A clinicopathologic review of teratomas in Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, Plateau State
Introduction: Teratomas are neoplastic growths containing tissue representative of more than one germ cell layer. The complexity of the composition of teratomas poses diagnostic difficulties to pathologists, radiologists and clinicians in general . The incidence of teratomas is highest during the neonatal period and infancy where most are located in the sacrococcygeal region. In terms of gross morphology, teratomas can be cystic, solid or mixed. Histologically, they can be tridermal, bidermal or monodermal.
Materials and Method: A descriptive, retrospective hospital based study involving retrieval of records for teratomas diagnosed at the Histopathology department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 2004 and June 2015. Information obtained was presented in forms of frequencies and percentages and depicted in the form of tables, and pie charts.
Results: A total of 96 teratomas were diagnosed over the length of the study period. The ages of the patients ranged from 4days to 70 years, with a mean age of 27.4 years. Childhood teratomas(cases 14years and below) accounted for 16(16.7%) of all cases. A male to female ratio of 1:15 was observed, with females accounting for 90(93.8%) of the cases, while only 6 teratomas(6.2%)were seen in males. Histologically, 90(93.8%) of the teratomas were benign/mature, while only 6(6.2%) were immature. Abdominal pain and or swelling was the commonest mode of clinical presentation in cases of ovarian teratomas, as seen in 69(88.5%) of cases. Teratomas were observed as an incidental finding in 11.5% of cases.
Conclusion: Teratomas in Jos are predominantly seen in children and are mostly benign. Females were more commonly affected than males, and abdominal pain is the commonest symptom.
Key Words: Teratoma, clinicopathologic, Jos, Germ Cell, review.