforesrty tree that has the potential of promoting agroforestry establishment in Nigeria. The seeds are glossy due to the presence of wax in the seed coat which prevents easy penetration of water. Thus, this study assessed the effect of different pretreatments (biological, mechanical and chemical) on the germination of <em>F. albida</em> seeds. The treatments include; seeds scarified at the helium, soaked in cold water for 24 hours, soaked in hot water for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, &amp; 15 minutes and soaked in Conc. H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes. The result showed that all treatment had uniform germination percentage of 100% but seeds soaked in H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> for 15 min and 10 min had the highest germination value of (65.25) and (65.00) respectively, followed by 15mins soaking in hot water (47.14) while the least germination value was recorded in seeds scarified mechanically (33.31). Analysis of variance revealed that there was no significant difference in the treatments. However, seeds treated with H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> at 15 mins and 10 mins had the best performance in terms of germination value compared with other treatments. Therefore, for optimum and uniform germination, the seed of<em> F. albida</em> seeds should be soak in concentrated H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> for 15 min.</p> </div> </div> </div> O.A. Iroko, I.L. Sowunmi, J.M. Ajekiigbe, S.O. Rufiai, W.T. Wahab Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Temperature on the Incidence of Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis and Its Management in Funtua Local Government Area, Katsina State, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study was aimed at analysing the effect of temperature on the incidence of cerebro-spinal meningitis and its management in Funtua General Hospital of Katsina State, Nigeria from 1986-2015. For each year, monthly and annual incidence of CSM occurrence in the study area for the 30 years period was subjected to time series analysis. Linear trend line equation was fitted in order to determine the direction of change in the incidence of CSM. The relationship between temperature and the incidence of meningitis was analysed using simple correlation. To determine the management method of CSM in the area, a questionnaire was used to generate information from sampled respondents and analysed using descriptive statistics. The monthly distribution of CSM cases (1986-2015) indicated April and March had the highest incidence cases (1606 and 1128 respectively) while the lowest cases were recorded in September and October with (1 case) each. The seasonal variation also showed that the highest incidence cases fell within the hot-dry season which mark the period with the highest average temperatures while the lowest incidence cases fell within the hot-wet season when humidity is high in the area. Annual trend of CSM indicated an increasing trend (approximately 60 persons) over the 30year period in the study area. There is a significant and positive relationship between mean monthly temperature and incidence of meningitis with an observed value of (p &lt; 0.05 and r = 0.592). The observed correlation (r = -0.141, p&gt;0.05) indicated that there was negative and insignificant relationship between annual temperature and the incidence of meningitis in the study area. In conclusion, meningitis in the study area over the 30years under review has been a recurrent epidemic however; the rate of occurrence differs from year to year. Majority (78%) used the orthodox method to manage CSM while 22% used the traditional method who claimed it was effective as they recovered from the disease.</p> </div> </div> </div> J. Alemaka, B.A. Sawa, R.O. Yusuf Copyright (c) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Agricultural Input Supply on Agricultural Growth in Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Improving the production capacity of agriculture in Nigeria through agricultural input supply is an important policy goal in a country where agriculture represents an important sector in the economy. The agricultural sector provides livelihood to a significant portion of Nigerian population, especially in rural areas, where poverty is more pronounced. Thus, a growing agricultural sector contributes to both overall growth and poverty alleviation. The study specifically examined the effects of agricultural input supply on agricultural growth in Nigeria from 1990 to 2017. The objective of this study is to examine agricultural input supply in Nigeria and its implications on the growth of agricultural growth in Nigeria. The study used time series data covering 1986-2016 obtained from FAOSTAT, World Development Indicator and Central Bank of Nigeria data base. This study utilized Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to investigate the variables. The finding of the study shows that there is co-integration between the variables. The result of the study shows that gross capital formation and Fertilizer supply to agriculture were significant in influencing agricultural growth in Nigeria with coefficient values of (-0.002468), and (0.001506), with P-values of (0.0222) and (0.0171) respectively. Given the robust nature of the result, it is evident that agricultural input supply contributes in great measure to agricultural growth in Nigeria. The study then conclude that agricultural input is essential for the growth of agricultural sector in Nigeria and recommend that given the lean resources available to government, attention should be given to the inputs that contributes significantly to the growth of the sector.</p> </div> </div> </div> G. Opeyemi, S.S. Olusegun, A. Taiwo, A.O. Mobolaji Copyright (c) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Vitamin D and Calcium Levels in E-waste Workers and Environmentally Exposed Participants in Southwestern Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Exposure to e-waste either by occupation or through the environment have been implicated in cancer development. The growing influx of e-waste to Nigeria and inadequate recycling, part salvaging, distribution and disposal of discarded or obsolete electronic devices is creating new sets of environmental and public health challenges. This study investigated the effect of exposure on vitamin D (25(OH) Vit D), total and ionized calcium levels in workers and individuals environmentally exposed to e-waste in Lagos, Benin and Ibadan cities in Southwestern Nigeria. Six hundred and thirty-two participants from three major cities in Nigeria were recruited for this study. They included e-waste workers, environmental e-waste exposed individuals and age matched unexposed individuals. 25(OH) Vit D was determined using ELISA, while total and ionized calcium by colorimetric method. Total calcium (tCa) in e-waste workers was significantly different from environmental exposed groups (p=0.000) while ionized calcium (iCa) was significantly increased for both e-waste exposed groups when compared with the unexposed group. 25(OH)Vit D level was significantly increased in e-waste workers compared with environmental and unexposed populations (p&lt;0.001). Optimal levels of tCa, iCa and vitamin D in the e-waste exposed population may offer some forms of defense against the severity of existing and undiagnosed cancers or reduce the risk of cancer development in the e-waste exposed participants. However, e-waste may unfavourably modulate these expected beneficial roles in the e-waste exposed populations with continued exposure.</p> </div> </div> </div> O.G. Igharo, F.A. Idomeh Copyright (c) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of <i>Ganoderma lucidum</i> (Curtis) P. Karst. From the Wild in Lagos through Tissue Culture Techniques and Cultivation on Sawdust of Six Nigerian Hardwoods <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Cultivation of <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> (Curtis) P. Karst, a medicinal mushroom known for antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities is not practiced in Nigeria. Tree species used for cultivation in Asia, America and Europe are not available in Nigeria. The present study investigated indigenous hardwoods and their supplementation with rice and wheat bran as substrates for its cultivation. Six hardwoods (<em>Mansonia altissima</em> (A Chev.) A Chev., <em>Avecennia germinans</em> (L.) L, Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn., <em>Triplochiton scleoxylon</em> K. Schum, <em>Uapaca guineensis</em> Mull. Arg, <em>Nauclea diderrichii</em> (De Wild. &amp; Th. Dur.) Merrill) were investigated as potential growth substrates and potentially improve biological efficiency. The mushroom was collected from the wild and identification confirmed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA-ITS fragment with ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Tissue culture of the mushroom collected from the wild was initiated successfully with modified malt extract agar and grain spawn developed from it. The substrates were incubated after inoculation with grain spawn at room temperature for 30-60 days. Substrates were given cold treatment for 7days to induce fructification which was achieved with 9-10h/day regime and daily watering. There was full mycelial ramification of all substrates by the mushroom. Fruit bodies were harvested from all substrates but <em>Lophira alata</em>. The highest yield (308.76±5.81g/kg) was recorded with <em>Mansonia altissima</em> (Biological Efficiency-31.42±4.55%) and the least yield (31.45±5.44g/kg) was recorded in <em>Nauclea diderrichii</em> (B.E- 5.25±0.58%). The substrates with wheat bran performed significantly better than rice bran supplemented substrates. Commercial cultivation of native <em>G. lucidum</em> in Nigeria is possible with local agricultural wastes.</p> </div> </div> </div> E.M. Adongbede, A.F. Atoyebi Copyright (c) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Path Coefficient Analysis of Growth and Yield Traits of Rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.) at Bokolori, Talata Mafara, Sudan Savanna Ecological Zone, Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In order to determine the direct and indirect effects of yield and yield components of rice, a field experiment was conducted in each of the wet seasons of 2016 and 2017 at Irrigation Research Stations of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Bokolori, Talata Mafara, in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria (12° 34’ N; 06° 04’E). The treatment consisted of four (4) weed management practice (Oxadiazon at 1.0 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> [pre-emergence], Orizo-plus [proponil 360 g/l + 2,4-D 200 g/l] at 2.8 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>[post emergence at 3 WAS], manual weeding [at 3 and 6 WAS] and weedy check [control]); three (3) each of seeding method (Drilling, Dibbling and Broadcast) and seed rate (40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>; 70 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>; 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The experiment was laid in a split plot design replicated three times. Weed management practice was assigned to the main plots while the combination of seeding method and seed rate to the subplots. Data were collected on plant height, leaf area, crop dry matter, tillering ability, crop growth rate, harvest index (HI), panicle length, number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and paddy yield. The result indicated that, the highest individual contribution of 25.04% to paddy yield was made by dry matter followed by 1000-grain weight (8.74%), tillering ability (8.46%), leaf area (3.13%), number of grains per panicle (1.03%) and the least was from panicle length (0.83%). The contribution of these growth and yield attributes to yield suggests that, priority be given to these traits when making selection for improvement.</p> </div> </div> </div> J. Alhassan, M. Musa Copyright (c) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Kinetic and Transesterification Properties of Lipase from Sprouted Melon (<i>Cucumeropsis manni</i>) Seeds <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Crude lipase (acetone powder) was extracted from freshly sprouted melon seeds (<em>Cucumeropsis manni</em>). The activity, kinetic properties (effect of time, pH, and enzyme and substrate concentration, respectively) as well as the ability of the crude lipase to catalyze the production of methyl esters (biodiesel) were examined. The enzyme activity was determined using n-hexane as the solvent (1:2 v/w solvent: substrate ratio) and the transesterification product was analyzed by HPLC. A linear relationship was observed between reaction time and rate of lipolysis with the optimal activity at 2hr of incubation. Furthermore, the lipase was optimally active at acid pH 5 and lipolysis was achieved optimally when the amount of enzyme was 2.0g. Rate of lipolysis was observed to increase linearly at concentrations up to 5.0g of substrate above which a drop in the rate, with no apparent decrease in activity, was observed. The K<sub>m</sub> (6.25g) and V<sub>max</sub> (13.33%FFA/hr) were also determined. Analysis of the transesterification product yielded 0.61% alkyl ester, 0.81 %FFA, 93.17% TAG, 4.15% 1, 3-DAG and 1.26% 1, 2-DAG while transesterification efficiency was determined to be at 0.588%. Biodiesel (alkyl esters) prepared with the crude lipase was had a density of 0.872 g/mL while its cloud and pour points were 22°C and 12°C, respectively. The results from this research showed that an active lipase was isolated from sprouted melon seeds. However, the fuel properties of the biodiesel produced did not meet international transportation fuel standards. In order to be used industrially, better reaction conditions need to be established for the lipase.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> P.O. Osemwenkhae, P.O. Uadia Copyright (c) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000