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Quality assessment of bread made from whole wheat flour and beetroot powder

Ime F. Ani
Adeola B. Adetola
Tirzah Alfa
Nnenna C. Ajuzie
Ogagaoghene F. Ibagere
Ademola R. Akinlade
Ayodeji A. Omotoye


Background: Bread is one of the most popular bakery products whose consumption is increasing in many countries, including Nigeria, as a result of urbanization. This can be leveraged to develop bread with improved nutritional and health benefits.

Objective: The study aimed to produce and analyze the nutritional and sensory qualities of bread made from wheat flour and beetroot powder.

Materials and Methods: The research design was experimental. Samples were analyzed chemically according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. All analyses were carried out in Triplicate. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics version 20 while ANOVA was used to compare different variables together.

Results: The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the proximate, mineral, and antioxidant content of the bread samples. However, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the sensory attributes of the bread samples. Moisture content was lowest while crude fibre was highest in sample B. Sample A had the highest moisture (30.34 ± 0.12%) and carbohydrate content (49.00 ± 0.18%). The highest amount of crude protein (10.59 ± 0.04%), crude fibre (1.08 ± 0.04%), and total ash (2.39 ± 0.02%) was found in Sample D. Zinc, iron, β-Carotene, and lycopene (mg/100 g) were highest in sample A while sample D had the highest vitamin C content. Sample C had the most preferred colour (6.87 ± 1.63) and aroma (6.33 ± 1.61) but the least preferred taste (5.77 ± 1.61). Sample A had the most preferred texture (6.60 ± 1.52), taste (6.07 ± 1.36), and overall acceptability (6.57 ± 1.17).

Conclusion: Bread produced from whole wheat flour and beetroot powder has improved nutritional value and can be consumed by healthy individuals and people requiring high fibre diets to maintain good nutritional status.