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Prevalence of Presbyopia, Spectacle Correction Coverage and Unmet Need, among Adults in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Margaret I. Akpan
Henrietta C. Ashang
Lilian E. Eyam
Antor O. Ndep
Maurice- Joel Ugbe
Abasiofon. I Akpan
Obiageli Onwusaka
Alexander Peter
Bernadine N. Ekpenyong


Purpose: To determine the prevalence of presbyopia, spectacle correction coverage and its unmet needs among adults 35 years and above in the study area.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study design used multistage cluster random sampling procedure to select the 616 adults. Data was collected using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Visual acuity at distance and near was tested with Snellen’s chart at 6m and 40cm respectively. This was followed by eye examination. Presbyopia was defined as near visual acuity of N8 or worse. Relationship between variables were determined using chi square and multivariate analysis at 5% significant level.
Results: The average age of participants was 48.1 years ± 10.4 (range, 35-88 years) and 330 (53.6 %) were males. The prevalence of presbyopia was 73.2% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 69.5, 76.7). Multiple regression analysis showed that, female sex (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.58 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.38), older age (AOR =3.29 (95% CI: 1.02, 13.6), unemployment (β = 0.47, p = 0.016, AOR =1.59 (95% CI: 1.26, 4.55), lack of formal education (β = -3.67, p < 0.001, AOR =0.03 (95% CI: 0.007, 0.09) were significantly associated with presbyopia. The spectacle correction coverage and unmet presbyopic need were 40.8%, and 59.2% respectively.
Conclusion: The Prevalence of presbyopia and unmet presbyopic correction were high among the participants. This can be addressed through awareness creation and provision of accessible and affordable primary eye care services in the communities.

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eISSN: 0795-0039
print ISSN: 0795-0039