The Index Case of Covid-19 in Delta State, Nigeria: A Case Report
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a fatal respiratory infection that has spread rapidly around the world since it was first discovered in China in late 2019. Several management options and experiences have been observed across health systems globally including Nigeria. We report the progression and evolving clinical scenario of the first case of COVID-19 in Delta State, Nigeria.
Methods: We reviewed the hospital admission case record of the first case of COVID- 19 in a 50-year-old male managed at the isolation centre of the Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Delta State. All relevant information about the patient’s clinical characteristics, investigations, treatment and outcome were obtained and documented.
Results: The patient was positive for COVID-19 and was placed on a wide-range of medications and supportive therapy. No baseline laboratory investigations were done throughout the period due to lack of a designated infectious disease laboratory to provide services at the time. Patient’s overall wellbeing was based on physical assessment and monitoring of vital signs: temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation (SPO2). Although he became symptom-free by the 12th day of admission, the laboratory report was persistently positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) until the 35th day of admission when he became negative.
Conclusion: This report showed that the patient had complete resolution of clinical symptoms without concomitant viral clearance. Also, intensive supportive care contributed to a favourable outcome in this patient. The need for improved surveillance and response systems to ensure better patient outcome is recommended.
Keywords: COVID-19; Case Report; Index Case; Coronavirus; Delta State