Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ficus Exasperata Root Bark
This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of water and methanolic extracts from root bark of Ficus exasperata. The crude extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Samonella typhimurium Shigella spp, Candida valida, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium flocciferum at 125μg/ml, 250μg/ml and 500μg/ml concentrations using agar well diffusion. The methanolic extracts had more inhibitory effect on test organisms than water extracts. Antimicrobial activity observed with water extract ranged between (10±0.24 - 25±0.20mm) with no detectable activity at 125μg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Similarly, no detectable activity was observed with Candida valida, Candida albicans and Fusaruium flocciferum at all concentrations with water extract. Better antimicrobial activity was observed with the methanolic crude extracts at all concentrations with all test organisms. The activity ranged between (25±0.19 - 35±0.82 mm). Prelimlinary phytochemical screening of Ficus exasperata root bark showed that it contains saponin, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and reducing sugar with no traces of tannin and anthraquinone. The results of the study provide scientific basis for developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future.
Keywords: Ficus exasperata, antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis