Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

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Hydro‑methanol leaf extract of lemon grass is friendly with the histology of albino Wistar rats’ kidneys

Paul W. Chikwuogwo, Dare W. Nervey


Introduction: Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an aromatic perennial tall grass with rhizomes densely tufted fibrous root. The aim of the study was to determine the histological effect(s) of the hydro- methanol leaf extract of lemon grass (HLELG) on Albino Wistar rats kidney. The objectives were to: (a) Determine the LD50 of HLELG. (b) Determine if there is any effect(s) of HLELG on the kidney. (c) Determine whether the histological effects of the HLELG is dose-dependent (d) Determine whether the histological effects of the HLELG is time-dependent. Twelve (12) male albino wistar rats were used to determine the LD50 of HLELG.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-five albino wistar rats were recruited for this experiment. After 2 weeks of acclimatization, they were divided into three experimental groups (A, B and C) of 10 rats per group and a control group of 5 rats. Experimental groups (A, B and C) ingested 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg of HLELG respectively once daily. Two rats from each experimental group were sacrificed at the end of each week for three consecutive weeks. Two rats were sacrificed from the control group at the end of the third week. Kidneys from each rat were collected and fixed in 10% formal saline. They were processed for routine staining with Heamatoxylin and Eosin (H and E).

Results: The LD50 “intraperitoneal” of HLELG was found to be higher than 10,000 mg/kg. Obliteration of the Bowman’s capsule was seen in; experimental group C at the end of week one, experimental groups A-C at the end of week two and experimental group C at the end of week three.

Discussion: The obliteration of Bowman’s capsule is as a result of hypertrophy of the glomerular tufts and it is likely to be due to essential oil of lemon grass which has been reported to be toxic against mice.

Conclusion: The index study concluded that: (a) The LD50 of the HLELG is above 10,000 mg/kg. (b) HLELG distorts the histology of albino wistar rats’ kidneys. (c) The effects of HLELG on albino wistar rats’ kidneys are both time and dose-dependent.

Keywords: Albino Wistar, hydro‑methanol, lemon grass
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