Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh <p>The <em>Journal of Child &amp; Adolescent Mental Health</em> aims to contribute towards the development of a robust and inclusive knowledge base for child and adolescent mental health across diverse contexts. To this end the Journal seeks to promote coverage, representation and dissemination of high quality work from around the world that traverses high-, middle- and low- income contexts.</p> <p>Read more about the journal <a href="http://www.nisc.co.za/products/8/journals/journal-of-child-and-adolescent-mental-health" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>.&nbsp;<br><br></p> NISC/Taylor & Francis en-US Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 1728-0583 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Loneliness among in-school adolescents in Ghana: evidence from the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203441 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of loneliness among in-school adolescents in Ghana using data obtained from the 2012 Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Ghana.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1 266 in-school adolescents participated in the study. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the prevalence and correlates of loneliness. The prevalence of loneliness was 18.4%. Adolescents who felt hungry in-school (AOR = 0.43), those who used tobacco (AOR = 2.31), those who used alcohol (AOR = 1.71), those who felt anxious (AOR = 2.44), those who were bullied (AOR = 1.55), and those who sustained an injury (AOR = 1.33) were more likely to feel lonely than those who did not go hungry in-school, those who did not feel anxious, those who did not use alcohol, and those who did not experience bullying. Adolescents in Senior High School 4, those who were connected (AOR = 0.33), and bonded (AOR = 0.21) to their parents had lower odds of being lonely compared to those in Senior High School 1, those not connected, and those not bonded to their parents.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a need for loneliness prevention programs targeting improvement in parental support skills, helping adolescents develop friendship skills, counselling uptake, and prevent bullying victimisation in senior high schools in Ghana.</p> Abdul-Aziz Seidu Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 67 76 Associations between sleep quality and psychological distress in early adolescence https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203442 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Although numerous studies have reported an association between sleep quality and mental health, few have focused on this association exclusively in early adolescence. Targeting this age group is vital as many mental illnesses first emerge during adolescence and remain a significant burden throughout life.<br><strong>Method:</strong> In the current study n = 60 participants aged 12 years completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10).<br><strong>Results:</strong> Consistent with previous findings, bivariate correlations revealed significant positive linear relationships between K10 total score and (i) PSQI total score; (ii) sleep quality; (iii) daytime dysfunction; and (iv) sleep disturbance. However, contrary to previous findings, there was no significant correlation between K10 scores and sleep duration.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The association between sleep quality and psychological distress in early adolescents provides some important clues about the role that sleep may play in predicting the onset of anxiety and depressive disorders. Longitudinal studies should be undertaken to investigate age-related changes in sleep and psychological distress.</p> Daniel Jamieson Denise A. Beaudequin Larisa T. McLoughlin Marcella J. Parker Jim Lagopoulos Daniel F. Hermens Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 77 86 Structural validity and reliability of the Danish self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among male and female students in vocational education and training https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203443 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a widely used mental health screening instrument among children and adolescents and increasingly used by welfare professionals in Denmark. However, the psychometric properties of the SDQ-self report (SDQ-S) among vocational<br>education and training (VET) students are unknown. We assess the structural validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability of the Danish SDQ-S among these students. Method: The SDQ-S was tested twice in a sample of VET students (sample N = 486; mean age = 17 years) with 10 to 14 days in-between. Using separate analyses for men (n = 371) and women (n = 115), structural validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis; internal consistency was assessed using composite reliability (CR); and test-retest reliability using Pearson’s correlation.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, the results provide inconsistent support for the five-factor first-order model, especially among males. CR was acceptable for all five scales except for Peer problems (among females and males) and Conduct (among males only). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for all scales among females but for only two of the five scales (Conduct, Hyperactivity) among men.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, the SDQ-S is a more valid and reliable instrument among females. Results suggest caution in using the SDQ-S among VET students, in particular males.</p> Siddartha Baviskar Anna Diop-Christensen Frank C. Ebsen Karoline J. From Thomas Mackrill Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 87 98 Exposure to violence and suicidal ideation among schoolgoing adolescents https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203444 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Despite growing international interest in the area of violence and suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents, epidemiological data are scant in Portugal. The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Portuguese adolescents from 7th to 12th grade and to estimate the association of violence exposure with suicidal ideation.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2 602 adolescents enrolled in public schools in Porto, Portugal. Sampling was performed in four school groups consisting of seven schools, during the 2014/2015 academic year.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that 11.4% of Portuguese school-going adolescents reported suicidal thoughts during the past 12 months. Moreover, adolescents who had been involved in physical fighting were two times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. These odds substantially increased when bullying and cyberbullying victimisation were included.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Effective interventions with multidisciplinary efforts involving parents, school<br>teachers, principals, and mental health professionals, should be integrated into school-based<br>programmes to improve adolescents’ mental health and strengthen them against suicidal ideation.<br><strong>Supplementary material:</strong> Supplementary data are available at <a href="Objective:%20Despite growing international interest in the area of violence and suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents, epidemiological data are scant in Portugal. The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Portuguese adolescents from 7th to 12th grade and to estimate the association of violence exposure with suicidal ideation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2 602 adolescents enrolled in public schools in Porto, Portugal. Sampling was performed in four school groups consisting of seven schools, during the 2014/2015 academic year. Results: The results revealed that 11.4% of Portuguese school-going adolescents reported suicidal thoughts during the past 12 months. Moreover, adolescents who had been involved in physical fighting were two times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. These odds substantially increased when bullying and cyberbullying victimisation were included. Conclusion: Effective interventions with multidisciplinary efforts involving parents, school teachers, principals, and mental health professionals, should be integrated into school-based programmes to improve adolescents’ mental health and strengthen them against suicidal ideation. Supplementary material: Supplementary data are available at https://doi org/10 2989/17280583 2020 1848849">https://doi org/10 2989/17280583 2020 1848849</a></p> Armine Abrahamyan Sara Soares Flávia Soares Peres Silvia Fraga Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 99 109 Gender differences in brain type according to the Empathy/ Systemising Quotient for Children (EQ/SQ-C) questionnaire in Indonesia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203445 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This research was conducted to support the hypothesis that boys and girls have different brain types that affect their empathy and systemising quotients.<br><strong>Method:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study using an online survey. The Indonesian version of the Empathy/Systemising Quotient for Children (EQ/SQ-C) questionnaire was used to identify the brain type and empathy and systemising quotients. Participants were 620 parents who had primary school children and having minimal junior high school background. The data analysis used chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test on SPSS program for Mac version 20. Results: Boys and girls had different brain types (p &lt; 0.05). The extreme-empathising brain type consisted of 1.9% girls and 0.5% boys; the empathising brain type was 15.8% in girls and 9.0% in boys. Further, 0.8% of girls and 2.6% of boys had the extreme-systemising brain type. Although the empathy quotient average mean score of the boys was significantly lower than the girls (p &lt; 0.05), the systemising quotient average mean score was slightly higher than that of the girls.<br><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found that gender plays an important role in empathy and systemising skills. Therefore, creating a stimulating program that supports empathy and systemising quotients in primary school students should be developed according to gender.</p> Kamila Ratu Chaidir Eloisa Nathania Kindah Mahdiyyah Yudi Rheza Phallavi Tjhin Wiguna Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 111 117 Internalising comorbidities in primary school children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): sex and age differences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203446 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Studies suggest that females with ADHD display more symptoms of anxiety and depression than their male counterparts. This study attempted to determine comorbid anxiety and depression in children with ADHD. Further, we aimed to establish whether there are sex and age differences in the expression of comorbid symptoms.<br><strong>Method:</strong> The Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression scale from the Beck Youth Inventory were administered to 216 participants (108 with ADHD and 108 matched controls without ADHD symptoms). Participants included children aged 6 to 15 years, resident in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The groups were compared for comorbid anxiety and depression symptoms and analysed as a function of sex and age.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The ADHD group showed significantly more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the neurotypical control group. However, no sex differences were observed in the expression of anxiety symptoms. Nonetheless, girls did show significantly higher levels of depression than boys. No age differences were detected in respect of anxiety symptoms.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Children with ADHD displayed more symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to controls without ADHD. Age and sex did not affect anxiety symptoms, however girls showed more symptoms of depression than boys.</p> Ramatladi Meriam Mphahlele Basil Pillay Anneke Meyer Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 119 129 Family functioning, coping strategy, and suicidal ideation among adolescents https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcamh/article/view/203447 <p><strong>Background and aim:</strong> Adolescent suicide has become a central issue around the world, including in Malaysia, which needs attention. The current study investigated the mediating effect of coping strategy in the association between family functioning and suicidal ideation among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A total of 852 school-attending adolescents aged 13–17 years were recruited by multistage cluster sampling. The relationships between all the study variables were analysed using Pearson’s correlation. Moreover, the mediation model was tested using SPSS PROCESS macro, while sex differences in suicidal ideation were examined using independent samples t-test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that family cohesion, family flexibility, and problem-focused coping negatively correlated with adolescents’ suicidal ideation. Problem-focused coping also mediated the association between family flexibility and suicidal ideation. There was a significant difference in suicidal ideation for males and females.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Family functioning and coping strategy are related to adolescents’ suicidal ideation, while problem-focused coping plays a crucial role in the relationship between family flexibility and suicidal ideation.</p> Chin Wen Cong Wu Shin Ling Mimi Fitriana Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 32 2-3 131 140