This study evaluates in a review the reproduction and reproductive performance of cane rat. Breeding time in cane rat depends on which part of Africa the Animal is found and the weather. In the wild, cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding season. Cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding season. The doe when sexually ready or estrus present a perforated vaginal membrane which is sealed or open with a thin membrane. During this period, the vaginal mucus is colourless and the buck mates the doe. When the doe is not sexually ready or in estrus, it may present a closed membrane and the buck do not mate the doe. In captivity, cane rat breed all year round. Immediately after weaning the kits at four weeks, the vulva is still opened and the male is introduced to mate the female. Once there is mating, the doe’s vulva starts to close 5 – 7 days later. The mating ages in males is between 7 – 9 months and females 5 – 7 months with a mating ratio of 1 male to 4 females. Most farmers rely on the shapes and size of the head to differentiate sexes but ano-genital distance is the most popular method of sex determination. Gestation period in cane rat is 132-172 days. At birth, offspring birth weight is between 70 – 130 grammes. The litter size is 4 – 9. Cane rat is an hystricomorphic rodent. Most rodent species have flexible mating system that can vary between monogamy polygyny and promiscuity.