Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association <p><em>Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association</em> (JNOA) is the official scientific publication of the Nigerian Optometric Association. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted to bringing together up-to-date clinical and scientific research information and novel developments in the broad fields of optometry and vision science including basic and clinical research aimed at advancing the science, technology, ethics and practice of Optometry and Health sciences.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US <p>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a><br /><br />The author(s) retain their copyright, which means that authors may use the article for teaching and other non-commercial research purposes without approval from the publisher, provided the journal is acknowledged as the original source. </p><p>Disclaimer: Concerted efforts are always made by the Publisher and the Editorial Board to see that no inaccurate or misleading information, opinion or assertion appears in this journal. However, information and opinions appearing in the articles of this journal are the sole responsibility of the author(s) concerned. The Publisher, Editorial Board, their agents or employees, accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any inaccurate information.</p> (Dr. Bernadine Nsa Ekpenyong (OD, MPH, PhD, FNCO)) (Dr. Godwin Ovenseri-Ogbomo, OD, MPH, PhD (Assistant Editor)) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 14:33:03 +0000 OJS 60 Editor’s notes <p>No Abstract.</p> Bernadine Nsa Ekpenyong Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial - Covid-19: A Global Challenge – Misinformation, Misconceptions And Myths <p>No Abstract.</p> Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Photostress Recovery Time Among Welders in Owerri Municipal Council, Southeast, Nigeria <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The photostress recovery time (PSRT) scores of welders were measured based on age, workexperience and welding-method.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 50 purposively sampled welders, who had clear ocular media, healthy fundi and visual acuities of 6/6 or better in the tested eyes. The pre-bleach distant visual acuity of the right eye was determined with the Snellen’s visual acuity chart, while direct ophthalmoscopy was done to rule out media opacities, retinopathies and maculopathies. The&nbsp; right eye was dazzled for 10 seconds with the light of a direct ophthalmoscope held at 2cm from the eye. The time required in seconds to read at least, three optotypes on the line directly above the baseline acuity was recorded as the PSRT.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The 22-31 years age group recorded the least mean PSRT (16±8.8seconds), followed by the 32-41 age group (19.9±6.8 seconds), while the 42-51 years category had the highest mean PSRT (31.4±10.5seconds). Age associated significantly (p˂0.05) with mean PSRT. Welders within the 1-12 years’ work experience had the least mean PSRT (15.9±8.1seconds) while those within the 25-36 years recorded the highest mean PSRT (33.4±9.3seconds). The observed difference in mean PSRT with years of work experience was statistically significant (p˂0.05). Gas welders had significantly (p˂0.05) higher mean PSRT (26.6±9.9secs) than electric arc welders (16.6±9.2secs).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Gas welding, increasing age and work-experience were found to be predictive markers of elevated photostress recovery time (PSRT) among welders. This underscores the need for eye-care practitioners to routinize PSRT tests in the ocular assessment of welders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Photostress recovery time (PSRT); electric-arc; gas welding; welders; age.</p> Augustine U. Akujobi, Gift O. Uzomah, Oforbuike O. Ike, John C. Ekenze, Jacqueline E. Obioma-Elemba, Okechukwu A. Akogu Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Effect of Retinal Defocus (Blur) on Lateral Heterophoria <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This study was conducted to ascertain the effect of retinal defocusing or retinal blur on lateral heterophoria at far and near.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a quasi-experimental study involving 57 participants aged 5 to 35 years, who were selected based on the inclusion criteria of being myopes and emmetropes who had a normal general and ocular health. The Von Graefe technique was used for measuring phoria under standard testing conditions.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean baseline lateral phoria for emmetropes were 0.53 ± 1.14∆ exophoria and 2.47 ± 2.08∆ exophoria at far and near respectively, while after defocusing, it was 2.80 ± 0.88∆ exophoria and 4.34 ± 1.70∆ exophoria at far and near respectively. For myopes, the baseline lateral phoria was 1.52 ± 1.09∆ exophoria and 4.76 ± 1.13∆ exophoria at far and near respectively while after defocussing, it was 3.39 ± 0.92∆ exophoria at far and 7.60 ± 1.00∆ exophoria at near. The mean difference in lateral phoria was found to be significant at the 95% confidence level (P = 0.000). There was no statistically significant difference in lateral phoria change at far (P = 0.072), while the near phoria difference was significant (P = 0.002).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Gas Retinal defocusing with +2.50D resulted in a shift towards exophoria at both far and near, with myopes experiencing more exophoric shift. This is because they are less sensitive to the presence of blur. This will enable practitioners to be cautious of the inhibition of accommodation due to higher exophoria at near when prescribing lenses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Retinal Defocus, Myopia, Emmetropia, Near lateral phoria, Distance lateral phoria.</p> George Nnamdi Atuanya, Osayimwen Osas Ero, Raphael Uchenna Enyinnaya Akpalaba Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Dry Eye Syndrome among Computer Programmers in Computer Training Institutes in Benin City <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dry eye syndrome among computer programmers in computer training institutes in Benin City.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was carried out using 250 participants of 18 years and above who were computer instructors and students of various computer training institutes in Benin City. Sociodemographic data and relevant ocular history were obtained from the participants. External and Internal examinations of the eyes were carried out to check for the presence of any ocular abnormalities. Dry<br>eye disease was assessed subjectively with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and objectively by performing&nbsp; Schirmer’s test and Tear Break-up Time (TBUT). Participants with an OSDI score of ≥35 and who had &lt; 10mm to Schirmer’s I test or &lt; 10secs in Tear break-up Time (TBUT) test were considered to have dry eye.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the participants was 25.32 ± 7.38 years and 68% were males. The prevalence of dry eye among the computer programmers was found to be 30.8%. Mean TBUT and Mean Schirmer’s Test value for those with dry eye was 10.21s±3.44s and 12.46 ± 7.27mm respectively. This study showed that age (p=0.213), gender (p=0.243) and duration of time spent on computer display units (p=0.124) were not statistically significant determinants of dry eye among the computer programmers.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Computer programmers are predisposed to developing dry eye diseases. It is therefore imperative for them to go for regular eye examination to prevent ocular surface disorders and therefore maintain comfortable vision.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dry Eye, Schirmer Test, Tear Break-up Time, Ocular Surface Disease Index, Computer Programmer.</p> Ayishetu Oshoke Shuaibu, Sarah Ikhuemose Ebuwa, Abimbola Esther Ikuemonisan Ikuemonisan Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial adhesion to Conventional and Silicone hydrogel contact lenses <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesion of bacteria to worn silicone hydrogel and conventional soft contact lenses.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Bacterial adhesion experiments / assays were performed on 24 worn and 6 unworn soft contact lenses each of different materials (high- and low- gas permeable lenses) using the strains such as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.<br><strong>Results:</strong> <em>P. aeruginosa</em> adhered in increased number to worn than unworn Lotrafilcon A and conventional lenses. However, a higher number of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> adhered to unworn than worn Lotrafilcon B, the difference in the mean adhesion was not significant (p = 0.66). S. aureus adhered in significantly decreased number to worn Lotrafilcon A, nelfilcon A, nesofilcon A, etafilcon A and omafilcon A (p&lt;0.05); but<br>significantly higher number adhered to worn than unworn polymacon (p&lt;0.05). Lens wear had no effect on the adhesion of <em>S. aureus</em> to Lotrafilcon B (p&gt;0.05). The least adhesion of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> to worn contact lenses was seen with polymacon, while S. aureus adhered in least number to worn Lotrafilcon A compared to the other contact lens materials that demonstrated the same trend in adhesion.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The higher adhesion of P. aeruginosa to worn lenses is consistent with the claim that it is the most implicated in all culture-positive contact lens related bacterial keratitis. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, which may be due to type of lens materials and bacterial species/genera studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Silicone hydrogel lenses, conventional lenses, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus</em>, bacterial adhesion. </p> Eghosasere Iyamu, Frederick Osaro Ekhaise Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Subspecialty training in Ophthalmology; How far? <p>No Abstract.</p> Kehinde Fasasi Monsudi, Abayomi Olusola Ayodapo Copyright (c) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000