Journal of Educational Foundations <p>The <em>Journal of Educational Foundations</em> (JEF) publishes papers from all fields in education. The Editorial Board accepts original, scholarly articles on significant educational issues in Nigeria and Africa. Both empirical and theoretical papers are accepted, although empirical papers are strongly preferred. Papers should concentrate on providing practical suggestions to improve the quality of education across Nigeria and Africa in general.</p> Fab Anieh Nigeria en-US Journal of Educational Foundations 1119-9210 Department of Educational Foundations, University of Jos owns the copyright to the content. Assessing secondary school teachers' well-being using PERMA Model in Maiduguri, Borno State <p>The study was conducted to determine teachers' well-being in secondary schools. The researchers approached teachers' well-being with emphasis on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA model. The sample comprised 200 teachers from six secondary schools within Maiduguri Metropolis. Teachers' Well-Being Questionnaire designed by the researchers was used for data collection. Data were summarized and analyzed by descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson Product Moment Correlation and independent t-test). Results showed that teachers had good well-being and most of the PERMA domains were significantly related except Meaning and Accomplishment domains which were not significantly related to Positive Emotion domain. Also, well-being had no significant difference between male and female secondary school teachers. In order to maintain and advance good teachers' well-being, it was recommended that management of schools should conduct periodic well-being programmes that will involve psychosocial intervention courses that could promote personal flourishing (positive functioning) of teachers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Well-being, PERMA Model, Teachers, Flourishing, Secondary schools </p> Beatrice Chinonso Maduagwu Genevieve G. Agulanna Hamsatu Pur Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 1 10 Assessment of basic entrepreneurial skills through prevocational subjects among JSS3 students in Shendam Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed basic entrepreneurial skills through prevocational subjects among JSSIII students in Shendam LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria. Three research questions were raised to identify the level of skill acquisition in six prevocational subjects and the students' ability to engage in entrepreneurship activities. The research design was descriptive research design. The population comprised of JSS3 students in all public junior secondary schools in Shendam Local Government Area while the sample size was 200 JSS3 students. Findings revealed that JSS students have not sufficiently been impacted with entrepreneurship skills. Of six prevocational skills subjects, students acquired skills in only one: Basic Agriculture. Findings also showed that students acquired knowledge and ideas about becoming future entrepreneurs by owning their own businesses. From the responses, students were capable of marketing some items they produced through vocational activities. The study recommended schools to encourage students in the practice of entrepreneurship for skill acquisition.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Assessment, Entrepreneurship skills, Prevocational subjects, Students</p> Roseline W. Walu Tosan C. Adebisi Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 11 22 Adequacy of an assessment course: A study of graduate teachers in Ghana <p>The paper assessed the adequacy of the assessment course from the perspective of graduate teachers who received training. The descriptive design was used for the study. The population for the study was all core subject teachers in the six public Senior High Schools in the Agona West<br>and East Municipalities of Ghana. The purposive sampling procedure was used to include 204 core subject teachers in 6 Senior High Schools for the<br>study. A self-designed questionnaire on the adequacy and perceived strengths of the assessment course was used for data collection. The<br>results showed that teachers indicated the content areas of the courses as adequate. It was concluded that teachers in the Senior High Schools<br>perceived the content knowledge gained from the course as adequate. It is recommended that the course content should be maintained in order to<br>serve its intended purposes such as helping teachers to interpret test scores appropriately.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Graduate, Teachers, Assessment, Adequacy, Municipality, Ghana </p> Abraham Yeboah Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 23 34 The effects of inclusive and exclusive item response rule options on item difficulty and discrimination in multiple choice tests <p>The paper investigates the effects of exclusive (all of the above (AOTA)) and inclusive (none of the above (NOTA)) item rule options on item difficulty and discrimination of multiple choice tests. The study adopted experimental research design. Forty multiple-choice economics items adapted from the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination were used for the study. Three item formats were used. Homogeneous contained the question in its original format without NOTA/AOTA option; Key used NOTA/AOTA option as the correct answer; and distractor had NOTA/AOTA option as an&nbsp; incorrect answer. The results showed that items with NOTA and AOTA alternatives required more thinking from examinees than those with specific alternatives. NOTA and AOTA options have psychometric significance in multiple choice tests, therefore, the effect of NOTA and AOTA should be&nbsp; taken into consideration in item writing. Thus, item writers should endeavour to generate enough options to avoid the use of these options.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Inclusive options, Exclusive options, Item discrimination, Item difficulty, Multiple-choice tests </p> O.F. Akindahunsi E.R.I. Afolabi Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 35 50 Teacher preparation program and acquisition of contemporary skills of teaching reading in primary schools: Issues and prospects <p>The role of the teacher is to be responsive to the vast and varied needs of each child, and to promote an educational climate that facilitates motivation and the desire to read. Many children leave primary school without acquiring the skills of reading. In fact, many teachers in primary schools in Nigeria lack the awareness of the importance of reading in the development of the individual and its importance as a tool of emancipation. This paper&nbsp; therefore examines teachers' understanding and interpretation of their reading instruction to highlight the effective skills of teaching reading in primary schools. It discusses the contemporary skills of teaching reading and preparation for all teachers. Among the recommendations made was the need to equip the teachers with adequate knowledge, skills and strategies for effective reading instruction that can make a difference in the lives of children through teacher preparation programmes.</p> Awagboya Henrietta Ekpoki Ibrahim Tsinsat Hannatu Joseph Bega Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 51 62 Perspectives of stakeholders on parent-school partnerships in basic schools in the South Tongu District of Ghana <p>This research employed qualitative method to study how parents-school partnership influences academic performance of pupils in South Tongu District in the Volta Region of Ghana. Two schools and 16 participants (6 parents, 6 teachers, and 4 pupils) were purposively selected. The study<br>adopted semi-structured interview to collect data. The key endings were that pupils' academic performance could improve when parents provide<br>pupils with learning resources. The study further revealed that parents' educational background, economic activities, nature of school climate,<br>and poverty can pose barriers to parent-school partnership. Finally, it was indicated that education, attendance at PTA meetings, reduction of pupils'<br>workload, and organization of school events could help improve parent school partnership. The study recommends that parents should be<br>empowered economically by government to be able to meet the educational obligations to their pupils. Also, schools should establish rapport with parents to create enabling environment for discussion of pupils' school matters. </p> Vincent Mensah Minadzi Emmanuel Kofi Gyimah Felix Senyametor Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 63 80 Principals' and teachers' beliefs of the impact of community participation on the implementation of secondary school curriculum in Gombe Metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria <p>This study investigated principals' and teachers' beliefs of the impact of community participation on the implementation of secondary school curriculum in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria. Two specific objectives and two research questions were formulated. Descriptive design<br>was adopted. A sample of 279 principals and teachers was selected using proportionate random sampling techniques. Instrument used was a structured questionnaire titled Impact of Community Participation Questionnaire (ICPQ). It was validated by two professionals in the field of test and measurement, University of Abuja. Pilot study was carried out and Cronbach's Alpha was used to compute the reliability coefficient of 0.78. The endings revealed that principals and teachers believe that community participation promotes students' attendance, effective management, and<br>student's academic performance. It was recommended that the school should allow the community to participate in decision making process for improving academic quality and effective management of secondary schools.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Community, Participation, Curriculum, Implementation, Secondary School </p> Kasim Mohammed Saad Abubakar M. Jumare Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 81 90 Nexus between entrepreneurial education and marketing students' intention to business start-up: Evidence from Ilorin, Kwara State <p>The objective of this study is to assess the effect of entrepreneurial education on marketing students' intention to start up their businesses upon graduation. The study adopted the correlational research design and data was gathered using a structured questionnaire. A total of 260 participants were selected. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the research hypothesis was analysed using regression analysis. The ending revealed that there is a positive effect of entrepreneurial education on marketing students' intention to start up a business. The study concluded that marketing students will transition to become entrepreneurs essentially when they acquire technical, business and personal skills which facilitate adequate readiness to undertake selfemployment. The study recommended that entrepreneurial education should be included to marketing undergraduates from their first year rather than teaching them in their third or final year in the University.</p> <p><strong> Keywords</strong>: Business start-up, Entrepreneurial education, Marketing undergraduates </p> Azeez Tunbosun Lawal Abdulmajeed Adewale Jatto Suleiman Yusuf Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 91 100 Secondary school students' beliefs of insecurity of school environments and its impact on students' learning in Ilorin, Nigeria <p>This study investigated secondary school students' beliefs of insecurity of school environments and its impact on students' learning in Ilorin. A descriptive design was adopted. The participants were 300 students who had problems being promoted in secondary school due to poor attendance from insecurity of the school environment. Researcher-designed instrument tagged Secondary School Students' Beliefs of Insecurity of School Environments and its Impact on Students' Learning Questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings revealed that secondary school students' beliefs about security threats in Ilorin public schools include over-crowded classrooms and harsh school rules and regulations; activities of gunmen around the school; and bushy, unsafe streets around the school. Secondary school students also believe that insecurity of the school environment hinders effective learning and regular attendance. It was concluded that school administration should provide security so students will not abandon their primary assignment of coming to school.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Insecurity, School environments, Learning outcomes, Education </p> Fidelia Nwamaka Ajagbe Muslimat Adebanke Nuhu Elizabeth Obiageli Uyanne Bibire Abdulkareem Hussein Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 1 101 113