Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #111111;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The&nbsp;</span></span></span><em><span style="color: #111111;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care</span></span></span></em><span style="color: #111111;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">&nbsp;is the official Journal of the Association of Public Health Physicians of Nigeria. The Journal, which is multidisciplinary and international in scope, provides a forum for the dissemination of research findings, reviews, theories and information on all aspects of public health. The Journal therefore welcomes articles that seek to advance knowledge and understanding of the health sector with a bias to community medicine and primary health care from all stakeholders. The Journal will accept articles from all the diverse sub-specialties that make up community medicine, for example epidemiology, environmental health, occupational health, clinical care, health planning and management, health policy, health care financing, public health nutrition, primary health care, reproductive health, maternal &amp; child health, rehabilitative medicine/medical sociology, demography, etc.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a href="http://www.bioline.org.br/pc" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.bioline.org.br/pc</a></p> Association of Public Health Physicians of Nigeria en-US Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care 0794-7410 <h2 class="western"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Authors are required to transfer copyright of </span></span><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">accepted and published articles to the </span></span><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">journal. </span></span></h2> Knowledge and Attitude of Men towards Factors influencing Childhood Mortality in a Semi-Urban Community in Northwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204872 <p><strong>Background:</strong> In spite of concerted global efforts to reduce childhood mortality, countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are still being plagued with incomparably high mortality rates; thereby contributing majorly to the global burden. These deaths occur from causes which are preventable. Men play a pivotal role in sustained efforts to reduce childhood mortality, however, they are usually overlooked in favour of the mothers. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of men towards factors influencing childhood mortality in a semi-urban community, North-Western Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 174 married men were sampled using a multistage sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using the IBM SPSS version 21. Results were presented in tables and bar charts. The level of statistical significance was set at p&lt;0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age (±SD) of the respondents was 38 (±11.2) years. One hundred and ten (64.7%) of the respondents had lost a child under the age of five years. Majority 142 (83.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of risk factors influencing childhood mortality and 141 (82.9%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards prevention of childhood mortality.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study has highlighted the need for increased male involvement in child health issues. Interventions such as health education and community mobilization that aims to educate men on risk factors and danger signs associated with poor childhood health outcomes should be carried out in this area.</p> Ibrahim M.J. Sani Z.M. Olorukooba A.A. Usman N.O. Ahmad A.I. Mohammed-Idris Z.K. Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 1 13 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.1 Comparison of Perceptual Reasoning Skills and Mental Health Problems between Deaf and Normal-Hearing Adolescents in a Semi-inclusive setting in Ibadan, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204873 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescents with hearing loss are often faced with poor cognitive and executive functions, and increased prevalence of mental health problems. The study compared the perceptual reasoning skills (PRI) and mental health problems of deaf adolescents with those of their age- and sex- matched hearing counterparts.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a comparative cross-sectional study of a total population (102) of deaf adolescents, who were matched for age and sex with 102 normal hearing adolescents. The PRI of the participants was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Mental health problems were assessed with the parents’ and teachers’ versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Descriptive statistics, chi square test and correlation co-efficient were done. Significant level was set at p-value &lt; 5%.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The PRI scores ranged from 41-106 across both groups; 58.8 % of the deaf and 41.2% of the hearing adolescents scored 69 and below on the WISC and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.033). The PRI scores had no significant relationship with the audiometric scores of the deaf participants (r = -0.177; p = 0.076). The PRI scores in the deaf participants were inversely related to hyperactivity assessed by the teacher (r = -0.354), emotional difficulty assessed by both teachers (r = -0.221) and parents (r = -0.280) and peer problems assessed by the teachers (r = -0.329).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Deaf participants in this study showed significantly lower level of nonverbal IQ and higher level of behavioural difficulties compared with their hearing counterparts.</p> Y. Adeniyi O. Omigbodun A. Adeosun Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 14 29 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.2 Medicalization of Female Genital Cutting in Sapele Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria: The Implication for Health Care Provision in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204874 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Female genital cutting (FGC) affects over 200 million girls and women globally. It is inimical to health and increasingly being performed by healthcare providers. Medicalization of FGC is proposed by its proponents to reduce and prevent the incidence of its complications and though perceived to be safer, it is unethical and unjustifiable. This study assessed medicalization of FGC in Sapele Local Government Area, Delta State and made recommendations geared towards ending its practice.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among reproductive age women (15 – 44 years) selected using multi-stage sampling. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain quantitative data from 502 women while a focus group discussion guide was used to obtain qualitative data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and by themes. Results were presented as tables and narratives.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Prevalence of FGC was 277 (55.2%), of which 223 (80.5%) were medicalized. The mean age of cutting was 16.8 ± 5.46 years and nurses performed majority 220 (79.4%) of them. Few 44 (8.8%) of the respondents were aware of possible complications of FGC. Qualitative findings indicated that FGC is still being practiced with nurses being reported as major practitioners.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite concerted efforts to eliminate FGC, its practice is still propagated with increasing heath workers as practitioners. Advocacy and health education for women and girls as well as training and retraining of health care providers is imperative to check this trend.</p> I. Ikechukwu E.C. Isah S.E. Ehinze Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 30 40 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.3 Climate Change Awareness and related Tree Planting Practices in a Rural Community in North-Western Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204875 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tree cutting is one of the causes of climate change and a common practice in Africa, a continent under significant threat from climate change. Therefore, climate change awareness and mitigation are vital to reducing its impacts in the region. Reforestation through planting of trees is an important carbon emission reduction strategy. This study assessed climate change awareness and related tree planting practices among household heads in a Nigerian rural community.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2019 among all household heads in Nasarawan Buhari community. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the 104 household heads (or their representatives). Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0) and statistical significance was set at p value of &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of respondents was 40.6±12.6 years, and most of them (87.5%) were males. Half (50.0%) were aware of climate change, and their main source of information was radio (63.5%). Most (98.1%) used fire wood for cooking. Only a minority (27.9%) planted at least a tree in the year preceding the study. There was a statistically significant association between climate change awareness and occupation (p=0.038) but not with tree planting (p=0.827).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results indicated that only half of respondents were aware of climate change. There was high use of wood as cooking fuel with low tree planting. Tree planting was not associated with climate change awareness. There is therefore a need for continuous climate change education and mitigation campaign in the community.</p> A.A. Gobir A.A. Aliyu A.A. Abubakar C. Esekhaigbe I.A. Joshua K.O. Adagba N.S. Muhammad V.N. Omole J.M. Ibrahim A.G. Nmadu Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 41 49 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.4 Healthcare Workers’ Preparedness to tackle COVID-19: A Study on Knowledge and Compliance with Standard Precautions in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204876 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hospitals may serve as amplifiers of infectious disease rates during outbreak situations. The strict implementation of and compliance with standard precautions (SPs) is the primary strategy for preventing healthcare-associated infections. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and level of compliance with SPs in a tertiary hospital as a measure of preparedness to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare workers selected using stratified sampling technique in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected using an adapted, self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. Knowledge and compliance with SPs were assessed using six domains each. Statistical measures for analysis were the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The level of significance was set at p &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 524 respondents with mean age 38.1 ± 9.7 years participated in this study. Majority, 432 (84.2%) were female and 467 (89.1%) were clinical staff. Overall, knowledge and compliance of SPs were good in 457 (87.2%) and 293 (60.0%) respondents, respectively. Clinical health workers were 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3 – 5.1) times more likely to have good knowledge while respondents with poor knowledge were 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3 – 0.9) times<br>less likely to have good compliance with SPs.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Knowledge of SPs in the studied population was high and compliance was good. Continued education and behavioural change communication are needed to improve compliance especially in the face of a pandemic.</p> E.O. Ogboghodo I.I. Osaigbovo F.B. Adio E.I. Uwugiaren C.J. Nwaogwugwu D.E. Obaseki G.A. Oko-oboh Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 50 63 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.5 Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Uptake of its Vaccine among Female Undergraduate Students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204877 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer which is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. The use of HPV vaccine has been found to be responsible for significant decline in the prevalence of HPV infection and consequently, of cervical cancer. This study assessed the knowledge of HPV and the uptake of HPV vaccine among female undergraduate students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 229 students selected using multi-staged sampling technique. A structured, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. IBM SPSS version 21.0 was used for data analysis. Statistical significance was set at p-value less than 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Only 12 (5.2%) students were knowledgeable about HPV and 39 (17.0%) were aware of the existence of HPV vaccines. The participants’ age (p = 0.031) and level of study (p = 0.026) were significantly associated with knowledge of HPV. Only 1 (0.44%) student had received the vaccine. Eight (10.8%) students had their sexual debut at 10 to 14 years, 9 (12.1%) had more than five sexual partners and 21 (23.4%) never used condom during sexual intercourse.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge about HPV infection and uptake of HPV vaccine were very low in this study. Concerted effort should be made by health authorities to create awareness about HPV infection and its vaccine among university students. This will improve HPV vaccine uptake, prevent HPV infections and reduce the prevalence of cervical cancer.</p> A.R. Isara N. Osayi Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 64 75 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.6 Nutritional Status of Under-five Children living in Orphanages compared with their Counterparts living with their Families in Host Communities in Lagos State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204878 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The prevalence of malnutrition in Nigerian orphanages is not clearly defined despite the high burden. This study was conducted to determine and compare the nutritional status of children living in orphanages and children living in the host communities.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a comparative cross-sectional study. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 180 under-five children each from orphanages and host communities. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics and nutrient intake. Weight, height, mid-upper-arm circumference and nutrient intake were assessed following standard procedures. SPSS (version 20.0) was used for data entry and analysis. Association between variables was determined using Chi-square, t-test or Fisher’s exact tests and level of significance was set at p &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The mean age of the children in orphanages was 38.5 months while that of the children in the host communities was 38.3 months. Wasting and over-nutrition were significantly lower among children living in orphanages compared with those living in the host communities, (5.6% versus 14.4%, p=0.006) and (5.6% versus 13.9%, p=0.008), respectively. The proportion of children living in orphanages who met the Recommended Dietary Allowance for proteins (95%) was significantly higher than those in the host communities (88.9%), (p=0.033).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The nutritional status of children living in the orphanages was better than that of the children living in their host communities. More interventions on feeding infant and young children are needed in communities in Lagos State to ensure better nutritional status.</p> M.O. Izuka F.A. Olatona O.F. Adeniyi A.T. Onajole Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 76 88 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.7 Are Medical Students willing to Patronize Traditional Bone Setters in the Future? A Study among Medical Students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204879 <p><strong>Background:</strong> A large proportion of fractures are still managed by traditional bone setters in developing nations. The study was designed to determine the willingness to patronize traditional bone setters in the future among medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of all preclinical and clinical medical students of the university. Information was obtained using a pretested, self- administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistical software version 22.0 and level of statistical significance was determined by a p value of &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 385 students participated in the study (response rate; 83.7%). Mean age of respondents was 23.2±3.4 years. One quarter of the respondents, 82 (25.0%) have patronized traditional bone setters before. About half indicated that traditional bone setters receive more patronage than orthopedic surgeons, however three-quarters of them preferred services of Surgeons. Two-thirds opined that bone setters have more treatment failures, and only 72 (18.7%) were willing to patronize traditional bone setters in future. Major reasons to patronize them included skilled/good service delivery, 34 (47.2%) and low cost, 21 (29.2%). Predictor of willingness to patronize traditional bone setters in future was previous use of traditional bone setters, (AOR=8.3, 95%CI: 4.7-14.9, p&lt;0.001)<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The practice of traditional bone setting is widespread and enjoys much acceptance in the society despite high rates of treatment failures associated with it. Thus, there is the need to monitor the activities of traditional bone setters to enhance competence and encourage referral.</p> E.N. Ossai C.I. Agu I.I. Eze A.T. Alo Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 89 101 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.8 Knowledge of Malaria and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Nets amongst Mothers of Under-five Children in selected Rural Communities of Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204880 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease caused by the plasmodium parasite and women and under-five children are more prone to its adverse consequences. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is recommended to reduce malaria burden in endemic communities. The study aimed to determine knowledge of malaria and utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) amongst mothers of under-five children in rural communities of Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory, and the predictors.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional design was used. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select 160 mothers of under-five children in two rural communities. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical software version 22.0 and level of statistical significance was determined by a p value of &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of respondents was 29.0±5.4 years, and majority 144 (90%) of the women were married. Lower proportion of respondents had good knowledge of malaria 33 (20.6%). Ninety-four (58.8%) of respondents owned ITNs, but less than half 45 (47.9%) utilized the nets. Predictors of good knowledge of malaria were having attained tertiary education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR); 2.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.1–8.1], p=0.042, and being self-employed, (AOR; 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-13.1), p=0.043). Predictor of utilization of ITNs was being aged 30 years and above (AOR; 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-6.1, p=0.031).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lower proportions of respondents had good knowledge of malaria and utilization of ITNs. Health education of mothers on malaria and benefits of ITNs use should be intensified in the study area.</p> S.N. Esomonu E.N. Ossai A.T. Onajole Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 102 114 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.9 Patterns of Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 Patients in Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204881 <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 is a global pandemic affecting over 25 million people with more than one million deaths and having different patterns of clinical presentation. The study aimed to describe the patterns of clinical presentation of COVID-19 patients in Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> After obtaining an ethical approval, a facility-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out among 50 eligible patients in the hospital’s isolation ward. Data was collected from the patients’ case notes using a proforma to describe the epidemiological history, medical history, symptoms, signs, treatment measures and complications. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 and presented as percentages, mean and standard deviation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of respondents was 44.7 ± 17.3 years with slightly higher proportion of female 26 (52.0%) and majority 41 (82.0%) had tertiary level of education. Fever 29 (76.3%), followed by malaise 19 (50.0%), cough 18 (47.4%), difficulty with breathing 14 (36.8%) and headache 14 (36.8%) were the most common presenting symptoms while majority 43 (86.0%) of the respondents had mild to moderate clinical presentation. The commonest source of the infection was close contact with confirmed case 33 (66.0%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mild to moderate cases of COVID-19 were more, with over two-third of the patients being symptomatic. The replication of this study in other COVID-19 treatment centers/isolation wards will aid in the better management of COVID-19 patients.</p> A.Q. Aigbokhaode N.L. Orhue A.N. Ofili M. Oseji V.A. Osiatuma E.O. Ezunu D. Caleb L. Peter-Enyi Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 115 127 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.10 Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary School Teachers in Sokoto Metropolis, Northwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jcmphc/article/view/204882 <p><strong>Background:</strong> School health program takes care of the health needs of a significant proportion of the population, especially in the third world countries, by ensuring that children of school age remain healthy and benefit maximally from their education. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of School Health Programme (SHP) among primary school teachers in Sokoto metropolis, northwestern, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 public primary school teachers that were selected by multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Proportions and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a binary logistic regression model. All levels of significance were set at p &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the respondents was 34.8 ± 8.6 years. More than half of the respondents were Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) holders 245 (64.1%). Knowledge of SHP was good in 198 (51.8%) of the respondents. The predictors of good knowledge were belonging to other ethnicity (aOR: 3.70; 95% CI=1.11–12.50, p=0.034), having degree or postgraduate qualification in education (aOR: 4.55; 95% CI=2.63–7.69, p&lt;0.001) and having worked for two or more decades (aOR: 4.15; 95% CI=1.34–12.78, p=0.011)<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Nearly half of the respondents had poor knowledge of SHP and this is likely to deny a large number of school children of being healthy and benefitting from th eir education. Awareness campaigns and trainings on SHP to fill in the knowledge gap is highly recommended.</p> A.U. Abubakar O.M. Oche K.J. Awosan I.A. Raji A.M. Abdullahi A.U. Kaoje Copyright (c) 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 33 1 128 139 10.4314/jcmphc.v33i1.11