Association between abdominal obesity and some selected non-communicable diseases among adults in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

Keywords: Abdominal obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, waist circumference


Background: Fat accumulation around the abdomen is an important consideration in obesity studies and management. Generalized obesity indices alone without considering abdominal obesity are not sufficient in the study and treatment of obesity and the related escalating cases of preventable non-communicable diseases globally.

Objective: This study assessed the relationship between abdominal obesity and some selected non-communicable diseases such as generalized obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes among adults in Calabar Metropolis.

Materials and methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 500 participants (20-70 years). The cross-sectional descriptive study adapted the WHO STEPwise questionnaire for surveillance of non-communicable diseases. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentages, chi-square, correlation, and logistic regression; significant differences were established at p<0.05.

Results: 51% of the participants were single while 44.8% were married. It was found that 27.8% and 56.9% of males, as well as 31.1% and 41.1% of females who were diagnosed with hypertension, had high and very high waist circumferences respectively compared to fewer males and females who were undiagnosed with hypertension. There was a correlation between waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure (r= -0.102, p=0.022) as well as with random blood glucose (r=0.123, p=0.006). The males had higher odds to develop hypertension (OR=2.754; CI=1.776-4.270) and fewer odds to develop abdominal obesity compared to the females.

Conclusion: There were strong associations between hypertension, type 2 diabetes, generalized obesity, and waist circumference of the participants. More individuals with high waist circumferences had hypertension. Men were less likely to have abdominal obesity in relation to high blood pressure compared to women. There should be appropriate interventions for the individuals who were already diagnosed with the various NCDs while those at risk of developing the disorders should be identified within the population for proper counseling.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2635-3326
print ISSN: 2141-8209