International Journal of Medicine and Health Development <span>This is the official publication of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria under the supervision of the Directorate for research and publications, . The College consists of three faculties: The Faculty of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry. Through excellence in education and research and clinical service, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria will achieve ever-increasing national distinction as a health sciences college.College of Medicine, University of Nigeria will provide outstanding medical education through its faculty, staff, programs, centers of excellence and affiliates.</span> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (Dr Bond Anyaehie) (Prof. Basden J.C.Onwubere) Mon, 18 Jan 2016 17:23:08 +0000 OJS 60 Comparative effect of two edible sea-food, <i>P.palludosa</i> and <i>E.radiata</i> on serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices in rats <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Pomacea</em> <em>palludosa</em> (apple snail) and clams (<em>Ergeria</em> <em>radiate</em>) are staple edible mollusks, rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins and omega-3-fatty acids (involved in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases).<br /><strong>Aim</strong>: The study was conducted to ascertain whether or not consumption of sea foods will predispose to dyslipidaemia.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Rats were fed on Basal, reference casein, <em>P. palludosa</em> and <em>E. </em><em>radiate</em> and plain soup diets.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Results revealed significant (p&lt;0.05) decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterols in <em>P. palludosa</em> diet recipients, all the diets increased (p&lt;0.05) HDL-c vs basal diet. <em>P. palludosa</em> diet also resulted in significant (p&lt;0.05) lowering of cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient, while <em>E. radiata</em> diet reduced the atherogenic index of plasma.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, <em>E. radiate</em> and <em>P. palludosa</em> diet would not predispose to atherogenesis since it favored the good cholesterol (HDL-c). Nevertheless,<em> P. palludosa </em>has desirable influence on serum lipids, and protects better against atherogenesis than <em>E. </em><em>radiata.</em><br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key words</strong>: Diets, <em>E. radiata, P. palludosa</em>, lipid profile, atherogenic indices, rats.</p> SC Bassey, OE Ofem, NM Essien, MU Eteng Copyright (c) Short term effect of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal anthropometry in Owerri, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pregnancy related weight gain and retention of gained weight during the postpartum period has remained a challenge to African women. Studies have revealed that breastfeeding has various benefits on both mother and child, however studies on the ability to cause reduction in postpartum maternal weight reported conflicting results.<br /><strong>Aim</strong>: This prospective study aims to investigate the effect of different infant breastfeeding methods on postpartum weight loss on Nigeria women.<br /><strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> A total of 72 pregnant women in labor were recruited based on set criteria and anthropometric measurements were taken 24 hours after delivery then repeated 6 weeks after. Mothers were grouped under the following: Exclusively breastfed group (EBF complementary breastfeeding (CBF) and no breastfeeding group (NBF). Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS viewer (13), with P value ≤0.05 considered as significant.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: A significant difference (p = 0.029) in average postpartum weight loss was observed in the EBF group, CBF group and the NBF group (6.86kg, 5.22kg and 3.00kg respectively). Also average loss in BMI (2.63kg/m2, 2.06kg/m2and 1.13kg/m2 respectively) was significant (p = 0.018) along with the average Loss in Mid-Thigh Circumference (1.09cm, 0.97cm and 0.69cm respectively) with p=0.025.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Reduction in maternal postpartum weight is a benefit of breastfeeding even on short term basis especially if practiced exclusively. This information can be pushed forward as a motivating factor for breastfeeding and post-partum weight reduction.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Maternal anthropometry, Breastfeeding, Lactation, weight loss, Nigeria.</p> CB Iheukwumere, UB Anyaehie, C Ogugua, T Njoku, RO Nnedi Copyright (c) Computed tomographic findings in elderly patients with head trauma in a southern Nigerian tertiary hospital <p><strong>Background</strong>: Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice in the triage of acutely head injured patients with the main objective being to detect clinically important traumatic brain injury where emergent intervention is required<br /><strong>Aim</strong>: To describe the computed tomographic findings in elderly patients with head trauma who presented at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> It is a retrospective review of patients aged 65 years and above with suspected intracranial injury (ICI) following head trauma, who presented for computed tomography (CT) scan at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January 2010 to December 2013. SPSS version 20 software was used for data analysis.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The CT films and reports of 128 patients were reviewed. There were 76 (59.4%) males and 52 (40.6%) females. The mean age (SD) was 72.9 (7.0) years. The most common mode of injury was road traffic accidents in more than half (54.7%) of the patients. Majority of the patients had abnormalities which were considered post-traumatic in 60.9%. Intracranial bleeding detected in 64 (50.0%) patients was the most common intracranial abnormality and of these the subdural variety occurred in 26 (40.6%) patients.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Computed tomography is a useful tool in the management of elderly patients with head trauma in the acute setting.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Computed tomography, head trauma, haemorrhage, subdural</p> E Ogbeide, AR Isara Copyright (c) Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics among Iranian students <p><strong>Background</strong>: As one of the main pillars of health assessment of diverse societies and influenced by the quality of life, Community Mental Health has become very important for the groups of students due to the modern highly stressful education period. Aim: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the demographic variables and the general health and quality of life among the male and female students in the Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar in 2013.<br /><strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This analytical-descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 209 students who were selected using stratified sampling method. To collect the data, the following questionnaires were used: demographic questionnaire, World Health Organization's Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data analysis was done using SPSS 22 Software and descriptive and inferential statistics.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: On the basis of the findings of the study, the average overall quality of life of the female students was lower than the male students (less than male students 8.32±1.91 vs. 8.91±1.62). Alike, the average overall general health of the female students was poorer when compared to the male ones (32.64±12.91 vs. 16.41±7.63). The students with depression disorder (r=-0.178, p=0.01) and low general health(r=-0.152, p=0.029) reported lower quality of life on mental health domain.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Quality of life and general health play a prominent role in ensuring the vitality and efficiency of the whole community especially the youth. As a result, recognition of the factors effective in reducing the welfare of this age group and adoption of preventive measures so as to resolve their probable disorders is of particular importance.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Quality of life, general health, education period, disorders</p> P Yarmohammadi, Z Rahaei, R Mirzaeian, E Fattahi, H Mehr, J Sharifi-Rad Copyright (c) The role of socio demographic variables in predicting patients’ satisfaction with radiological services: a cross-sectional study of patients in hospital settings in Enugu metropolis, eastern Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Radiological examination remains a vital and integral aspect of health services delivery and patient satisfaction with radiological service remains beneficial both to patients and hospitals.<br /><strong>Aim</strong>: To evaluate the influence of patient’s socio demographic variables on satisfaction with radiological services.<br /><strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: The study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study in which three hundred (300) patients who had come for radiological examination in one public hospital (University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu) and one private health care institution (Life Chart Diagnostic Centre, Abakpa Nike, Enugu) in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria were surveyed to ascertain their level of satisfaction with the services of radiographers/staff rendered to them during routine radiological examination. The sites for the study were chosen by convenience sampling and the respondents chosen by systematic sampling method. One hundred and fourty five respondents were interviewed at the public hospital, while one hundred and fifty five were interviewed at the private hospital.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: There were 300 respondents, majority-142 (47.3%) of who were under the age of 30 years. The respondents were made up of 92(30.7%) males and the females were 208 (69.3%). Thirty eight percent 115(38.3%) of the respondents have college/university education. Respondents’ level of radiological service satisfaction is associated with their level of education, indicating that the more educated the respondent is, the more satisfied he/she is with the radiological procedure (fishers exact test 0.000f). Those with high school certification had the highest level of radiological experience satisfaction. Female respondents were shown to be significantly more satisfied than their male counterparts during their radiological examination experiences (fishers exact test 0.001f).<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our study recommends that the uneducated and male respondents be given greater attention during radiological procedure, since they were found to be less satisfied during the radiological service experience. Allaying the fears of the uneducated about the complexities of radiological procedure and the large equipments of radiography are likely to improve satisfaction. Better understanding of the limitations in radiological services likely to evoke a feeling of unsatisfactory service among patients should be managed and communicated to the intended radiological examination candidates especially the males and the uneducated who were less satisfied compared to the females and the educated respectively. Patients should be made more aware and educated about the radiological environment to allay the fears of uncertainty and apprehension. Patients should be prepared prior to their examination and acquainted with all expectations even after their examination to improve on patient satisfaction. </p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> Patient’s satisfaction, Radiological services, patient’s socio demographics, Nigeria</p> OG Ochonma, CU Eze, I Maduakolam, BS Eze Copyright (c) Anaesthesia for paediatric cataracts in developing countries - a systematic review of the literature <p>Paediatric cataracts are now the leading cause of treatable childhood blindness in developing countries. Cataract in children is typically removed under general anaesthesia. To provide an overview of methods of anaesthesia for paediatric cataracts in resource-limited countries. We conducted a systematic literature review of articles published between 1970 and 2015 on the different methods of anaesthesia administration in the management of paediatric cataract in developing countries. Out of 113 articles, forty-four articles were selected for this review. Anaesthesia for paediatric cataract surgery is challenging in many developing countries. Consequently, several centres have developed different approaches for the administration of anaesthesia in the management of these paediatric cataracts. Ketamine alone or with adjunct local anaesthesia is widely used. There is a real need for paediatric anaesthesia resources (human and material) in many developing countries. Many different methods have been reported in the literature. Ketamine anaesthesia with sub- Tenon's anaesthesia appears to be a ‘safe technique’ of anaesthesia for paediatric cataracts in developing countries.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> Anaesthesia, Paediatric, Cataract, Developing countries</p> A Aghaji, I Ezegwui, E Onuorah, E Onwasigwe Copyright (c) The use of social media in combating the ebola virus in Nigeria- a review. <p>The cross-country recent epidemic of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and the Nigeria success story has been variously commended. There is thus a need to review and revisit the epidemiological distinctiveness, transmission, and control measures of this disease. This papers reviews the Nigerian Strategy which led to successful containment of the epidemic in the Country. Evidence shows that a concerted effort involving several epidemiologic steps and mass awareness interventions taken by different groups and healthcare organizations and governments were deployed. The positive role of social media in containing the epidemic is very commendable and is highlighted. This article is important because the Nigerian strategy can be deployed in managing any case of epidemic in developing and developed countries, and provides evidence that developing Countries can provide direction for major global health challenges.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Ebola Disease, Virus, Nigeria, social media</p> UC Nduka, A Igwe-Omoke, C Ogugua Copyright (c)