Journal of Development and Communication Studies <p><span>The<em> Journal of Development and Communications Studies </em>(JDCS), published online and in print by Development Media Consulting, is a biannual academic, peer reviewed journal, ISSN <span>2305-7432</span>, dedicated to research exploring linkages between communication and human development. The core aim of the JDCS is to make available to development planners, students, civil society, politicians and the public, research recommendations for the benefit of social development in Malawi and Africa, foremost, and the world, second.</span></p><p><span>JDCS welcomes contributions from all over the world. Malawian academics, researchers, and university students are especially encouraged to submit their original research (completed and ongoing alike) reports for publication.</span></p><p><span>JDCS believes in the words of Dr Nyengo Mkandawire of the University of Malawi who said, during his professorial inaugural lecture on 17 March, 2014, that:</span></p><p><em><span>“Ideally, [research findings] must be published locally [because] it has been shown that research published in local journals has the highest likelihood of changing practice.”</span></em></p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <span lang="EN-GB"><a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></span></p> Development Media consulting en-US Journal of Development and Communication Studies 2305-7432 All articles will from January 2018 carry the CC-by Licence. A holistic framework for addressing ‘safe’ sexting challenges in Kenya <p>This paper is based on analysis data arising from a study of sexting perspectives and experiences of college students in Kenya. The study reveals that young people harbour misconceptions about this form of sexual communication, and how to address its associated challenges and negative experiences. The authors use the empirical findings to suggest a framework that identifies seven constructs that critically analyse and describe how agents of socialization processes need to collaboratively work together in order to address the misconceptions, negative perceptions, and behaviors thereof. The proposed framework is conceptualized as a holistic approach with two interacting zones; information and knowledge, and actions, and sustainability. Further, the paper describes the extent to which suggested elements ought to work together to provide the youth with the right information, skills, and competencies required to address issues and challenges associated with sexting. In conclusion, the paper recommends strong guild responsibility and linkages of teachers, parents, and professional associations in the development of educational programmes, policies, and initiatives required to mold youth into responsible people regardless of the new communication technologies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: sexting, youth, framework, communication, socialization</p> Simon Kihiu Chege Masibo Lumala Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 7 1-2 1 22 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.1 Engaging the disengaged: Examining the domestication of mobile telephony among older adults in Trans-Nzoia and Bungoma Counties in Western Kenya <p>The world is growing older. Considering the increasing number of older adults, it is imperative to consider how technology design can meet the needs and wants of these important user groups. Mobile phones offer great potential in improving quality of life for older adults in areas of, healthcare, independent living, communication and reduced isolation. There have been numerous studies on technology design for older adults (Fisk, Rogers, Charness, Czaja, &amp; Sharit, 2004), but much of the work has focused on indoor and stationary applications such as desktop computers (Zajicek &amp; Brewster, 2004). Although older people need support beyond stationary situations inside and outside their homes (Goodman, Brewster, &amp; Gray, 2004), limited number of mobile functions are used by older adults due to high cost associated with mobile phones (Lee: 2007). Conversely, Nimrod (2015), argues older people use mobile phones extensively but little is known about relevant domestication processes involved and the extent to which older adults adopt and use mobile phones. This study interviewed 40 older retired civil servants aged 60 years and above in Western Kenya. Using domestication theory, this study examined the appropriation (Possession and ownership), Objectification (meaning and symbols), incorporation of mobile phones in older people’s everyday life and conversion (unintended uses) process of the domestication of mobile technology by the said group. Findings showed that mobile phones both enhanced closeness with their children and isolated them from them too. Majority felt mobile phones had become their ‘extended family members’ bringing the news of the world to them via mobile phone calls and texts. However, the small font size of texts and the fact that phones were getting smaller in size made it difficult to use. Their favourite mobile phone application was the mobile money locally dubbed Mpesa as they could now receive cash transfers from the government.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: older adults, mpesa, isolation, connection, e-inclusion, domestication, Kenya</p> Leah Jerop Komen Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 7 1-2 23 33 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.2 Perception of HIV/AIDS infection and its effect on condom use among the youth of Kenya’s Kibera Slum <p>While studies have shown that the total number of new HIV / AIDS infections globally is on the decrease, many Sub Saharan countries continue to record high HIV prevalence. This is the case especially among the youth living in informal settlements such as Kibera slums in Kenya. Proper and consistent condom use has been presented as one of the best ways of preventing the transmission of HIV among the youth whereas abstinence has been found to be a challenge for the youth who are seen as sexually active. Though several behaviour change campaigns have been done in Kenya to promote the use of condoms among the youth, their uptake is still low (Coma, 2014). Consequently, this study sought to find out the factors were influencing condom use decisions among the youth. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour that links behaviour change to intention to perform behaviour greatly influenced by attitude, social norms and perceived behavioural control. Data for this quantitative study was collected through a questionnaire administered to 400 youths in Kibera and 356 were completed. Data collected were keyed into SPSS for analysis and presented in tables and graphs. Findings of the study revealed that many of the youth were sexually active (51 per cent) but were not using condoms. Their perception was that they were at no risk of infection (53.2 per cent). This perception of not being at risk impedes condom use among the youth hence the high HIV prevalence while another group felt that the free distributed condoms were of low quality. The study recommends that communicators, especially in this era of new media should tailor campaigns to address the perception of youth towards condoms. In addition, condom communication campaigns should link condom use to perception of risk of infection.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Condoms, HIV/AIDS, youth, perception, Kenya, Kibera</p> Jeremiah M. Nganda Leah Jerop Komen Beatrice Mbogoh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 7 1-2 34 45 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.3 Challenges Kenyan Television Journalists Face in Spotting Fake News <p>A fake news story can travel half way across the world as the truth puts on its socks. There are myriads of challenges facing journalists in spotting fake news hence its wide proliferation. Fake news has become a prominent subject of enquiry especially following its alleged influence of the 2016 general elections in US. Unfortunately, research on fake news has focused on social media, politics, elections, and economies. Few studies have focused on the challenges that TV journalists face in spotting fake news prompting this study. The specific research question was; what are the challenges facing television journalists in spotting fake news in Kenya? The study adapted a relativist-constructivist/interpretivist ontology and epistemology, qualitative approach and multiple case study methodology. Data was generated through in-depth interviews, direct observation and documents review. The study used purposive sampling to generate data from 16 journalists. Data was then analysed in themes and presented in narrative form. Key findings were that in spotting fake news, journalists faced challenges like; loss of viewers, lack of authoritative contacts, sources who gave fake news for personal, business, political, and economic benefits, ability of fake news to camouflage real news, speed of fake news, typologies of fake news, live reporting, inexperienced correspondents and interns, and social media. The study concludes that the challenges facing journalists in spotting fake news were majorly based on sources, technology, education, skills and training, and its typology. The study therefore recommends that editorial boards invest in experts to train journalists on styles, architecture, propagation and use of fake news, inoculation of journalists and audiences, raising fake news literacy levels, and use of technology based approaches like reverse search and fact checking sites.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Fake news, journalists, spotting, challenges, television, Kenya</p> Kabucua John Mutugi Nyakundi Nyamboga Nguri Matu Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 7 1-2 46 70 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.4 Use of ICTS for socio-economic development of marginalised communities in rural areas: Proposals for establishment of sectoral Rural Entrepreneurial Networks <p>Information, Communication, Technology and Services (ICTS) is increasingly being used in various fields that include agriculture, education, medicine, tourism and business. However, due to challenges caused by the digital divide and other factors, the use of ICTS and its contribution to socio-economic development is generally more intense in developed countries than in developing countries, and also more in urban areas than in rural areas. This article gives an overview of ICTS, the extent of its adoption in different fields, factors that hinder ICTS driven socio-economic development in developing countries and rural areas, and various possible ways of maximizing potential benefits that marginalised communities can derive from the limited ICTS that is accessible to them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: ICTS, development, marginalised, rural, networks</p> Geraldine Taponeswa Nyika Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 7 1-2 71 91 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.5 Media Power and Nigeria's Consolidating Democracy <p>In emerging democracies with weak public institutions, low literacy level, deep-seated ethnic rivalry, and history of centralized, authoritarian rule; to what extent does media agenda-setting influence the political process? The press/politics nexus in consolidating democracies is critical to understanding intricate yet overlapping connexion between politics and development in the Third World. This study examined if media-power shape elections and regime outcomes in Nigeria? Using semi-structured interviews (and incorporating News-Game research tool), findings indicate that Nigeria's two-decade-old democracy remains volatile, fragile, and vulnerable. This vulnerability is complicated by long-standing religious, ethno-regional political suspicions; and overburdened with shifting media ecology, particularly social media disinformation and propaganda. These complexities allow a politics of privilege, class, and power that not only ensures its preservation but also insulates the political elite from public outcry and media pressure. In conclusion, evidence indicates that media power exerts limited influence on elections and regime outcomes. The study recommends renewed effort to investigate power.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nigerian politics, agenda-setting, mass media, democracy, underdevelopment</p> Victor Jatula Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 7 1-2 92 109 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.9 Prioritising employee-organisation relationships in non-profit organisations in Kenya: Antecedents, queries and contradictions <p>Although employees are the most critical of organisation publics, it is unclear whether employee-organisation relationships (EORs) in non-profit organisations (NPOs) in Kenya are prioritised. To investigate this question further, the study explored relationship antecedents in two non-profit organisations. The study was informed by relationship management theory and the symmetrical communication framework. Semi-structured, indepth interviews were carried out among 24 purposively sampled management and nonmanagement employees. The data was manually analysed and requisite a priori and in vivo codes and themes identified. The study findings suggest a lack of understanding about the strategic role of public relations in the organisation. Further, technician oriented PR<br>departments mediate the perceptions of and effort expended on internal relationships. Managing employee-organisation relationships was perceived more as a human resource rather than a PR function which precludes more robust forms of PR practice. The researchers recommend a clear demarcation between the public relations and human resource function and to build strategic PR departments that embrace internal relationship management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Relationship management, employee-organisation relationships, public relations, organisation-public relationships, relationship antecedents</p> Julie Gathoni Gitau Stella Jerop Chebii Copyright (c) 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 7 1-2 110 123 10.4314/jdcs.v7i1-2.7