Prevalence and Management of Perceived Adverse Events Following Immunization in Infants attending Well Baby Clinics in Benin City, Nigeria
Background: Immunization is an important public health intervention for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). However, adverse events may follow immunization of infants. This study determined the prevalence and management of Adverse Events following Immunization (AEFI) reported by caregivers of infants in Well-Baby Clinics in Benin City, Nigeria.
Methods: The study was carried out in 2015 among 400 caregivers of infants attending Well- Baby Clinics in Benin City, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was utilized. Respondents were selected using a systematic sampling technique. An adapted structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 20.0.
Results: Less than half, 169 (42.3%) of the caregivers stated that their children had AEFI. Three-quarters 126 (74.6%) and 68 (40.2%) of the AEFI occurred following vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and pentavalent vaccine. Fever and swelling of the injection sites occurred in 142 (84.0%) and 65 (38.5%) of the children, respectively. Almost all 167 (98.8%) of the respondents reported an AEFI. Few of those who reported an AEFI, 13 (7.8%) had their children hospitalized.
Conclusion: A significant proportion of children vaccinated experienced side effects perceived to be AEFI that presented mainly as fever and swollen injection sites which were mainly reported at the immunization clinic. Few of the reported cases of AEFI were hospitalized. Healthcare workers should continue to educate and reassure caregivers of infants of the symptoms and signs that may occur following vaccination and how they can be managed.
Keywords: Adverse Events Following Immunization; Infants; Management; Prevalence; Nigeria.