Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Mormodica charantia leaf on lead nitrate‑induced bone marrow toxicity

  • Richard O. Agbonluai Ehimigbai
  • Dorothea Baxter Grillo
  • Gerald Ikechi Eze
  • Vitalis Chukwuma Ezeuko
Keywords: Bone marrow, lead nitrate, Mormodica charantia, toxicity

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Mormodica charantia leaves on lead‑induced toxicity on bone marrow. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 adult Wistar rats weighing between 180 g and 220 g were grouped into four groups of eleven rats per group. Animals in Group A (control group) were placed on normal diet for 40 days whereas Group B animals received only 300 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of M. charantia for 40 days via orogastric tube. Group C animals received only 50 mg/kg body weight lead nitrate via orogastric tube for 40 days. Group D animals received 50 mg/kg body weight lead nitrate and 300 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of M. charantia for 40 days via orogastric tube.
Results: The result showed that oral administration of lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days significantly induced marked bone marrow injury as revealed by reduction in the activity of the serum erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The extract also normalized erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte and monocyte count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration while the neutrophil count level was decreased. Histologically, lead treated group showed increased fat vacuoles along with significant reduction in primordial blood cell inside bone marrow. Concurrent administration of both lead and the extract caused a restorative effect on the cytoarchictectural structure of the bone marrow. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that the ethanolic extract of M. charantia at 300 mg/kg body weight has an ameliorative effect on lead nitrate‑induced bone marrow toxicity.

Key words: Bone marrow, lead nitrate, Mormodica charantia, toxicity

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eISSN: 1596-2393