Co-existence of syndrome X and hypertension among Ghanaians
Cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes and dyslipidaemia have been commonly associated with hypertension. The clustering of such risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (i.e. Syndrome X). The syndrome has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease especially in the hypertensive. This study therefore sought to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in adult hypertensives. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hypertension Clinic of the Department of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi between April 2009 and November 2010. A total of 300 participants comprising 200 hypertensives and 100 normotensives were enrolled. The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among the hypertensive patients was significantly higher than the normotensive control (56.5% vrs 9.0%, 54.5% vrs 5.0% and 65.5% vrs 15.0%, p<0.001) using NCEP ATP III, WHO and IDF criteria respectively. Irrespective of the criteria applied, all the components of MetS were significantly higher among the hypertensive patients as compared to the normotensive control. Females had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to their male counterparts. Among the hypertensive patients, the highest combination of individual risk components were reduced HDL, raised fasting blood glucose and central obesity. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the hypertensive population and recommends active screening and multi-targeted approach in the management of hypertension in the country.
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(1), 8-16
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, central obesity, dyslipidaemia