Causes of Early Deterioration of Coastal and Marine Structures in Temperate African Countries and Design Approaches to Improve their Service-Lives

  • V. S. Kamara
  • X. L. Liu


The introduction of western civilization in most Africa Countries starting from the mid 20th century has brought about the implementation of varieties of foreign design codes of practice in the construction of marine and coastal reinforced concrete structures. Variation in environmental and climatic conditions and lack of routine maintenance and monitoring system has resulted in the premature deterioration and failure of a large percentage of these vital structures. The large sums of money used in repairs, rehabilitation and rebuilding of these structures has not only resulted to low economic growth, but also endangered lives and material wealth. This paper identifies key design parameters, which because of their absence during the design process have contributed to the early failure of concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments especially those in coastal and temperate countries. Based on extensive research on existing marine and coastal concrete structures, recommendation and approaches on how to ensure a more accurate design process of marine and coastal structures so that a prolonged service-life of these structures can be achieved. Guidelines on how this can be possible are presented.

(Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: 2002 8: 1-12)

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eISSN: 1562-6121