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Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bee Tribe Anthidiini
The phylogenetic relationships among members of long tongue bee tribe Anthidiini (Megachilidae: Megachilinae) were investigated at the Department of Entomology and Wildlife, University of Cape Coast (Ghana) and the Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria (South Af-rica) from July, 2006 to May, 2007. Ten museums located in three continents loaned the 990 specimens used for the studies. Thirty-three ingroup taxa out of the 37 known genera of the world’s Anthidiini and two outgroup genera, were included in a cladistic analysis of the tribe based on 51 adult external morphological characters. The cladograms yielded three major clades which have been erected as subtribes for the world’s Anthidiini, namely Afranthidina, Anthidina and Euaspina. Monophyly of the Anthidiini was confirmed. Based on the result of the cladistic analysis and biogeographic data, it is suggested that the origin and center of radiation for the Anthidiini probably occurred in the southern pantropic region (Southern Africa to South East Asia) of Gondwana. A second and independent migration to the Neotropical region by the prob-able ancestors of the current Neotropic genera is also conceivable.