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Evaluation of days-dependent chloramphenicol dosage on rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and catalase activity

S.N.B. Ukoh, E.O. Farombi, A.A. Adesuyi

Abstract


Drugs and chemical agents can alter the cellular functions associated with the oxidative metabolism, thereby stimulating ROS production. The objective of the this study was the in vivo study of the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on hepatic microsomal enzyme system and the effect on lipid peroxidation using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive as index of peroxidation damage was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; group 1 serves as the control receiving saline water, group 2 receive chloramphenicol at a dose of 28.6 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 days and group 3 for 7 days. Liver protein content, lipid hydroperoxides and catalase activity were all determined. TBARS concentration increased statistically significantly with time of exposure. After 5 days of treatment, the level of TBARS increased by 103.56% with exogenous oxidant and by 141.54% for without oxidant, as compared to the respective control. On day 7, TBARS level in the liver was approximately 90.75% higher than in the control group with oxidant and 117.03% higher than the control without oxidant. The antibiotic elicited significant increase in rat liver lipid peroxidation compared to control. There were decreases in microsomal protein content of the liver in the drug-treated rats when compared with the control rats. It also showed that chloramphenicol treatment affects cytosolic catalase activities. It decreases catalase levels by 15.75% in 5 days dosage treatment and 17.81% in 7 days dosage treatment respectively. There were significance difference (P<0.05) in the treated and control irrespective of the days of dosage. The catalase level in hepatocyte in 5 days and 7 days group was significance at p<0.01. In conclusion, it was evident that treatment of rats for 5 days and 7 days with the therapeutic doses of Chloramphenicol altered antioxidant system and the intensity of effects was concentration/dosage days dependent, it resulted in membrane lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and inhibition of microsomal catalase due to increased generation of free radicals, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species

Keywords: Chloramphenicol, rat liver, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, antioxidant


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