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Journal of Medicine in the Tropics

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Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Annona senegalenses Leaf

TO Johnson, RS Olatoye

Abstract


Background: The resistance of micro-organisms to available antimicrobial agents, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents which are of great concern to the global health community has triggered the need for the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. In this study, the phytochemical composition and in-vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Annona senegalensis leaf on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella flexneri were determined.
Methodology: The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were examined for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, steroids, resins, balsam and phenol. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was done by the Agar-well Diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, steroids, balsam, resins and phenols in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Flavonoids were found to be present in the ethanolic extract but absent in the aqueous extract. Two of the test organisms Shigella flexneri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be susceptible to both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Annona senegalensis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the aqueous extract on Shigella flexneri and Psendomonas aeruginosa were 400mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The ethanolic extract was found to exhibit bacteriocidal activity against pseudomonas aeurginosa with both Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) at 400mg/ml.
Conclusion: The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Annona senegalensis possess phytochemicals with activities against Shigella flexineri a human intestinal pathogen which causes dysentery and Pseudomonas aeruginosa an opportunistic human pathogen which causes all kinds of infections including urinary tract, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract infections.



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