Author Guidelines

Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association (JNOA) is the official scientific publication of the Nigerian Optometric Association. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted to bringing together up-to-date clinical and scientific research information and novel developments in the broad fields of optometry and vision science including basic and clinical research aimed at advancing the science, technology, ethics and practice of Optometry and Health sciences.

 Scope of the Journal

The scope of the journal covers basic, translational and clinical research in optometry and vision science. The journal publishes research in the broad fields of Optometry, Ophthalmic optics, ocular surface, Basic and Applied Vision Science and Public Health; Primary Care Optometry, Public Health Optometry, Rehabilitative Optometry and Low Vision Care, Paediatric Optometry, Corneal and Contact Lenses, Ocular Health, Orthoptics, Anatomy, Physiology, Epidemiology, Economics and Sociology of Vision and Blindness, Ocular Biomedics, Optics and Instrumentation, Optometric Education and History, etc. The audience of JNOA includes Optometrists, Ophthalmologists, and Vision Scientists as well as undergraduate and post-graduate students in these field.

Journal Ethics

The journal is committed to meeting and upholding standards of ethical behavior at all stages of the publication process. We follow closely the industry associations, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), that set standards and provide guidelines for best practices in order to meet these requirements.

Instructions to Authors

The journal will consider the following categories of manuscripts for publication:

a)     Original research reports describing new experimental findings, or analyses (e.g. post hoc, subgroup, meta-analysis where an overall statistic is derived).

b)     Review articles. The following types of reviews:

  1. General reviews that provide a synthesis of an area that fits within the aims and scope of the journal;
  2. Perspective reviews - review articles that address important new areas of general interest and afford the author the opportunity to present a forward-looking perspective on the topic;
  3. Drug reviews - review articles focusing on the available evidence for the use of a particular drug or combination therapy

c)     Case reports/case series – outlining an interesting case/cases, and including a full review of the pertinent literature and a section on implications for clinical care

d)     Short communications/letter to Editor

e)     Editorials


Submission of manuscripts

Submit manuscripts as an email attachment to the editorial office at and copy the Editor-in-chief and Assistant Editor


The Publishing Process

A manuscript will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that it is being submitted to Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association alone at that point in time and has not been published anywhere, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere. The journal expects that authors would designate one of them as to corresponding author to correspond with the Journal for all matters related to the manuscript. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged. On submission, editors review all submitted manuscripts initially for suitability for formal review as well as run a plagiarism test. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific or technical flaws, or lack of a significant message are rejected before proceeding for formal peer-review.

Review Process

Manuscripts that are found suitable for publication in JNOA are sent to two or more expert reviewers. The journal follows a double-blind review process, wherein the reviewers and authors are unaware of each other’s identity. Every manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team, who based on the comments from the reviewers takes a final decision on the manuscript. The comments and suggestions (acceptance/ rejection/ amendments in manuscript) received from reviewers are conveyed to the corresponding author. If required, the author is requested to provide a point by point response to reviewers’ comments and submit a revised version of the manuscript. This process is repeated till reviewers and editors are satisfied with the manuscript. Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author after final acceptance. The corresponding author is expected to return the corrected proofs within three days. It may not be possible to incorporate corrections received after that period.

Preparation of manuscript

  1. Manuscript – the manuscript must be original to the author(s) and should be sent to the editor-in-chief at: Each manuscript should not exceed 16 pages/8000 words except for review articles.
  2. Format of the paper

The paper should include

A cover letter accompanying the manuscript, indicating the significance of the study and also certifying that the article has not been previously published elsewhere. All Authors full names, email address and affiliations, including corresponding author’s telephone number will be required. The Journal will publish manuscripts written in English, using A4 paper size with 1.25 inches margin on all sides. Preferred font size is 12 using Times New Romans. For scientific notations, measurements and visual acuity, authors should use the metric system notation and standard abbreviations.

Article Types

Five Types of Manuscripts may be Submitted.

Original Articles:

These include randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rate. The text of original articles should be divided into sections with the headings Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, References, Tables and Figure legends.

Abstract: It should be structured and divided into sections with the headings “Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion” and it should be provided in maximum 250 words.

Keywords: Three to six keywords should be included.

Review Articles:

It is expected that these articles would be written by individuals who have done substantial work on the subject or are considered experts in the field. A short summary of the work done by the contributor(s) in the field of review should accompany the manuscript.

The word count is variable, depending on content and type of submission. The manuscript should have an unstructured abstract (maximum 250 words) representing an accurate summary of the article. The section titles would depend upon the topic reviewed. Authors submitting review article should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

The journal expects the contributors to give post-publication updates on the subject of review. The update should be brief, covering the advances in the field after the publication of the article and should be sent as a letter to editor, as and when major development occurs in the field.

Case Reports/case series:

New, interesting and rare cases can be reported. They should be unique, describing a great diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and providing a learning point for the readers. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. These communications could be of up to 1200 words (excluding abstract and references) and should have the following headings: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Clinical significance/implications, References (up to 15 references), Tables and Legends in that order.

Abstract should be structured and divided into sections with the headings “Purpose, Case Report, and Conclusion” and it should be provided in maximum 150 words.

Short communication/Letter to Editor:

These should be short and decisive observations. They should preferably be related to articles previously published in the Journal or views expressed in the journal. They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation. The letter could have up to 500 words and 5 references. It could be generally authored by not more than four authors.


These should cover a single topic of contemporary issue and authors should be written invited only.

In all cases, authors should ensure compliance with the highest standards of research ethics. A statement indicating such compliance should be included in the methodology section of each submission. It is the authors responsibility to ensure that ethical approval is obtained from relevant Institutional Review Boards and the Journal could request a copy of such IRB approval.

  1. 3.     Tables

a)     Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material. Each table should be referenced in the text.

b)     Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.

c)     Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.

d)     Table number and Title should be place on top of the Table [Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents.]

e)     Submit each table on a separate page

f)      Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.

g)     Spell out all abbreviations that are used in each table in footnotes (for instance: IOP, intraocular pressure).

h)     Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.

i)      For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||,¶ , **, ††, ‡‡

  1. 4.     Figures

a)      Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.

b)      Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column.

c)      Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.

d)      Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.

e)      When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.

f)       The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.

g)      If photographs of individuals are used, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

h)      If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.

i)        Figure legends: Provide figure legends in maximum 600 characters. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

j)        Final figures for print production: Send sharp, glossy, un-mounted, color photographic prints, with height of 4 inches and width of 6 inches at the time of submitting the revised manuscript. Print outs of digital photographs are not acceptable. If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format.  Each figure should have a label pasted (avoid use of liquid gum for pasting) below, on its back indicating the number of the figure, the running title, top of the figure and the legends of the figure [ Figure1.Age distribution of respondents] Do not write the contributor/s' name/s.

k)      The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size. 

l)        Submit each figure on a separate page

  1. 5.     References

The JNOA uses the Vancouver referencing style. Use consecutive numbers in superscript before punctuation mark. [eg. Studies 1-3, have shown that…]  Reference listing should be done in order in which they appear in the text. In the reference list, please list all authors (for up to six authors) and the first six authors followed by et. al; (for articles with more than six authors). [ Nwokedi O, Ekpenyong BN, Musa NR, Ovenseri-Ogbomo GO. Refractive Errors in Children with Down syndrome in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association. 2018;20(2):4-8]

  1. 6.     Authorship

Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors. The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

  1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
  2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
  3. Approved the version to be published,
  4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

The role of each author should be clearly specified when submitting the manuscript.

  1. Acknowledgements

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as specified above should be listed in the Acknowledgement section of the manuscript.

  1. Declaration of Conflict of Interest

It is the policy of JNOA to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

 9. Copyright Notice

Submission of a manuscript indicates an understanding that the paper is not under active consideration for publication with any other journal. Once a paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) retain their copyright, which means that authors may use the article for teaching and other non-commercial research purposes without approval from the publisher, provided the journal is acknowledged as the original source. All we require from the author(s) is an exclusive licence that allows us to publish the article in the Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association and any other journal products.

10. Publication Charge

Currently, manuscripts accepted for publication are published without any charge to the author.

11. Disclaimer

Concerted efforts are always made by the Publisher and the Editorial Board to see that no inaccurate or misleading information, opinion or assertion appears in this journal. However, information and opinions appearing in the articles of this journal are the sole responsibility of the author(s) concerned. The Publisher, Editorial Board, their agents or employees, accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any inaccurate information.

Journal sponsorship – The Journal of Nigerian Optometric Association receives funding and support from the Nigerian Optometric Association, a registered non-profit organisation. 

Publisher: Nigerian Optometric Association. 

C/o: Editorial/Publishing Committee

Suite 219 Jinifa Plaza, Plot 1014 Samual Ademulegun Adesuji Street, 

Central Business District- Abuja, Nigeria  


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Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 0795-0039
print ISSN: 0795-0039