Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences <p><strong><em>Revue de L'academie des Sciences du Cameroun</em></strong> The <em>Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences</em> is a multi-disciplinary publication devoted to all aspects of fundamental and applied research. It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture.</p> <p><em>The following Sections will appear in regular numbers of the Journal:</em><br />- <strong>Biological Sciences Section</strong> ( Botany/Plant Science, Zoology/Animal Science, Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Immunology)<br />- <strong>Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Section</strong> (Pure and Applied Mathematics, Computer Science, Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Geology/ Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences)<br />- <strong>Arts and Social Sciences Section</strong> (Languages, Literature, Linguistics, History, Law, Philosophy, Policy Sciences, Economics, Management Sciences , Sociology, Science of Education)<br />-Other sections and disciplines may be added after due authorization by the Executive Council of CAS.</p> Cameroon Academy of Sciences en-US Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences 2617-393X <p>© THE AUTHORS. The JCAS is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.</p> Preliminary <p>No Abstract.</p> Vincent P.K. Titanji Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 19 3 Profile of Interferon-gamma levels in patients infected with <i>mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> and coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus in Yaoundé <p>Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem globally with HIV/AIDS being the main predisposing factor to Mycobacterium&nbsp; tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Interferon Gamma (IFN- ) is one of the most important cytokines in the host immune response against this&nbsp; mycobacterium. This study aimed to determine the profile of IFN- levels in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and co- infected with HIV in Yaoundé. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Yaoundé Jamot Hospital and the Yaoundé&nbsp; University Teaching Hospital from August - November 2021. Ninety (90) participants were enrolled (45 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)&nbsp; cases and 45 healthy controls). ALERE DETERMINE HIV-1/2 rapid diagnostic test plus HIV AB/AG ELISA HUMAN COMBO was used for HIV&nbsp; screening, and IFN- levels were measured by sandwich ELISA method. Among the 45 cases, 35 were PTB infected only, while 10 (22.2%)&nbsp; were HIV/TB co-infected. IFN- levels were higher in the TB-HIV co-infected group (7.24pg/ml ± 6,9) and the TB mono-infected group&nbsp; (4.11pg/ml ± 3.02) as compared to healthy controls (3.31 ± 2.14). In TB patients, a negative correlation was observed between the IFN-&nbsp; levels and the duration of antituberculosis therapy, indicating the importance of IFN- in accelerating recovery from PTB following treatment. Considering the limited number of cases studied, further studies are needed to demonstrate the value of this cytokine in the&nbsp; management of MTB in Cameroon.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> Tata Gloria Berinyuy Diderot Fopa Fabo Yatchou Sosthene Matcha Fotso Laetitia Mme. Kamdjeu Rita René Essomba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 19 3 201 208 Pollution of Water Resources by Agrochemicals in the Agroindustrial Areas at the South Western Flank of Mount Cameroon <p>This study aimed to assess the contribution of certain constituents of soluble agrochemical residues to surface and groundwater&nbsp; pollution in the study area. The constituents studied included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub> <sup>-</sup> ), Phosphate (PO<sub>4</sub> <sup>2-</sup>), Cadmium&nbsp; (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Nickel (Ni) in various water sources. Forty water samples were collected from both surface and groundwater. In-situ&nbsp; electronic meter measurements were used to determine the DO levels. The laboratory methods of Nitrogen Distillation and&nbsp; spectrophotometry were employed to measure the concentrations of NO3 - and PO<sub>4</sub> <sup>2-</sup>, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals&nbsp; were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results obtained during the wet season indicated that DO, NO<sub>3</sub> - , and PO<sub>4</sub> 2- levels were within permissible limits. However, for Cd, Pb, and Ni, a significant proportion of values exceeded the permissible limits during this season (Cd: 95%, Pb: 95%, Ni: 35%), suggesting possible contamination of the water sources. Conversely, during the dry&nbsp; season, all parameters were within permissible limits, except for Pb, where 95% of its values exceeded the limit. These findings conclude&nbsp; that the application of agrochemicals in the agro-industrial areas has a notable impact on water resources, particularly during the wet&nbsp; season.&nbsp; </p> Akenji Victorine Neh Ayonghe Samuel Ndonwi Naminjo Stephen Tarkang Carine Enow Lumnwi Modeste Bijingsi Melisa Amungwa Ivan Tabikam Azise Helen Ayimele Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 19 3 241 255 Modeling and Predicting Exchange Rate Volatility: Application of Symmetric GARCH and Asymmetric EGARCH and GJR-GARCH Models <p>No Abstract</p> Bruno Dinga Jimbo Henry Claver Kum Kwa Cletus Shu Felix Che Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 19 3 257 258 Essai clinique d’un programme d’intervention en lecture pour les lecteurs en difficulté issus de divers milieux sociodémographiques à Ibadan, dans l’État d’Oyo, au Nigéria <p>Cette étude a examiné l’efficacité du programme READ (Reading for Educational Advancement and Development) en tant qu’intervention&nbsp; de lecture pour les lecteurs en difficulté à Ibadan, dans l’État d’Oyo. Elle a également étudié les effets modérateurs du&nbsp; statut socio-économique et du niveau d’éducation des parents dans les associations en raison de la diversité sociodémographique de la&nbsp; zone d’étude. Deux hypothèses ont été formulées et testées à un niveau de signification de 0,05. Un plan factoriel 2x2x2 pré-test post- test a été utilisé. Le statut socio-économique et le niveau d’éducation des parents, tous à 2 niveaux, ont modéré les associations. Un&nbsp; échantillon de 25 participants a été exposé au traitement utilisant le programme READ, tandis que les 26 autres ont été exposés au&nbsp; traitement placebo, le tout pendant 16 semaines. Les données recueillies ont été analysées à l’aide de l’ANCOVA. Des améliorations ont&nbsp; été constatées dans les résultats obtenus après le traitement au test d’aptitude à la lecture, indiquant une amélioration de la lecture&nbsp; orale, de la compréhension, du vocabulaire et de l’orthographe dans le groupe de traitement par rapport au groupe de comparaison, en&nbsp; utilisant l’ANOVA. Il a également été démontré que le statut socio-économique (F (1/16) = 0,704, p &gt; 0,05, 2= 0,051) et le niveau&nbsp; d’éducation des parents (F (1/16) = 0,022, p &gt; 0,05, 2= 0,001) modéraient les associations. Il a été conclu que READ est une intervention&nbsp; thérapeutique efficace pour les lecteurs en difficulté issus de divers milieux sociodémographiques. Sa formation et son utilisation sont&nbsp; recommandées aux écoles et aux enseignants.&nbsp; </p> Orim Matthew Ashike Vojtec Regec Assam Andy Edim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-20 2023-10-20 19 3 261 270 Effect of Angular Leaf Spot Disease on Bean Inter-cropped with Maize in Foumbot and Bambili, Cameroon <p>The ability to increase beans output at local levels is often hindered by farmer’s ability to control angular leaf sport disease caused by&nbsp; Phaeoisariopsis griseola, in the field. Studies were carried out in Foumbot and Bambili, using a Randomized Complete Block Design&nbsp; (RCBD) with four treatments and four replications in order to assess the impact of intercropping on angular leaf spot disease. Two&nbsp; varieties of bean were used (white dwarf and red dwarf marked beans). Treatments one and two consisted of mono-cropping of white&nbsp; dwarf and red dwarf marked bean varieties while treatments three and four consisted of the same varieties of beans inter-cropped with&nbsp; maize respectively. The data on disease incidence, disease severity, number of pods and pods weight were recorded in mono-cropped&nbsp; and inter-cropped fields. Pathogenicity assessment was carried out in the screen house by inoculating healthy plants with fungal isolate&nbsp; (3×104 spores / ml), during which the lesion diameter was measured. Beans varieties inoculated with spores’ suspension of P. griseola in&nbsp; the screen house showed symptoms identical to that of infected plants in the fields. The results obtained for disease severity and yield&nbsp; revealed that there was a significant difference (Pd”0.05) on the different treatments and in the different fields. The best yields and least disease severities of beans were observed in fields inter- cropped with maize because wind and rainfall splashes were intercepted by the&nbsp; plant which is not a host to P.gliseola thus a reduction of disease in the inter-cropped fields’ plant which is not a host to <em>P.gliseola</em> thus a&nbsp; reduction of disease in the intercropped fields. This shows that intercropping beans with maize can be used as a best management&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; option to control angular leaf spot disease for the two varieties of beans used in this study.</p> Manju Evelyn Bi Mbong Grace Annih Kohongong Salamatou Mboh Tonjock Rosemary Kinge Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 19 3 209 220 Forensic investigation of the Gouache landslide disaster, Western Region, Cameroon <p>This study made use of a disaster forensic approach to investigate the root causes of the landslide disaster which occurred in Gouache,&nbsp; West Region, Cameroon on 29th of October, 2019 that registered 49 to 60 deaths. The aims of the study were to;1) identify the natural&nbsp; and man-made causes of the landslide; 2) determine household vulnerability factors; and 3) identify the administrative weaknesses that&nbsp; led to the disaster. To achieve this, geological data was collected from field observations; rainfall data for a period of 30 years (1988 to&nbsp; 2018) with additional monthly data (January to December) for 2019 was obtained from the National observatory on Climate change&nbsp; (ONACC), Yaounde; satellite imagery from Landsat ETM+ and 8 (2001 and 2020) and SRTM DEM were used to assess land use/ landcover&nbsp; changes and slope respectively; questionnaire administration, household and key informant interviews were used as primary data&nbsp; collection tools. Findings revealed that the root causes were: heavy rainfall that occurred prior to and during this event; the presence of&nbsp; weathered granitic rocks on steep slopes, and springs that increased landslide susceptibility. Susceptibility to landslides was fostered by&nbsp; human activities such as: significant reduction of the savannah vegetation and cutting of the slope for house construction. Household&nbsp; vulnerability factors were lack of awareness of landslide hazards and large household sizes (4-6 persons). Over 70 % of the landowners&nbsp; constructed without a building permit and had no land certificate. The administrative authorities acknowledged that Gouache was officially recognized as a landslide susceptible zone. The findings generated in this study would be useful for the government to&nbsp; strengthen or re-adjust existing policies or strategies of disaster risk reduction in the area.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mabel Nechia Wantim Wai Glory Ughe Dimo Cedric Kwah Tebid Caprice Bah Nguh Quinette Samuel N. Ayonghe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 19 3 223 240