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Journal of Medicine in the Tropics

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Pattern of neonatal admissions and outcome in a tertiary institution in north central Nigeria

BO Toma, OO Ige, II Abok, C Onwuanaku, RO Abah, A Donli

Abstract


Background/Purpose: Neonatal morbidity and mortality contributes  significantly to under.five morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 40% of under-five mortality. A substantial reduction in neonatal mortality is therefore necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target by 2015. The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of neonatal morbidity and mortality in our environment which will help to identify interventions for better neonatal outcome.
Materials and Methods: The study is a review of cases admitted into the neonatal unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital situated in the North Central part of Nigeria. The unit started operating from the permanent site of the hospital on 1 March 2010 after the relocation of the hospital from the previous site. Data on all neonates admitted into the neonatal unit from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2011 were obtained from the various registers/records and analyzed. Data extracted included biodata,  gestational age, birth weight, main diagnosis, duration of admission, etc., In addition, the outcomes (discharged/died) were documented. All  statistical analyses were performed using two.sided tests. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 572 neonates were admitted, accounting for 54.6% of the 1047 pediatric medical admissions into the hospital. The main causes of admission were neonatal infections (37.1%), prematurity (20.1%), and birth asphyxia (11.5%). Out of the 572 neonates, 111 (19.4%) died. About three quarters (76.5%) of the mortalities occurred in the first week of life with 46.4% of these occurring in the first 24 hours (X2-20.2, P < 0.001). The common causes of mortality were prematurity (43.2%), , birth
asphyxia (18.0%) and neonatal infections (17.1%)
Conclusion: There is a high burden for neonatal care at the institution. The three main causes of morbidity and mortality are prematurity, infections, and birth asphyxia. Hence, neonatal care/facilities need to be improved especially to care for the high risk neonate. Also, the importance of infection control cannot be overemphasized.



http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2276-7096.123590
AJOL African Journals Online