Bacterial Dynamics of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria
AbstractThe study was designed to ascertain the bacterial agents of acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns so as to identify the antibiotics of choice for treatment of such ailments in the environment. The study was retrospective in nature; data generated from the Medical Microbiology
laboratory of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi on ear swab samples for a period of five years (June 2000 - May 2005) was compiled. Information such as age, sex, diagnosis, organism isolated and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns was extracted. Samples were processed using standard laboratory procedures. Results obtained were analysed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Over 60% and 41% of the patients with CSOM and AOM
respectively were under 10 years; the three most common causative organisms for CSOM were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.3%), Escherichia coli (17.3%), and Staphylococcus aureus (16.9%), and for AOM were Staphylococcus aureus (31.3%), Haemophilus influenzae (21.4%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.0%). The most active antimicrobials for both CSOM and AOM were ceftriaxone, peflacine, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and augmentin which were over 80% active against majority of the isolates, while ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin, tetracycline and penicillin were the least active against (<50%) of the isolates. Screening of children < 5 years for CSOM at clinics, primary schools, nurseries and children rehabilitation centres should be considered and antibiotic prophylaxis commenced on the high risk children. Ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime,
and ceftriaxone should be considered in the regimen of CSOM.