Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association 2023-06-25T14:55:21+00:00 Prof. Nwakaego Ikoro (B.Sc, OD, M.Sc, PhD, PGDM, FNCO, FNOA) Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association</em>&nbsp;(JNOA) is the official scientific publication of the Nigerian Optometric Association. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted to bringing together up-to-date clinical and scientific research information and novel developments in the broad fields of optometry and vision science including basic and clinical research aimed at advancing the science, technology, ethics and practice of Optometry and Health sciences.</p> <p>The scope of the journal covers basic, translational and clinical research in optometry and vision science. The journal publishes research in the broad fields of Eye Care/Vision Sciences and Public<br>Health; Primary Care Optometry, Public Health Optometry, Rehabilitative Optometry and Low Vision Care, Paediatric Optometry, Corneal and Contact Lenses, Ocular Health, Orthoptics, Anatomy, Physiology, Epidemiology, Economics and Sociology of Vision and Blindness, Ocular Biomedics, Optics and Instrumentation, Optometric Education and History, etc. Publication of papers in this journal requires strict compliance with specifications as outlined herein. The audience of JNOA includes Optometrists, Ophthalmologists, Ophthalmic Nurses, Public health and Vision Scientists as well as undergraduate and post-graduate students in these field.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Editor’s notes 2023-06-24T16:40:26+00:00 Bernadine Nsa Ekpenyong Bernadine Nsa Ekpenyong <p>No Abstract</p> 2023-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Association between outdoor play and myopia among children in Cross River State, Nigeria. A case control study 2023-06-24T17:06:38+00:00 Kindness, Charles Bernadine N. Ekpenyong Simeon C. Agbasimere Edward O. Okoi <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Myopia is a refractive error of the eyes that causes blurred distance vision. Near work, genetics and environmental factors have been implicated as risk factors in Child myopia. This study seeks to determine the association between time spent on outdoor play and myopia among children in Calabar, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a hospital-based case-control study conducted among 120 children (5-17 years old) selected and matched by age and sex from out-patients of the Cross River Eye Care Program. After obtaining parental consents, assent was obtained from the children before conducting comprehensive eye examinations. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent of ≥-0.50D. Cases were children diagnosed with myopia and controls were those without myopia. Independent samples t-test and Spearman’s correlation were conducted and P-value &lt; 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant at 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cases spent lesser time playing outdoors than controls (M = 1.95 vs 2.40 hours daily, <em>p</em> = 0.01). Spearman’s correlation found a statistically significant, weak, negative correlation between time spent on outdoor play and myopia [<em>r<sub>s</sub></em>(118) = -0.217,<em> p</em> = 0.017]. Spending above 2 hours on outdoor play had an OR of 0.37 (95% CI = 0.170 - 0.816).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In this association found between time spent on outdoor play and myopia, as time spent on outdoor play increases, myopia decreases. Increased time spent on outdoor play was a protective factor against myopia. Hence it is recommended that more awareness be created on the protective effect of outdoor play.</p> 2023-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Factors associated with patient preference of optical low vision devices in North West Nigeria. 2023-06-24T17:36:08+00:00 Ekeoma Adure Edemeraro Barbie Oghene-Monday Ejukonemu Innocent Chinweizu Emereuwa Umar Aminu Abdulrahaman <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The study was conducted to identify factors associated with patients’ preferences with optical low vision devices in North West Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A mixed method study approach was adopted for this study. The study sample consisted of 219 patients seen over a 5-year period (2010-2015) who received optical low vision devices at the Low Vision Clinic of Health and Development Support Programme (HANDS), Jigawa State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews with 9 Low vision optometrists practicing in North Western Nigeria were also conducted. Data were summarized and presented in tables and figures. Chi square test statistics was used to test for association between categorical variables @ 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the 219 records of low vision patients reviewed was 45.28 20.22 and 162 (74%) were males. Age and occupation had statistically significant association with use of magnifiers (χ<sup>2</sup>=15.201,<br>P=0.004 and χ<sup>2</sup>=29.261, P=0.001, respectively). Patients between 30 and 59 years preferred spectacle magnifiers while younger patients (&lt;30 years) preferred stand magnifiers. A statistically significant association was found between the younger age group (χ<sup>2</sup>=12.127, P=0.002), students (χ<sup>2</sup>=13.517, P= 0.004) and telescope use. Results from the key informant interview showed that age, cosmetic appeal and ease of use were considered major factors to patient preference of optical low vision devices.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Age and occupation were the only demographic factors significantly associated with patient preference with optical low vision devices. Information from this study would be of benefit to low vision practitioners in the stocking and cost effective management of low vision patients.</p> 2023-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Stevens-Johnson syndrome in an 18-year-old Nigerian female: A case report 2023-06-25T14:42:01+00:00 Mutali Junior Musa Stanley Godwin Okoye Ehimare Enaholo Kingsley Ekekwo Ogwumu Nathan Godwin Iyami <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This is a Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) case with an atypical presentation. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction distinguished by necrosis of skin tissue and mucosal linings including the genitals and eyes. It usually occurs as a reaction to certain medications. The condition is regarded as a medical emergency and management is tailored according to presenting symptoms with emphasis on airway and hemodynamic stability, lesion treatment, and prevention of opportunistic infection. While the condition is not hereditary, genetic codes passed on may increase the risk of similar immune-mediated hypersensitivity responses among progenies of affected individuals. Cyclosporine and other immunomodulatory therapeutics have shown promise in managing this condition.</p> <p><strong>Case Report</strong>: This patient presented with severely reduced vision. The patient also had a recent history of bilateral ocular adnexal surgery and a family (father) history of kidney disease. An extensive case history, ocular workup, and microbial sensitivity testing were carried out to reach a diagnosis. The patient was initially placed doxycycline, Vitamin C, Moxifloxacin and Fluconazole. These were later adjusted when culture results returned. Unfortunately, due to the delay in presentation, the condition had progressed significantly, and management was palliative rather than restorative.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A knowledge of SJS and quick intervention is key to minimizing morbidity and possible mortality from this condition. Management of this condition is multi-disciplinary and eye care providers should examine sufferers for ocular involvement so as to mitigate visual morbidity.</p> 2023-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Prevalence of visual impairment among primary and secondary school children in Delta State, Nigeria 2023-06-25T14:39:31+00:00 John Esim M Moyegbone Ezekiel Uba Nwose Edmond Ifeanyi Anowa Amatoritsero Clarke Joseph Onyedenyifa Odoko Emmanuel Agbonomhen Agege <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Visual impairment (VI) being a state of physiological or pathological disorders of vision posesa burden on human activities globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of VI among school children in Delta State.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study of 201 respondents aged 6 to 19 years were randomly selected from primary and secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. Participants were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, distance Snellen chart, ophthalmoscope, and torchlight. Vision status was defined using World Health Organization categories of visual impairment based on presenting visual acuity (PVA). Data were presented in frequency tables, charts and analysed with Chi-Square statistics. All p-values reported were two-tailed and statistical significance was defined as P &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of participants was 12.30± 3.14 years, while 118 (58.7%) were females. The overall prevalence of VI (PVA of &lt;6/18 in the better eye) was 58 (28.9%). The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe VI was 40 (19.9%), 13 (6.5%), and 5 (2.5%) respectively. Refractive error 47 (23.4%) was the leading cause of VI. The prevalence of VI was higher in females, children 13-19 years, and respondents whose parents’ income per month was &gt;100,000. These observed differences were not statistically significant (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Untreated refractive error was the leading cause of VI among school children in Delta State. This is an avoidable cause of VI that can be treated with spectacle prescription to ease the burden of visual loss.</p> 2023-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Isolation of plasmid genes in eye swabs of babies delivered through spontaneous vaginal deliveries and caesarian section 2023-06-25T14:54:15+00:00 Hypolytus Chinonso Muoneke Philips Ifeanyichukwu Ebisike Bosede Olajire Ajayi Sadiq Hassan Saudat Garba Habib George Atuanya Eme Okpo Pedro Shamsudeen Lekan Dorayi Sani Umar <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> A number of eye disorders arising from bacterial infection of an altered normal flora can affect new born babies. The study aimed to investigate the presence of plasmid genes in eye swabs of babies delivered through spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVD) and caesarean Section (CS).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This was a three-month prospective cross-sectional experimental study. Eye swabs of new born babies delivered in the maternity ward of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital were taken. Samples were collected within 30 minutes of delivery from 82 neonates (50 SVD and 32 CS). They were evacuated to the microbiology laboratory for culturing, characterisation and sensitivity. Isolates that were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics were tested for the presence of plasmid genes. Those that contain plasmid genes were subjected to curing using standard procedures..</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that 16(32%) of <em>E. coli</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em>, 14(28%), and <em>S. aureus</em>, 11(22%) was isolated in the SVD group samples as compared with 10(31.3%) of <em>S. aureus</em>,<em> E. coli</em>, 9(28.1%), and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>, 8(25.0%) among the CS group samples. There were 47(77.0%) SVD and 14(23.0%) CS samples that were resistant to three (3) or more antibiotics but this difference was not statistically significant (<em>p</em>=0.157). Only 9(14.7%) isolates carried plasmid genes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Plasmids genes were responsible for the resistance and promethazine is a good anti-plasmid agent. We recommend further research on the medical importance of anti – plasmid effect of promethazine working in synergism with other common antibiotic treatment to reduce treatment cost of plasmid-induced drug resistance.</p> 2023-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A tribute in honour of late Professor Eleazar Uche Ikonne (1956 -2023) 2023-06-24T16:47:38+00:00 Obinna Awiaka <p>No abstract</p> 2023-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Glaucoma - A disease of multiple pressures; new glaucoma pressures discovered 2023-06-24T16:51:37+00:00 Ebisike Philips <p>No abstract</p> 2023-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0