Predictors of Intensive Phase Treatment Outcomes among Patients with Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Zaria, North-Western Nigeria
Background: The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to successful TB treatment outcomes in developing nations like Nigeria. This study determined the predictors of intensive phase treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients in Zaria, Nigeria.
Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional review of the records of 124 MDR-TB patients registered between September 2012 and August 2017 at the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Training Centre, Saye, Zaria. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25.0 and the StataCorp STATA/SE 14.
Results: The median age (IQR) of the respondents was 32 (15) years. The gene Xpert test detected Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance (RIF) in 119 (96.0%) cases. The treatment success rate was 97 (78.2%). MDR-TB and HIV co-infection rate was 17 (13.7%) while the case fatality rate was 16.1%. Bivariate analysis showed that being male (p=0.001), not currently in marital union (p=0.01) and positive smear results at 1 month (p=0.027)) were significantly associated with treatment success. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the odds for successful treatment outcome was 4 times higher for the MDR-TB patients who were employed than the unemployed (AOR= 3.98, 95% CI= 1.15-13.74). No significant relationship between MDR-TB-HIV comorbidity (AOR=1.89, 95% CI=0.44-8.19), MDR-TB susceptible to Isoniazid (AOR= 0.49, 95% CI =0.15-1.56) and successful treatment outcome.
Conclusion: Unemployment was a predictor of poor treatment outcome in this study. Cause-specific mortality due to the MDR TB was high in this setting. We advocate for optimization of access to treatment and social support system, especially for the female patients.
Keywords: Gene Xpert; Intensive phase; MDR-TB; Treatment outcomes; Nigeria.