Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research <p>The <em>Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research</em> is published by the College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin to encourage research into primary health care. The journal will publish original research articles, reviews, editorials, commentaries, case reports and letters to the editor. Articles are welcome in all branches of medicine and dentistry including basic sciences (anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, etc) and clinical sciences (internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, dental surgery, child health, laboratory sciences, radiology, community medicine, etc). Articles are also welcome from social science researchers that document the intermediating and background social factors influencing health in developing countries.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: &nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal and publishing association. (Professor VI Iyawe) (GA Akinlabi) Tue, 12 Jan 2021 07:02:58 +0000 OJS 60 Comparative chromatographic analysis and pharmacodynamic activities of aqueous mushroom extracts (Pleurotus Tuber-Regium) with other antiglaucoma drugs <p>Experimental studies have shown that aqueous extract of Pleurotus tuber-regium (PT) caused a reduction in steroid induced ocular hypertension in feline models and a contractile effect on isolated bovine iris. A comparative thin layer chromatographic study and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometric analysis (TLC-UVS) of PT in comparison with known antiglaucoma drugs (0.5% betaxolol, 0.5% timolol maleate, 2% pilocarpine, and 0.005% latanoprost) was carried out to identify their similarities. Graded concentrations&nbsp; (5mg/ml, 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 40mg/ml) of PT were spotted along with the drugs on prepared glass plates. Silica type 60 gel&nbsp; served as the stationary phase while a solvent system of 50ml chloroform and 50ml absolute ethanol was used as the solvent system. On completion, comparison was made between the extracts and the drugs based on their migration speeds and retardation factors. Further analytic studies were carried out on the filtrates gotten from thin layer chromatography with an Ultraviolet-Visible<br>spectrophotometer. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis showed that the extracts compared favorably with the drugs under study, particularly with timolol maleate and latanoprost, as they had similar migration distances and retardation factors (R ). f Spectrophotometry revealed that the extract has an absorption spectrum within the ultra-violet wavelength range with a ╬╗max of 260nm, this is comparable to the known absorption spectra of the anti-glaucoma drugs. PT may likely have similar substances with known anti glaucoma drugs. This is a preliminary evaluation of the crude aqueous extract of PT.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Antiglaucoma drugs, Chromatographic Analysis, Pharmacodynamics, Pleurotus tuber-regium.<br><br></p> Ghalib A. Akinlabi, Kelly E. Omoruyi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 11 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of biochemical and haematological changes that occur in blood stored with CPDA-1 as an anticoagulant in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria <p>Transfused blood must be of required quality to meet body metabolic requirements. This study monitored variations in biochemical and hematological parameters following blood transfusion. Twenty blood donors age range 18-55yr were recruited. About 450mls blood was drawn into 0 blood bag containing citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA-1) and stored at 2-8 C in blood bank. Ten millilitres blood was withdrawn on different days, centrifuged to obtain the plasma which was analysed using standard methods.<br>Result shows a significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in plasma antioxidants, sodium, chloride, urea, lipid, protein, alkaline phosphatase, haematological parameters; and significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in potassium, malondaaldehyde, bilirubin, and transaminases on day 35 when compared to values at day 0. In conclusion, storing of blood using CPDA-1 as an anticoagulant is associated with variations in biochemical and hematological parameters which were noted to occur after the seventh day of storage. Blood for transfusion is thus best used on or before the seventh day of donation.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Transfusion, blood storage, anticoagulant, biochemical parameters, haematological parameters. </p> Amballi Adebayo Adetola, Wasiu Eniola Olooto, Olufemi David Olaniyi , Adedeji A. Onayemi, Adebowale Debo Fatai Adeleke Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Early and late pregnancy complications in women who experience first trimester vaginal bleeding at a University Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy is usually an alarming experience for pregnant women and this remains one common reason for them to present to the early pregnancy assessment unit (EPAU).</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: We sought to document pregnancy failure and risk of placenta praevia complicating first trimester bleeding per vagina (PVB), and to examine the influence of recurrent PVB on specific materno-fetal outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: Early pregnancy PVB managed in the EPAU was reviewed and women who reported first trimester PVB at the time of&nbsp; antenatal booking were recruited along with controls. Both groups were prospectively studied until delivery. The diagnosis of&nbsp; placenta praevia and the development of other maternal or fetal complications were noted. The association between clinical presentation and pregnancy outcome was analyzed using cross-tabulations with SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: PVB was reported by 7.5% of women seen in the EPAU. At booking, 14 women with early PVB and 51 controls were recruited. The experience of PVB was associated with delivery before 34 weeks (RR 3.3 with 95%CI: 1.34-7.99; P= 0.06), birth asphyxia (RR 3.7 with 95%CI: 1.59-8.50; P = 0.01) and low birth weight (RR 7.3 with 95%CI: 3.24-16.59; P = 0.001). Recurrent PVB was associated with 85.7% risk of placenta praevia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy can predict placenta praevia, and is associated with preterm delivery and birth asphyxia. Early identification of women who bleed in pregnancy will be instructive in their successful monitoring and delivery. We advocate a deliberate enquiry about PVB in the booking clinic.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: First trimester vaginal bleeding, Miscarriage, Adverse pregnancy outcomes, Placenta praevia </p> Nosakhare Enaruna, Chidinma Anya, Chukwunyere Anyanwu Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Street children in Benin City, Nigeria: Nutritional status, physical characteristics and their determinants <p>Street living/ working has damning consequences on children as it happens at crucial life stages, impeding development, education and acquisition of skills that are invaluable to adult lives. It compromises their health and socio economic potentials. Among its health consequences are malnutrition and impaired physical growth. Being relatively alien and new in African traditional culture its effects on nutrition and physical growth have not been adequately documented. The study therefore sought to evaluate the nutritional status and growth characteristics of street children found in Benin City, Edo State.</p> <p>The prospective, descriptive, cross sectional study involved all street children aged 10- 17 years found in 19 markets and 30 motor parks located in the three urban Local Government Areas in Benin City. Following assenting, children were recruited into the study. A structured proforma was used to obtain biodata and nutritional history from each subject following preliminary visits. Physical examination and anthropometric assessment were then carried out.</p> <p>Weight for age, height for age and BMI stratification were done in accordance with WHO recommendations A total of 225 each of street children and age/sex matched controls (84 (37.3%) males and 141(62.7%) females) were enrolled in the study. The mean (range) age for the respondents was 13.14 + 1.75 (10-17 years). Modal age bracket in the two groups was 13-15 years. One hundred<br>(42.2%) of 221 subjects had just a meal/day. Significantly more subjects (46 or 20.4%) 2 compared to controls (6 or 2.7%) were stunted (c = 35.53; p=0.001). More male subjects 2 compared to females were significantly stunted (27.4% vs 16.3%; c =8.11, p=0.02). More 2 subjects (40 or 17.8%) than controls (three or 1.3%) were underweight (c = 35.12; p=0.001). 2 Significantly more subjects compared to controls were thin (10.2% vs 0.04%; c = 21.30; 2 p=0.001 and severely thin (3.1% vs 0.4%; c = 4.58; p=0.003). Mean BMI of male and female subjects were also significantly lower than values in controls (t= 2.39; p=0.019; t=7.77, p=0.0001). The prevalence of underweight, stunting, thinness and severe thinness were independent of the duration of stay in the street. Bus conductors (46.2%) and beggars (45.9%) were more prone to stunting. Beggars were also more likely to be underweight (43.2%) and have low BMI (24.3%). Over 40.0% of subjects had sibling(s) who were also street children. School dropout was more prevalent in older&nbsp; adolescents (38.0%).</p> <p>Undernutrition is rampant among adolescent street children in Benin City. Those in similar climes in Nigeria may suffer same fate. Public health measures to reduce incidence of street children would have added benefit of causing a reduction in the prevalence of adolescent malnutrition in Nigeria.</p> Owobu Adaugo, Okoeguale Michael Ibadin, Egberue Gabriel Ofovwe , Olayele Philip Abiodun Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perception of health workers on use of immunization mobile application at primary health care facilities in Kano State, Nigeria <p>Mobile applications are increasingly being used to attain improved access and quality of health care services, particularly in rural areas of low and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of health workers on the use of immunization mobile application at primary health care facilities in Kano State. An explorative qualitative design was used in this study. Twenty participants were selected using the purposive sampling technique. An interview guide was used to collect data from the participants using the interview method. Findings revealed that many participants who could not use the immunization mobile app mentioned lack of time as the reason why they couldn't use the app. We concluded that time constraint limits the use of mobile app, even though the app may provide access to immunization data.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Perception, health workers, immunization mobile application, primary health care </p> Ahmad Rufai Abubakar, M.I. Gommaa Hayat , B. Junaid Sahalu, N. Sambo Muhammad , M. Abdul Halima , Muhammed Auwalu , M. Aliyu Abdulmaleek Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological presentation of the ameliorative effects of <I>Bryophyllum pinnatum</I> on alcohol-induced gastric injury in adult Wistar rats <p><em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> is a plant, reported for its variety of ethno-medicinal uses. This study was undertaken to determine the&nbsp; morphological changes brought about by<em> Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> on alcohol-induced gastric injury. Whole plant of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> was successfully extracted with water. Low dose aqueous extract of the plant (150 mg/kg body weight), moderate dose (300 mg/kg body weight) and high dose (600 mg/kg body weight) were administered. Thirty (30) healthy adult wistar rats of both sexes were divided into six (6) groups (A to F) of five rats each. Group A received feeds and water only. Gastric mucosal injury was<br>induced in Group B to F using 80% ethanol after 24 hours fasting with free access to water. Group C, D and E received aqueous extracts of the <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, (150, 300, 600 mg/kg body weight respectively). Group F received 20mg Omeprazole. The treatment lasted for a duration of twenty-eight days. Weekly weight measurement of individual rats was carried out. The rats were sacrificed an hour after the last dose and the stomach harvested and processed for histological analysis. The study established the anti-ulcer properties of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, and demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> restored the<br>histological integrity of the stomach mucosa, with the group given 600 mg/kg body weight extract achieving the best ameliorative effect. The groups given the extract also demonstrated increase in weight.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, morphological presentation, alcohol induced gastric injury, aqueous extracts.</p> G.I. Eze, E. Aideyan Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000