Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences <strong><em>Revue de L'academie des Sciences du Cameroun</em></strong> The <em>Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences</em> is a multi-disciplinary publication devoted to all aspects of fundamental and applied research. It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture. Cameroon Academy of Sciences en-US Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences 2617-3948 <p>Copyright.Cameroon Academy of Sciences. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.</p> Comparative effects of charred bamboo and its ash on the growth of <I>Entandrophragma angolense</I> (welw.) C dc seedlings <p><em>Entandrophragma angolense</em> is relatively slow growing species and its growth needs to be enhanced by soil nutrients amendment. Uniformed two weeks old seedlings of <em>E. angolense</em> were transplanted into the polythene pots filled with 2kg of degraded soil and mixed with different levels of biochar and ash produced from bamboo. A 2 x 7 factorial experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications to assess the effects of charred bamboo and its ash on the stem girth, leaf area, leaf production and shoot height of <em>E. angolense</em>. The germination data were subjected to descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) among the treatments in leaf area and shoot height while there were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) among the treatments in stem girth, leaf production and interactions among levels of biochar and ash. On stem girth, leaf production and shoot height, T<sub>6</sub> (15g of bio char + 15g of ash + degraded soil) had the highest mean value of 4.27 mm, 4.59 and 37.55cm respectively while T<sub>2</sub> (30g of bio char + 0g of ash + degraded soil) had the highest leaf area (73.31cm<sup>2</sup> ). The biochar and ash from bamboo had significant effects on the growth and development of <em>E. angolense</em> seedlings on degraded soil.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Degraded soil, Pyrolysis, Biochar, Ash, <em>E. angolense</em></p> A. Aderounmu I.O. Asinwa J.O. Omolewa J.O. Ishola Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 16 3 187 196 10.4314/jcas.v16i3.1 Field management of Taro (<i>Colocasia esculenta</i> (L.) Schott) leaf blight via fungicidal spray of foliage <p>Taro leaf blight (TLB) epidemic hit Cameroon for the first time in 2009. Since then, the disease is persistent and its typical devastating legacy is threatening Taro (Colocasia esculenta) in the North and South West Regions of Cameroon. This study was initiated with the objective to determine the potentials of some fungicides to control TLB. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3x15x2 factorial, including 3 treatments: T1 (Callomil plus72WP), T2 (Mancoxyl plus 720WP) and T3, 1:1 ratio T1 + T2 all applied at concentrations of 4g/L; 15 repetitions and 2 planting seasons (dry season i.e. October 2014 – March 2015 and rainy season i.e. April-October 2015). Disease incidence and disease severity were used to evaluate the disease progression while corm yield was used to appraise the economic injury. The results revealed disease incidence of 0% during the dry season and 18.2%, 27.3% and 100%, for T1, T2 and T3 and control during rainy season respectively. Disease severity was 75% in control and only 1% for the different treatments. Corm yield in the rainy season was 17.4kg, 15.08kg, 14.27kg and 5.89kg for T1, T2, T3 and control respectively. This study suggests that TLB epidemic can effectively be managed by foliage spray with Metalaxyl containing fungicides at a weekly dosage of 4g/L.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Chemical control, <em>Colocasia esculenta</em>, Epidemic, Phytopathology, <em>Phytophthora colocasiae</em> </p> Tabi Kingsley Mbi Godswill Ntsomboh-Ntsefong Libert Brice Tonfack Emmanuel Youmbi Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 16 3 197 208 10.4314/jcas.v16i3.2 The utilisation of satellite imagery and community perceptions to assess the impacts of sea encroachment in the West Coast of Cameroon at Limbe <p>Coastal erosion associated to sea encroachment is a major problem at the West Coast of Limbe, specifically in the Debundscha Fishing Port (DFP). This study sought to assess the physical vulnerability of the West Coast of Limbe to coastal erosion associated to sea encroachment. This was achieved by assessing: i) the physical vulnerability of the West Coast to coastal erosion; ii) land cover changes and iii) community perception at DFP to sea encroachment and coastal erosion in the past 30 years. Three variables: rock type, adjacent land use and coastal protection were used to assess the vulnerability of the West Coast to coastal erosion. Landcover / coastal changes were assessed from satellite images from 1986 to 2018. Semi-structural interviews were used to acquire knowledge on the population’s perception and impact of the studied hazards. A cost benefit approach was used to weigh the potentials of these localities to adapt to coastal erosion. The DFP and Idenau Beach were identified as major hotspots of coastal erosion with an annual rate of &gt;100 m².&nbsp; Landcover changes showed a net increase in water levels inland and into settlements. The population is knowledgeable and is aware of the risk of sea encroachment and coastal erosion. The physical, socio-economic and health effects were: destruction of mangroves;<br>relocation; malaria, typhoid and abdominal illnesses respectively. Coping strategies included the use of sandbags, building on higher grounds and on embankments. Cost benefit analysis ranked vegetative cover as the best option environmentally and financially viable to reduce coastal erosion from sea encroachment at the West Coast.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Sea encroachment, coastal erosion, physical vulnerability, perception, Debundscha Fishing Port </p> Mabel Nechia Wantim Wase Albright Mokosa Louis Jitiz Samuel Ndonwi Ayonghe Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 16 3 211 234 10.4314/jcas.v16i3.3 The thermal dehydroxylation of kaolinite using thermogravimetric analysis and Controlled rate thermal analysis <p>The aim of this work was to identify parameters that could influence the conversion of kaolinite into metakaolinite. To this end, the dehydroxylation of four kaolinites, using controlled rate thermal analysis (CRTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), was&nbsp; investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) were used to confirm the kaolinitic nature of the samples.&nbsp; Their crystallinity was evaluated using the Hinckley index from the XRD patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for morphological observation of the clay platelets. The thermal analyses of the samples indicate, for all samples, low defects as revealed by the low amount of adsorbed water on the clay surface. The dehydroxylation temperature from both techniques was influenced by the sample crystallinity and particle size. It was observed from both techniques that increase crystallinity resulted in high<br>dehydroxylation temperature. Also, the influence of the clay platelets size on the dehydroxylation temperature, is proposed. All the results indicate that crystallinity and particle size are parameters that could be used to control the temperature for the conversion of kaolinite to metakaolinite.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Kaolinite; Crystallinity, Dehydroxylation; Thermal analysis </p> Jean Aimé Mbey Cyrill Joël Ngally Sabouang Thomas Beauregard Makon Sandotin Lassina Coulibaly Sakéo Kong Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 16 3 235 245 10.4314/jcas.v16i3.4 Wildlife collections of Royal Palace Museums in The West Region of Cameroon with a Focus on wildlife conservation <p>The royal palace museums of the Grassfields’ Kingdoms of West Region of Cameroon are well recognized for the preservation of culturally significant objects and practices. To date, the role of palace museums in wildlife conservation has received little consideration. Herein, a preliminary study into the animalbased artefacts of palace museums from a wildlife conservation perspective is presented. A total of 11 chiefdom palace museums in the West Region of Cameroon were surveyed and the animal species represented in their exhibitions recorded. Parts of 32 different animal species, including locally extinct large mammals such as lion, cheetah, chimpanzee, and elephant were found. The primary purpose for inclusion of specimens in palace museums was for preservation of culture. However, potential wildlife conservation focused uses to which palace museums may also put their collections are discussed herein.</p> <p><strong>KeyWords</strong>: Grassfields, Bamileke, Bamoun, Culture, Education, Mammals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Les musées du palais royal des royaumes des Grassfields de la région de l’Ouest Cameroun sont bien connus pour la préservation d’objets et de pratiques culturellement significatifs. À ce jour, le rôle des musées de palais dans la conservation de la faune a été peu pris en compte. Ici, une étude préliminaire des collections animales de ces musées du point de vue de la conservation de la faune est présentée. Onze musées de palais de chefferies de la région de l’Ouest Cameroun ont été étudiés et les espèces animales représentées dans leurs expositions ont été enregistrées. Des parties de 32 espèces animales différentes, y compris de grands mammifères&nbsp; localement disparus comme le lion, le guépard, le chimpanzé et l’éléphant ont été découverts. Le but principal de l’inclusion de spécimens dans les musées du palais est la préservation de la culture. Cependant, les utilisations potentielles axées sur la conservation de la faune auxquelles les musées de palais peuvent également mettre leurs collections sont discutées ici.</p> <p><strong>Mots clés</strong>: </p> Mohamed Mounir Mfonden Poumie Peter Coals Félix Meutchieye Olivier Miantsia Fokam Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 16 3 249 261 10.4314/jcas.v16i3.5 Subtitling as a Vector for the Promotion of Bilingualism and Patriotism <p>This paper is aimed at showing that subtitling can be used to foster bilingualism and patriotism in Cameroon. The objectives are to investigate how deeply rooted the practice of audiovisual translation is in local media outlets, focusing on how it can help in promoting bilingualism; promote the use of subtitling in the Cameroonian audiovisual media landscape; and assess the pivotal role of the audiovisual translator in this sector. A sample of 151 persons was used. Questionnaires were administered to respondents and stakeholders were interviewed in two media houses: Hi TV and CRTV. Hi TV is based in an English-speaking region, and CRTV is a State-owned media house and believed to have the widest audience in the country. Findings revealed that subtitling does not only provide TV viewers with information in their second official language, but also enables them to improve on their reading and writing skills, as well as their bilingualism, among others. Subtitling is not advanced in media houses in Cameroon. Recommendations were made to&nbsp; improve on the practice of subtitling in media houses in Cameroon. These include increasing the level of subtitled programmes&nbsp; broadcast on TV stations, raising awareness on the importance of media information access by the hearing impaired; creating an&nbsp; audiovisual translation unit in each TV broadcasting house and recruiting audiovisual translators; voting of laws to make the subtitling of some, if not, all TV programmes broadcast by Cameroonian TV channels mandatory; educating the public on the importance of subtitling by gradually introducing them to viewers through TV programmes, so that their eyes and mind could progressively get used to watching subtitled material and thus avoid total rejection of the subtitles; and training more audiovisual translators in Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Translation, Bilingualism, Patriotism, Vector, Subtitling</p> Lum Suzanne Ayonghe Godson Enowmbi Besong Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 16 3 263 276 10.4314/jcas.v16i3.6