Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa <p>The <em>Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa</em> (JMAA) is published by NISC (Pty) Ltd in association with the South African College of Music at the University of Cape Town. It is an accredited, internationally refereed journal that aims to combine ethnomusicological, musicological, music educational and performance-based research in a unique way to promote the musical arts on the African continent. This journal also incorporates book, audio and audiovisual media and software reviews.</p><p>Read more <a href="http://www.nisc.co.za/products/10/journals/journal-of-the-musical-arts-in-africa" target="_blank">here</a>. </p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the publisher. publishing@nisc.co.za (Publishing Manager) journals@nisc.co.za (Editorial Office) Tue, 09 Feb 2021 10:35:23 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203727 <p>No abstract</p> Peter Sylvanus Emaeyak Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203727 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Glocalisation of Nigerian contemporary hip hop music https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203728 <p>This paper discusses the glocal trends in Nigerian hip hop music production in the age of digital communication technology. The concept of music glocalisation explains the local consciousness in music production, dissemination and consumption amid the forces of globalisation. Following the adoption of American hip hop in Nigeria in the 1990s, a renegotiation of hip hop’s cultural authenticity led to the production of localised hip hop with features of preceding popular music genres, especially highlife music. Although highlife was the most favoured popular music in Nigeria&nbsp;before the 1990s, it did not receive immediate global distribution and appreciation as localised hip hop did during the internet era from around 2004 to date. Increased internet access in Nigeria largely strengthened the access to global hip hop production and consumption. By focusing on the music of two Nigerian hip hop artists, 2face and Flavour, this discussion explores the production and transnational projection of transcultural hip hop identities amid global hip hop music flows. The paper contends that hip hop glocalisation promotes blending of hip hop practices of diverse locales, transcultural communication and global appreciation of Nigerian hip hop culture.</p> Samson Uchenna Eze Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203728 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rhythmic idioms in Igbo hip hop music: Phyno as exemplar https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203730 <p>Contemporary Nigerian pop musicians draw from and build upon a treasure trove of indigenous musical idioms and performance practices, including call-and-response techniques, extemporisation, and specific melodic, rhythmic and harmonic vocabularies. It is necessary to understand how, for example, an Igbo hip hop musician like Chibuzor Nelson Azubuike (popularly known as Phyno) is influenced by aspects of traditional Igbo musical and language practices. This article explores how rhythm is both appropriated and expropriated in Igbo hip hop music. Employing an analytical and interpretative approach, it examines Phyno’s rhythmic permutations and investigates how he weaves indigenous Igbo rhythmic techniques into contemporary hip hop music. The concept of a pervasive presence of the density referent is examined, and it is argued that this rhythmic idiom is not only derived from Igbo speech rhythms, but also and even more so accountable for the polymetric and polyrhythmic patterns that characterise Phyno’s music. The article offers unique insights into the sonic qualities and characteristics of contemporary Igbo hip hop music.</p> Ijeoma Iruka Forchu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203730 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The use of symbols in the praise-naming of chiefs in selected Igbo folk music https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203733 <p>Praise names are repositories and means through which ideologies and socio-cultural identitiesare transmitted in Igbo culture. In ‘praise naming’, symbols with socio-cultural meanings aredeployed to represent ideological realities of Igbo naming in communities. The symbols which are infused with the Igbo beliefs of philanthropy and display levels of stratification have not been subjected to adequate linguistic studies. This study, therefore, undertakes a critical appraisal of the strategic deployment of symbols in praise naming chiefs in selected folk songs of two popular and foremost Igbo folk musicians with a view to uncovering the underlying ideological meanings and significance of the symbols. Analysing the data through the lens of Martin and White’s appraisal theory reveals that symbols derived from five sources – plants, animals, nature, body parts and deities – construct the chiefs in terms of five images of God as protector, benefactor, saviour, dreaded being and as the almighty. While the plant symbols conceptualise chiefs as impartial and all-round providers, the animal and god symbols represent them as supreme and as inspiring dread. The nature symbols depict them as unquantifiable, while body parts represent them as rescuers. These culturally-based symbols, which have both positive and negative connotations, have generally reconstructed the rich as gods of the poor in the songs.</p> Ebuka Elias Igwebuike Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203733 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The ‘street’ construct and mass-mediated identities in Nigerian hip hop https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203735 <p>&nbsp;The origins, influence and perspectivisation of American hip hop can be traced to African American locational references to the ‘hood’. The global diffusion of hip hop ensures that the ‘hood’ identity is continually localised and appropriated within emergent localities. Within Nigerian hip hop culture, the ‘street’ is a site for asserting identity, as well as for recurring locations, ideas and shared experiences of authentication and credibility. This article contextualises the street and its forms of enactment in selected Nigerian hip hop songs to help understand mass-mediated identities. Relying on a theoretical framework based on Bourdieu’s social theory of agency and Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis, the study concludes that the framing of the street is expressed through multiple modes, including linguistics (slang), locational references (places), the glorification of materialism, and the psychological fixation on attitudes (sex, drugs and alcohol), which together accentuate the exotic essence and flavour of street-conscious Nigerian music.</p> Paul Ayodele Onanunga Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203735 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Abigbo music and the ever-evolving present: processing indigenous music as an indicator of communal experience among the Mbaise, Igbo https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203736 <p>This paper on abigbo music of the Mbaise, Igbo argues that indigenous music could be processed beyond its value as a purveyor of historical facts to gain insights into the nature of experiences, trajectories, concerns, fears and projections of a society. The discourse is anchored on the Igbo philosophy of the convergence of the distant past and the distant future at the ever-evolving present, and encapsulated in the theory of cyclic integration presented here. According to this theory, abigbo music not only shows influences from the distant past in the present, but foresees the distant future through occurrences in the past. This is apparent in abigbo song texts, which reveal the perspectives of communities regarding their early encounters with missionaries and the enduring impact these groups had on the Igbo until the present day. A transcription of the abigbo song ‘Ndi Amuma Ugha’ (‘False Prophets’) is discussed to highlight some of the conclusions drawn.</p> Christian Onyeji, Elizabeth Onyeji Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203736 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nani idi-nma n’ebere (2007) for soprano solo and SATB chorus https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203738 <p><em>Nani idi-nma n’ebere</em> (2007) is a choral art music composition in the Igbo language for solo soprano and choir based on the last verse of Psalm 23. It displays a number of musical aesthetic features associated with the Nsukka Choral School (NCS), including percussive vocalisation and ostinato techniques. During the ostinato section, the chorus simulate indigenous Igbo musical instruments in polyrhythmic textures. The piece observes the tonal inflections inherent in Igbo traditional music, which are blended with Western harmonies typical of the First Viennese School. Together these&nbsp;characteristics create a hybrid piece of music that demonstrates the influence of these two different&nbsp;musical cultures.</p> Jude Nwankwo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203738 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Music and identity in Inxeba (The Wound): the exploration and disruption of representations https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203739 <p>&nbsp;This article explores the complex and interwoven nature of the scored and traditional music featured in the film Inxeba (2017) in an attempt to bridge these seemingly disparate sound worlds. In identifying their significance to the film’s narrative and plot devices, the article posits that ‘The Wound’ and ‘<em>Somagwaza</em>’ serve as important case studies when regarding the complex identity politics central to the film. ‘The Wound’, a ‘house track’, sub-culturally speaks to the struggles of gay men in the 1990s as they negotiated the identity politics of the time. ‘<em>Somagwaza</em>’ in stark contrast is a traditional Xhosa song that is performed during <em>ulwaluko</em> initiation ceremonies, and explicitly describes particular masculine traits for Xhosa men to embody in order to maintain the status quo of male behaviour. When analysed together, these pieces speak to the identity conflict experienced by three gay Xhosa characters in the film. With an outright rejection of queerness in both urban and cultural spaces as implied by the film and its score, further questions arise on queer identity in a broader South African context, and the spaces in which queer people are ‘allowed’ to exist.</p> Travis McDowall Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203739 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 In memoriam: Dr Victor Abimbola Olaiya (1930–2020) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203740 <p>No abstract.</p> Niyi Akingbe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203740 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 CD Review: Chapman Nyaho, William (2020). Kete – Piano Music of Africa and the African Diaspora, volume 3 (2020) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203741 <p><strong>Disc title:</strong> Kete – Piano Music of Africa and the African Diaspora, volume 3. (2020)</p> <p><strong>Artist name:</strong> Chapman Nyaho, William</p> <p>Newtown, USA. MSR Classics. MS1708. &lt;http://www.msrcd.com/catalog/cd/MS1708&gt; Compact Disc $12.95, also available via streaming or digital download.</p> Franklin Larey Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203741 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Book review: Omojola, Bode (ed.) (2017). Music and Social Dynamics in Nigeria. Religion and Society in Africa, Volume 3. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203742 <p><strong>Book title:</strong> <em>Music and Social Dynamics in Nigeria.</em> Religion and Society in Africa, Volume 3.</p> <p><strong>Author:</strong> Bode Omojola (ed.)</p> <p>New York: Peter Lang. ISBN (print): 978-143-3134-01-2, ISBN (e-book): 978-145-3918-52–4. viii, 226 pp. &lt;https://www.peterlang.com/view/title/23171&gt; $102.85.</p> Meki Nzewi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203742 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Musical responses from lockdown: adaptations in foregrounding remote performances in Lagos, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203744 <p>No abstract.</p> Joseph Kunnuji Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203744 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Decolonising the musical arts in Nigeria: An overview of the 5th Biennial National Conference of Music and the Performing Arts (Nacompa) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203746 <p>No abstract.</p> Josephine Ngozi Mokwunyei Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jmaa/article/view/203746 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000